Dogs Evaluate Threatening Facial Expressions by Their Biological Validity – Evidence from Gazing Patterns
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{"title"=>"Dogs evaluate threatening facial expressions by their biological validity - Evidence from gazing patterns", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Sanni", "last_name"=>"Somppi", "scopus_author_id"=>"47661596800"}, {"first_name"=>"Heini", "last_name"=>"Törnqvist", "scopus_author_id"=>"47661736300"}, {"first_name"=>"Miiamaaria V.", "last_name"=>"Kujala", "scopus_author_id"=>"26767978100"}, {"first_name"=>"Laura", "last_name"=>"Hänninen", "scopus_author_id"=>"8574146400"}, {"first_name"=>"Christina M.", "last_name"=>"Krause", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102514621"}, {"first_name"=>"Outi", "last_name"=>"Vainio", "scopus_author_id"=>"36172641900"}], "year"=>2016, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0143047", "sgr"=>"84955278524", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84955278524", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"26761433", "pui"=>"607808482"}, "id"=>"a0c364c0-96cf-30a9-b9f4-b99b6c5e5fe3", "abstract"=>"Appropriate response to companions' emotional signals is important for all social creatures. The emotional expressions of humans and non-human animals have analogies in their form and function, suggesting shared evolutionary roots, but very little is known about how animals other than primates view and process facial expressions. In primates, threat-related facial expressions evoke exceptional viewing patterns compared with neutral or positive stimuli. Here, we explore if domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have such an attentional bias toward threatening social stimuli and whether observed emotional expressions affect dogs' gaze fixation distribution among the facial features (eyes, midface and mouth). We recorded the voluntary eye gaze of 31 domestic dogs during viewing of facial photographs of humans and dogs with three emotional expressions (threatening, pleasant and neutral). We found that dogs' gaze fixations spread systematically among facial features. The distribution of fixations was altered by the seen expression, but eyes were the most probable targets of the first fixations and gathered longer looking durations than mouth regardless of the viewed expression. The examination of the inner facial features as a whole revealed more pronounced scanning differences among expressions. This suggests that dogs do not base their perception of facial expressions on the viewing of single structures, but the interpretation of the composition formed by eyes, midface and mouth. Dogs evaluated social threat rapidly and this evaluation led to attentional bias, which was dependent on the depicted species: threatening conspecifics' faces evoked heightened attention but threatening human faces instead an avoidance response. We propose that threatening signals carrying differential biological validity are processed via distinctive neurocognitive pathways. Both of these mechanisms may have an adaptive significance for domestic dogs. 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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2627121"], "description"=>"<p>The gaze data were collected from five areas of interest (AOIs) of three facial expressions (Threatening, Pleasant and Neutral) of dogs and humans. The AOIs are drawn in the left panel: eyes, midface, mouth, inner face (eyes, midface and mouth combined) and the whole face. In the right panel, the averaged gaze fixation distributions of 12 dogs during 1500 ms presentations are given with color coding: the minimum fixation duration (<u>≤</u> 5 ms) is indicated by light blue and maximum (<u>≥</u> 100 ms) by bright red. See also <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0143047#pone.0143047.s004\" target=\"_blank\">S2 Movie</a> for examples of scanning patterns. The original photos by S. Somppi and 123rf<sup>®</sup>. The images were purchased with a license to publish these images in electronic and printed documents and reports.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["attentional bias", "fixation", "expression"], "article_id"=>1637299, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Sanni Somppi", "Heini Törnqvist", "Miiamaaria V. Kujala", "Laura Hänninen", "Christina M. Krause", "Outi Vainio"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143047.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Examples_of_stimulus_images_areas_of_interest_and_the_gaze_patterns_of_dogs_/1637299", "title"=>"Examples of stimulus images, areas of interest and the gaze patterns of dogs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-18 15:33:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2627122"], "description"=>"<p>A) Fixation score B) 1<sup>st</sup> fixation probability for inner face area (eyes, midface and mouth combined) during viewing different facial expressions (Threatening, Pleasant and Neutral) of dogs and humans. The brackets with asterisks indicate statistically significant differences among the expressions within the depicted species (** <i>p</i> ≤ 0.01, * <i>p</i> < 0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["attentional bias", "fixation", "expression"], "article_id"=>1637300, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Sanni Somppi", "Heini Törnqvist", "Miiamaaria V. Kujala", "Laura Hänninen", "Christina M. Krause", "Outi Vainio"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143047.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Expression_dependent_gazing_behavior_toward_the_inner_face_area_/1637300", "title"=>"Expression dependent gazing behavior toward the inner face area.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-18 15:33:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2627123"], "description"=>"<p>The fixation scores for target facial features (eyes, midface and mouth) of the three facial expressions (Threatening, Pleasant and Neutral) of dogs and humans. The brackets above the bars indicate statistically significant differences among the target facial features within the species and the brackets below the bars differences among the expressions within the species (*** <i>p</i> ≤ 0.001, ** <i>p</i> ≤ 0.01, * <i>p</i> < 0.05, <sup>#</sup><i>p</i> < 0.08).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["attentional bias", "fixation", "expression"], "article_id"=>1637301, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Sanni Somppi", "Heini Törnqvist", "Miiamaaria V. Kujala", "Laura Hänninen", "Christina M. Krause", "Outi Vainio"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143047.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Expression_dependent_looking_duration_distribution_among_eyes_midface_and_mouth_areas_/1637301", "title"=>"Expression dependent looking duration distribution among eyes, midface and mouth areas.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-18 15:33:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2627125"], "description"=>"<p>Fixations (circles) and scanning paths (lines between the circles) of two dogs during the 1500 ms presentations of three facial expressions (Threatening, Pleasant and Neutral) of dogs and humans faces. Different dogs are marked with different colors. White circles represent the targets of the first fixations. The original photos by S. Somppi and 123rf<sup>®</sup>. The images were purchased with a license to publish these images in electronic and printed documents and reports.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["attentional bias", "fixation", "expression"], "article_id"=>1637303, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Sanni Somppi", "Heini Törnqvist", "Miiamaaria V. Kujala", "Laura Hänninen", "Christina M. Krause", "Outi Vainio"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143047.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Examples_of_the_first_fixation_targets_and_scanning_paths_/1637303", "title"=>"Examples of the first fixation targets and scanning paths.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-18 15:33:30"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2016-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2016-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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