CROP – The Clinico-Radiologico-Ophthalmological Paradox in Multiple Sclerosis: Are Patterns of Retinal and MRI Changes Heterogeneous and Thus Not Predictable?
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{"title"=>"CROP - the clinico-radiologico-ophthalmological paradox in multiple sclerosis: Are patterns of retinal and MRI changes heterogeneous and thus not predictable?", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Fahmy", "last_name"=>"Aboulenein-Djamshidian", "scopus_author_id"=>"56530700700"}, {"first_name"=>"Martin", "last_name"=>"Krššák", "scopus_author_id"=>"56948237400"}, {"first_name"=>"Nermin", "last_name"=>"Serbecic", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602636748"}, {"first_name"=>"Helmut", "last_name"=>"Rauschka", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506648642"}, {"first_name"=>"Sven", "last_name"=>"Beutelspacher", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602447971"}, {"first_name"=>"Ivica Just", "last_name"=>"Kukurová", "scopus_author_id"=>"55910283300"}, {"first_name"=>"Ladislav", "last_name"=>"ValkovѤ", "scopus_author_id"=>"36136089300"}, {"first_name"=>"Adnan", "last_name"=>"Khan", "scopus_author_id"=>"7404910721"}, {"first_name"=>"Daniela", "last_name"=>"Prayer", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003802197"}, {"first_name"=>"Wolfgang", "last_name"=>"Kristoferitsch", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004606790"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84957052458", "pmid"=>"26565967", "pui"=>"607916331", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84957052458", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0142272", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"844c76ab-d2d8-33eb-a8c0-ce6c6ba31aaf", "abstract"=>"Background: To date, no direct scientific evidence has been found linking tissue changes in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, such as demyelination, axonal destruction or gliosis, with either steady progression and/or stepwise accumulation of focal CNS lesions. Tissue changes such as reduction of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and the total macular volume (TMV), or brain- and spinal cord atrophy indicates an irreversible stage of tissue destruction. Whether these changes are found in all MS patients, and if there is a correlation with clinical disease state, remains controversial. The objective of our study was to determine, whether there was any correlation between the RNFL or TMV of patients with MS, and: (1) the lesion load along the visual pathways, (2) the ratios and absolute concentrations of metabolites in the normal-appearing white matter (NAWM), (3) standard brain atrophy indices, (4) disease activity or (5) disease duration.; Methods: 28 MS patients (RRMS, n = 23; secondary progressive MS (SPMS), n = 5) with moderately-high disease activity or long disease course were included in the study. We utilised: (1) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and (2) -spectroscopy (MRS), both operating at 3 Tesla, and (3) high-resolution spectral domain-OCT with locked reference images and eye tracking mode) to undertake the study.; Results: There was no consistency in the pattern of CNS metabolites, brain atrophy indices and the RNFL/TMV between individuals, which ranged from normal to markedly-reduced levels. Furthermore, there was no strict correlation between CNS metabolites, lesions along the visual pathways, atrophy indices, RNFL, TMV, disease duration or disability.; Conclusions: Based on the findings of this study, we recommend that the concept of 'clinico-radiologico paradox' in multiple sclerosis be extended to CROP-'clinico-radiologico-ophthalmological paradox'. Furthermore, OCT data of MS patients should be interpreted with caution.; ", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/crop-clinicoradiologicoophthalmological-paradox-multiple-sclerosis-patterns-retinal-mri-changes-hete", "reader_count"=>13, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>2, "Unspecified"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>7, "Psychology"=>2, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>7}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "group_count"=>2}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2439346"], "description"=>"<p><b>white squares</b>, RRMS without ON; <b>black squares</b>, RRMS with ON; <b>white triangles</b>, SPMS without ON; <b>black triangles</b>, SPMS with ON; <b>black line</b>, linear regression curve. <i>Abbreviations</i>: <b>OD</b>, oculus dexter (right eye); <b>OS</b>, oculus sinister (left