Detection of Heart Sounds in Children with and without Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension―Daubechies Wavelets Approach
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{"title"=>"Detection of heart sounds in children with and without pulmonary arterial hypertension - Daubechies wavelets approach", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Mohamed", "last_name"=>"Elgendi", "scopus_author_id"=>"25822206300"}, {"first_name"=>"Shine", "last_name"=>"Kumar", "scopus_author_id"=>"57075277600"}, {"first_name"=>"Long", "last_name"=>"Guo", "scopus_author_id"=>"55991232100"}, {"first_name"=>"Jennifer", "last_name"=>"Rutledge", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103087346"}, {"first_name"=>"James Y.", "last_name"=>"Coe", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103170769"}, {"first_name"=>"Roger", "last_name"=>"Zemp", "scopus_author_id"=>"57197190963"}, {"first_name"=>"Dale", "last_name"=>"Schuurmans", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701468854"}, {"first_name"=>"Ian", "last_name"=>"Adatia", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004455824"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84955487562", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0143146", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84955487562", "pui"=>"607883969", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"98df870d-1bcf-3602-b280-ec5a9d6e6bba", "abstract"=>"© 2015 Elgendi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Background: Automatic detection of the 1 st (S1) and 2 nd (S2) heart sounds is difficult, and existing algorithms are imprecise. We sought to develop a wavelet-based algorithm for the detection of S1 and S2 in children with and without pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Method: Heart sounds were recorded at the second left intercostal space and the cardiac apex with a digital stethoscope simultaneously with pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP). We developed a Daubechies wavelet algorithm for the automatic detection of S1 and S2 using the wavelet coefficient 'D 6 ' based on power spectral analysis. We compared our algorithm with four other Daubechies wavelet-based algorithms published by Liang, Kumar, Wang, and Zhong. We annotated S1 and S2 from an audiovisual examination of the phonocardiographic tracing by two trained cardiologists and the observation that in all subjects systole was shorter than diastole. Results: We studied 22 subjects (9 males and 13 females, median age 6 years, range 0.25-19). Eleven subjects had a mean PAP < 25 mmHg. Eleven subjects had PAH with a mean PAP ≥ 25 mmHg. All subjects had a pulmonary artery wedge pressure ≤ 15 mmHg. The sensitivity (SE) and positive pre dictivity (+P) of our algorithm were 70% and 68%, respectively. In comparison, the SE and +P of Liang were 59% and 42%, Kumar 19% and 12%, Wang 50% and 45%, and Zhong 43% and 53%, respectively. Our algorithm demonstrated robustness and outperformed the other methods up to a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 10 dB. For all algorithms, detection errors arose from low-amplitude peaks, fast heart rates, low signal-tonoise ratio, and fixed thresholds. Conclusion: Our algorithm for the detection of S1 and S2 improves the performance of existing Daubechies-based algorithms and justifies the use of the wavelet coefficient 'D 6 ' through power spectral analysis. Also, the robustness despite ambient noise may improve real world clinical performance.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/detection-heart-sounds-children-without-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-daubechies-wavelets-approach", "reader_count"=>2, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597657"], "description"=>"<p>The normalized amplitude (<i>y</i>-axis) is plotted against time in seconds (<i>x</i>-axis). Time zero second depicts the annotated peaks for S1 and S2 events.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pap", "age 6 years", "pah", "snr", "detection", "subject", "se", "S 1", "S 2", "Daubechies wavelet algorithm"], "article_id"=>1616741, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohamed Elgendi", "Shine Kumar", "Long Guo", "Jennifer Rutledge", "James Y. Coe", "Roger Zemp", "Dale Schuurmans", "Ian Adatia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143146.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Demarcation_of_the_1st_S1_and_2nd_S2_heart_sounds_/1616741", "title"=>"Demarcation of the 1st (S1) and 2nd (S2) heart sounds.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-02 03:54:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597658"], "description"=>"<p>Note, the sampling frequency of the heart sounds is 4000 Hz.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pap", "age 6 years", "pah", "snr", "detection", "subject", "se", "S 1", "S 2", "Daubechies wavelet algorithm"], "article_id"=>1616742, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohamed Elgendi", "Shine Kumar", "Long Guo", "Jennifer Rutledge", "James Y. Coe", "Roger Zemp", "Dale Schuurmans", "Ian Adatia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143146.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Power_spectrum_of_db6_wavelet_for_details_top_and_approximations_bottom_at_scales_a_2_j_j_1_6_/1616742", "title"=>"Power spectrum of ‘db6’ wavelet for details (top) and approximations (bottom) at scales <i>a</i> = 2<sup><i>j</i></sup>, <i>j</i> = 1, .., 6.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-02 03:54:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597659"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Wavelet details for heart sounds with low S1 amplitude measured at the second intercostal space for a subject with mean PAp < 25 mmHg, (b) Wavelet approximations for the same heart sounds used in (a), (c) Wavelet details for heart sounds with low S2 amplitude measured at apex for a subject with mean PAp ≥ 25 mmHg, and (d) Wavelet approximations for the same heart sounds used in (c).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pap", "age 6 years", "pah", "snr", "detection", "subject", "se", "S 1", "S 2", "Daubechies wavelet algorithm"], "article_id"=>1616743, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohamed Elgendi", "Shine Kumar", "Long Guo", "Jennifer Rutledge", "James Y. Coe", "Roger Zemp", "Dale Schuurmans", "Ian Adatia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143146.