eye); <b>RNFL</b>, retinal nerve fiber layer; <b>NAA</b>, N-acetyl-aspartate; <b>Cho</b>, choline; <b>Cr</b>, creatine; <b>NAWM</b>, normal appearing white matter; <b>MIF</b>, the maximum width of the anterior interhemispheric fissure; <b>MSF</b>, the maximum width of the Sylvian fissure; <b>MFSS</b>, the maximum frontal subarachnoid space; <b>EDSS</b>, expanded disability severity scale. <b>a1</b>-<b>g8</b>, linear regression curves for: <b>a1</b>, RNFL vs. NAA (right eye); <b>a2</b>, RNFL vs. NAA (left eye); <b>a3</b>, RNFL vs. Cho (right eye); <b>a4</b>, RNFL vs. Cho (left eye); <b>a5</b>, RNFL vs. Cr (right eye); <b>a6</b>, RNFL vs. Cr (left eye); <b>a7</b>, disease duration vs. NAA in the NAWM; <b>a8</b>, disease duration vs. Cho; <b>b1</b>, RNFL vs. lesion load (right eye); <b>b2</b>, RNFL vs. lesion load (left eye); <b>b3</b>, RNFL vs. lesion load per brain volume (right eye); <b>b4</b>, RNFL vs. lesion load per brain volume (left eye); <b>b5</b>, RNFL vs. lesion load along anterior right visual pathway (right eye); <b>b6</b>, RNFL vs. lesion load anterior right visual pathway (left eye); <b>b7</b>, RNFL vs. lesion load along anterior left visual pathway (right eye); <b>b8</b>, RNFL vs. lesion load anterior left visual pathway (left eye); <b>c1</b>, RNFL vs. lesion load along posterior right visual (right eye); <b>c2</b>, RNFL vs. lesion load along posterior left visual pathway (left eye); <b>c3</b>, RNFL vs. lesion load along posterior left visual (right eye); <b>c4</b>, RNFL vs. lesion load along posterior left visual pathway (left eye); <b>c5</b>, RNFL vs. Evan’s Index (right eye); <b>c6</b>, RNFL vs. Evan’s Index (left eye); <b>c7</b>, RNFL vs. Caudate Head Index (right eye); <b>c8</b>, RNFL vs. Caudate Head Index Index (left eye); <b>d1</b>, RNFL vs. Cella Media Index (right eye); <b>d2</b>, RNFL vs. Cella Media Index (left eye); <b>d3</b>, RNFL vs. Basal Cistern Index (right eye); <b>d4</b>, RNFL vs. Basal Cistern Index Index (left eye); <b>d5</b>, RNFL vs. the maximum width of the 3<sup>rd</sup> ventricle (right eye); <b>d6</b>, RNFL vs. the maximum width of the 3<sup>rd</sup> ventricle (left eye); <b>d7</b>, RNFL vs. the maximum of the 4<sup>th</sup> width ventricle (right eye); <b>d8</b>, RNFL vs. the maximum of the 4<sup>th</sup> width ventricle (left eye); <b>e1</b>, RNFL vs. MFSS (right eye); <b>e2</b>, RNFL vs. MFSS (left eye); <b>e3</b>, RNFL vs. MIF (right eye); <b>e4</b>, RNFL vs. MIF (left eye); <b>e5</b>, RNFL vs. MSF (right eye); <b>e6</b>, RNFL vs. MSF (left eye); <b>e7</b>, disease duration vs. Evan’s Index; <b>e8</b>, disease duration vs. Caudate Head Index; <b>f1</b>, disease duration vs. Cella Media Index; <b>f2</b>, disease duration vs. the maximum width of the 3<sup>rd</sup> ventricle; <b>f3</b>, disease duration vs. the maximum width of the 4<sup>th</sup> ventricle; <b>f4</b>, disease duration vs. MFSS; <b>f5</b>, disease duration vs. MIF; <b>f6</b>, disease duration vs. MSF; <b>f7</b>, disease duration vs. lesion load along both visual pathways; <b>f8</b>, disease duration vs. lesion load along the anterior right visual pathway; <b>g1</b>, disease duration vs. lesion load along the anterior left visual pathway; <b>g2</b>, disease duration vs. lesion load along the posterior right visual pathway; <b>g3</b>, disease duration vs. lesion load along the posterior left visual pathway; <b>g4</b>, disease duration vs. EDSS; <b>g5</b>, disease duration vs. RNFL (right eye); <b>g6</b>, disease duration vs. RNFL (left eye); <b>g7</b>, RNFL (right eye) vs. EDSS; <b>g8</b>, RNFL (right eye) vs. EDSS. Regression analyses demonstrated only weak correlations between the examined parameters a1-g8 of all 28 MS patients included in this study and associated subgroups (RRMS without ON, RRMS with ON, SPMS without ON, SPMS with ON). Of note, the plotted linear regression curves in a1 –g8 are calculated for the analysis of all included MS patient.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rnfl", "MS patients", "mrs", "brain atrophy indices", "spms", "oct", "nerve fiber layer", "tmv", "CNS metabolites", "MRI Changes Heterogeneous", "nawm", "lesion", "rrms", "correlation"], "article_id"=>1602168, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Fahmy Aboulenein-Djamshidian", "Martin Krssak", "Nermin Serbecic", "Helmut Rauschka", "Sven Beutelspacher", "Ivica Just Kukurová", "Ladislav Valkovič", "Adnan Khan", "Daniela Prayer", "Wolfgang Kristoferitsch"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142272.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_CROP_8211_The_Clinico_Radiologico_Ophthalmological_Paradox_in_Multiple_Sclerosis_Are_Patterns_of_Retinal_and_MRI_Changes_Heterogeneous_and_Thus_Not_Predictable_Fig_1_/1602168", "title"=>"CROP – The Clinico-Radiologico-Ophthalmological Paradox in Multiple Sclerosis: Are Patterns of Retinal and MRI Changes Heterogeneous and Thus Not Predictable? - Fig 1", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-13 03:01:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2439347"], "description"=>"<p>MRI, 3 Tesla, serial sections: 1<sup>st</sup> row, sagittal, 2<sup>nd</sup> row, axial and 3<sup>rd</sup> row, coronar images from a RRMS patient with rather long disease course and highly active disease. Although very high lesion load in the whole brain and visual pathway and obvious brain atrophy the patient had normal RNFL and TMV values. (patient 1, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0142272#pone.0142272.t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rnfl", "MS patients", "mrs", "brain atrophy indices", "spms", "oct", "nerve fiber layer", "tmv", "CNS metabolites", "MRI Changes Heterogeneous", "nawm", "lesion", "rrms", "correlation"], "article_id"=>1602169, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Fahmy Aboulenein-Djamshidian", "Martin Krssak", "Nermin Serbecic", "Helmut Rauschka", "Sven Beutelspacher", "Ivica Just Kukurová", "Ladislav Valkovič", "Adnan Khan", "Daniela Prayer", "Wolfgang Kristoferitsch"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142272.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_CROP_Clinico_Radiologico_Ophthalmological_Paradox_in_MS_/1602169", "title"=>"CROP, Clinico-Radiologico-Ophthalmological Paradox in MS.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-13 03:01:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2439348"], "description"=>"<p><b>ON</b>, <b>optic neuritis;</b></p><p><b>*</b>, relapses treated with high dose steroid pulse therapy; no included patient had an ON within 12 months prior to the beginning of the study;</p><p><b>GLAT</b>, glatiramer-acetate 20mg subcutaneous once daily; <b>MITOX</b>, mitoxantrone; <b>IFN(a)</b>, interferon beta 1a intramuscularly once per week; <b>IFN(b)</b>, interferon beta 1a (44μg) subcutaneous trice per week; <b>IFN(c)</b>, interferon beta 1b (250μg) subcutaneous alternate day. Most importantly, the disease activity remained high in further follow-up with a median observation period of 22 ± 0.5 months [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0142272#pone.0142272.ref033\" target=\"_blank\">33</a>]. However, no significant reduction of either the RNFL or the TMV could be found in follow-up [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0142272#pone.0142272.ref033\" target=\"_blank\">33</a>; <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0142272#pone.0142272.ref036\" target=\"_blank\">36</a>].</p><p><sup>1</sup>, discontinued (48mg mitoxantrone per m<sup>2</sup> body surface); <b>none</b>, neither specific immunomodulatory or immunsuppressive therapy, drug holiday;</p><p><sup>2</sup>, drug withdrawal 12 months before OCT examination;</p><p><sup>3</sup>, drug withdrawal 6 months before OCT examination;</p><p><sup>4</sup>, drug withdrawal 20 months before OCT examination;</p><p><sup>5</sup>, high titres of anti-interferon autoantibodies, drug withdrawal 14 months before OCT examination;</p><p><sup>6</sup>, mitoxantrone cumulative dose 96mg per m<sup>2</sup> body surface, drug withdrawal 10 months before OCT examination;</p><p><sup>7</sup>, mitoxantrone cumulative dose 92mg per m<sup>2</sup> body surface, drug withdrawal 10 months before OCT examination;</p><p><sup>8</sup>, mitoxantrone cumulative dose 92mg per m<sup>2</sup> body surface, drug withdrawal 26 months before OCT examination;</p><p><sup>9</sup>, mitoxantrone cumulative dose 108mg per m<sup>2</sup> body surface, drug withdrawal 27 months before 1<sup>st</sup> OCT examination.</p><p>Clinical data.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rnfl", "MS patients", "mrs", "brain atrophy indices", "spms", "oct", "nerve fiber layer", "tmv", "CNS metabolites", "MRI Changes Heterogeneous", "nawm", "lesion", "rrms", "correlation"], "article_id"=>1602170, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Fahmy Aboulenein-Djamshidian", "Martin Krssak", "Nermin Serbecic", "Helmut Rauschka", "Sven Beutelspacher", "Ivica Just Kukurová", "Ladislav Valkovič", "Adnan Khan", "Daniela Prayer", "Wolfgang Kristoferitsch"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142272.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Clinical_data_/1602170", "title"=>"Clinical data.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-11-13 03:01:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2439349"], "description"=>"<p><b>Metabolites</b>, N-Acetyl-Aspartate (NAA), Choline (Cho) and creatine (Cr) given in mM; <b>lesion load in the visual pathways</b>, here given as ratio of lesion volume in the visual pathways (AD, right anterior; AS, left anterior; PD, right posterior; PS, left posterior and total lesion volume) to total brain volume.</p><p>Metabolites in NAWM and lesion load in the visual pathways in MS patients.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rnfl", "MS patients", "mrs", "brain atrophy indices", "spms", "oct", "nerve fiber layer", "tmv", "CNS metabolites", "MRI Changes Heterogeneous", "nawm", "lesion", "rrms", "correlation"], "article_id"=>1602171, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Fahmy Aboulenein-Djamshidian", "Martin Krssak", "Nermin Serbecic", "Helmut Rauschka", "Sven Beutelspacher", "Ivica Just Kukurová", "Ladislav Valkovič", "Adnan Khan", "Daniela Prayer", "Wolfgang Kristoferitsch"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142272.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Metabolites_in_NAWM_and_lesion_load_in_the_visual_pathways_in_MS_patients_/1602171", "title"=>"Metabolites in NAWM and lesion load in the visual pathways in MS patients.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-11-13 03:01:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2439350"], "description"=>"<p><b>CHI</b>, the caudate head index; <b>BCI</b>, the basal cistern index; <b>CMI</b>, the cella media index; <b>MIF</b>, the maximum width of the anterior interhemispheric fissure; <b>MSF</b>, the maximum width of the Sylvian fissure; and <b>MFSS</b>, the maximum frontal subarachnoid space.</p><p>Brain atrophy indices in MS patients.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rnfl", "MS patients", "mrs", "brain atrophy indices", "spms", "oct", "nerve fiber layer", "tmv", "CNS metabolites", "MRI Changes Heterogeneous", "nawm", "lesion", "rrms", "correlation"], "article_id"=>1602172, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Fahmy Aboulenein-Djamshidian", "Martin Krssak", "Nermin Serbecic", "Helmut Rauschka", "Sven Beutelspacher", "Ivica Just Kukurová", "Ladislav Valkovič", "Adnan Khan", "Daniela Prayer", "Wolfgang Kristoferitsch"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142272.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Brain_atrophy_indices_in_MS_patients_/1602172", "title"=>"Brain atrophy indices in MS patients.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-11-13 03:01:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2439351"], "description"=>"<p><b>OD</b>, right eye; <b>OS</b>, left eye. <b>All RNFL values are given in μm. All TMV values are given in mm</b><sup><b>3</b></sup>.</p><p>RNFL and TMV in MS patients, global.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rnfl", "MS patients", "mrs", "brain atrophy indices", "spms", "oct", "nerve fiber layer", "tmv", "CNS metabolites", "MRI Changes Heterogeneous", "nawm", "lesion", "rrms", "correlation"], "article_id"=>1602173, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Fahmy Aboulenein-Djamshidian", "Martin Krssak", "Nermin Serbecic", "Helmut Rauschka", "Sven Beutelspacher", "Ivica Just Kukurová", "Ladislav Valkovič", "Adnan Khan", "Daniela Prayer", "Wolfgang Kristoferitsch"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142272.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_RNFL_and_TMV_in_MS_patients_global_/1602173", "title"=>"RNFL and TMV in MS patients, global.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-11-13 03:01:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2439352"], "description"=>"<p><b>Retinal sectors: OD</b>, right eye; <b>OS</b>, left eye; <b>G</b>, global; <b>S</b>, superior; <b>I</b>, inferior; <b>T</b>, temporal; <b>TS</b>, temporal superior; <b>TI</b>, temporal inferior; <b>N</b>, nasal; <b>NS</b>, nasal superior; <b>NI</b>, nasal inferior. All values are given in μm.</p><p>RNFL in MS patients.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rnfl", "MS patients", "mrs", "brain atrophy indices", "spms", "oct", "nerve fiber layer", "tmv", "CNS metabolites", "MRI Changes Heterogeneous", "nawm", "lesion", "rrms", "correlation"], "article_id"=>1602174, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Fahmy Aboulenein-Djamshidian", "Martin Krssak", "Nermin Serbecic", "Helmut Rauschka", "Sven Beutelspacher", "Ivica Just Kukurová", "Ladislav Valkovič", "Adnan Khan", "Daniela Prayer", "Wolfgang Kristoferitsch"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142272.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_RNFL_in_MS_patients_/1602174", "title"=>"RNFL in MS patients.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-11-13 03:01:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2439353"], "description"=>"<p><u>Simple regression–linear model: Independent variable</u>, RNFL; <u>dependent variables</u>, NAA, N-acetyl-aspartate; Cho, choline; Cr, creatine; LL per BV, lesionload per Brain Volume, LL AR, lesion load along anterior right visual pathway; LL AL, lesion load along anterior left visual pathway; LL PR, load along posterior right visual pathway; LL PL, load along posterior left visual pathway; Evan’s Index; CHI; CMI; BCI; the maximum width of the 3<sup>rd</sup> ventricle; the maximum width of the 4<sup>th</sup> ventricle; MIF, the maximum width of the anterior interhemispheric fissure; MFSS, the maximum frontal subarachnoid space; MSF, the maximum width of the Sylvian fissure; DD, disease duration; EDSS, expanded disability severity scale. <b>1</b><sup><b>st</b></sup><b>row</b>: all right eyes (n = 28; with and without ON) of all included MS patient. <b>2</b><sup><b>nd</b></sup><b>row</b>: all left eyes (n = 28; with and without ON) of all included MS patient. <b>3</b><sup><b>rd</b></sup><b>row</b>: all right eyes of MS patients who never experienced an ON (neither on their right nor on their left eye; RRMS, n = 17, SPMS, n = 2; <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0142272#pone.0142272.t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>). <b>4</b><sup><b>th</b></sup><b>row</b>: all left eyes of MS patients who never experienced an ON (neither on their left nor on their right eye; RRMS, n = 17, SPMS, n = 2; <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0142272#pone.0142272.t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>). Patients are the same as in the 3<sup>rd</sup> row. <b>5</b><sup><b>th</b></sup><b>row</b>: right eyes of 6 MS patients who experienced an ON on their right eyes (note, 4 out of 6 experienced ON on both eyes, 2 only on their right eyes; <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0142272#pone.0142272.t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>). <b>6</b><sup><b>th</b></sup><b>row</b>: left eyes of 6 MS patients who experienced an ON on their left eyes (note, 4 out of 7 experienced ON on both eyes, 3 only on their left eyes <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0142272#pone.0142272.t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>). For each analysis the correlation coefficient (corr. coeff.), R-squared (percent), the standard error of estimate (STE of Est.) and the p-value (analysis of variance, ANOVA) is given. Since the p-value in the ANOVA table is less than 0.01, there is a statistically significant relationship between the maximum width of the 4<sup>th</sup> ventricle and the RNFL (for all patients’ right eyes, n = 28, 1<sup>st</sup> row and for all patient’s left eyes, who never experienced ON, n = 17, 4<sup>th</sup> row) at 99% confidence level. However, the low correlation coefficient indicates that there is only a weak relationship between the variables. R-squared statistic indicates that the simple/linear regression explains only 24.92% (1<sup>st</sup> row) or 28.68% (4<sup>th</sup> row) of the variability of the independent variable. In all other analyses presented here (and performed for the six OCT-Sectors, see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0142272#sec006\" target=\"_blank\">material and methods</a> or <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0142272#pone.0142272.t005\" target=\"_blank\">Table 5</a>) no statistically significant correlation could be found (data not shown).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rnfl", "MS patients", "mrs", "brain atrophy indices", "spms", "oct", "nerve fiber layer", "tmv", "CNS metabolites", "MRI Changes Heterogeneous", "nawm", "lesion", "rrms", "correlation"], "article_id"=>1602175, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Fahmy Aboulenein-Djamshidian", "Martin Krssak", "Nermin Serbecic", "Helmut Rauschka", "Sven Beutelspacher", "Ivica Just Kukurová", "Ladislav Valkovič", "Adnan Khan", "Daniela Prayer", "Wolfgang Kristoferitsch"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142272.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Regression_Analysis_/1602175", "title"=>"Regression Analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-11-13 03:01:21"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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