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Behavior_of_the_8216_db6_8217_wavelet_dealing_with_different_morphologies_of_S1_and_S2_/1616743", "title"=>"Behavior of the ‘db6’ wavelet dealing with different morphologies of S1 and S2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-02 03:54:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597660"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Method I, (b) Method II, (c) Method III, (d) Method IV, (e) Method V.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pap", "age 6 years", "pah", "snr", "detection", "subject", "se", "S 1", "S 2", "Daubechies wavelet algorithm"], "article_id"=>1616744, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohamed Elgendi", "Shine Kumar", "Long Guo", "Jennifer Rutledge", "James Y. Coe", "Roger Zemp", "Dale Schuurmans", "Ian Adatia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143146.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Flowcharts_for_five_methods_to_detect_S1_and_S2_waves_in_heart_sounds_/1616744", "title"=>"Flowcharts for five methods to detect S1 and S2 waves in heart sounds.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-02 03:54:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597661"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Original heart sound signal from a subject with mean pulmonary arterial pressure of 20 mmHg (b) second-order Shannon energy of <i>D</i><sub>5</sub> wavelet in Method I (c) second-order Shannon energy of <i>D</i><sub>6</sub> wavelet in Method II (d) third-order Shannon energy in Method III (e) wavelet approximation <i>A</i><sub>6</sub> in Method IV (f) generating blocks of interest in Method V.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pap", "age 6 years", "pah", "snr", "detection", "subject", "se", "S 1", "S 2", "Daubechies wavelet algorithm"], "article_id"=>1616745, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohamed Elgendi", "Shine Kumar", "Long Guo", "Jennifer Rutledge", "James Y. Coe", "Roger Zemp", "Dale Schuurmans", "Ian Adatia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143146.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Features_output_/1616745", "title"=>"Features output.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-02 03:54:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597662"], "description"=>"<p>A total of 284 heart beats used in this analysis for subjects with mean PAp > = and < 25 mmHg. Note, the sampling frequency of the heart sounds is 4000 Hz.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pap", "age 6 years", "pah", "snr", "detection", "subject", "se", "S 1", "S 2", "Daubechies wavelet algorithm"], "article_id"=>1616746, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohamed Elgendi", "Shine Kumar", "Long Guo", "Jennifer Rutledge", "James Y. Coe", "Roger Zemp", "Dale Schuurmans", "Ian Adatia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143146.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Power_spectrum_of_S1_and_S2_segments_compared_to_the_power_spectrum_of_wavelet_details_used_in_all_methods_at_the_second_intercostal_space_left_and_apex_right_/1616746", "title"=>"Power spectrum of S1 and S2 segments compared to the power spectrum of wavelet details used in all methods at the second intercostal space (left) and apex (right).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-02 03:54:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597663"], "description"=>"<p>The black circle represents the annotated S1/S2 wave, and the green star represents the detected S1/S2 wave using each algorithm. If the black circle is empty it means a false negative, while the red circle means a false positive.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pap", "age 6 years", "pah", "snr", "detection", "subject", "se", "S 1", "S 2", "Daubechies wavelet algorithm"], "article_id"=>1616747, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohamed Elgendi", "Shine Kumar", "Long Guo", "Jennifer Rutledge", "James Y. Coe", "Roger Zemp", "Dale Schuurmans", "Ian Adatia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143146.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Methods_performance_in_detecting_first_S1_left_column_and_second_S2_right_column_heart_sound_waves_/1616747", "title"=>"Methods performance in detecting first (S1) (left column) and second S2 (right column) heart sound waves.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-02 03:54:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597664"], "description"=>"<p>It is clear that the overall accuracy of Method V increases when the SNR increases compared to the other methods.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pap", "age 6 years", "pah", "snr", "detection", "subject", "se", "S 1", "S 2", "Daubechies wavelet algorithm"], "article_id"=>1616748, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohamed Elgendi", "Shine Kumar", "Long Guo", "Jennifer Rutledge", "James Y. Coe", "Roger Zemp", "Dale Schuurmans", "Ian Adatia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143146.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Performance_at_different_signal_to_noise_ratio_SNR_levels_/1616748", "title"=>"Performance at different signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) levels.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-02 03:54:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597665"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: BMI = Body Mass Index, BSA = Body Surface Area, CDH = Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia, CHD = Congenital Heart Disease, F = Female, M = Male, m = meters, IPAH = Idiopathic Pulmonary Hypertension, kg = kilograms,</p><p>Pulmonary arterial hypertension: Subjects #1–11 with pulmonary arterial hypertension (mean pulmonary arterial pressure ≥ 25 mmHg).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pap", "age 6 years", "pah", "snr", "detection", "subject", "se", "S 1", "S 2", "Daubechies wavelet algorithm"], "article_id"=>1616749, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohamed Elgendi", "Shine Kumar", "Long Guo", "Jennifer Rutledge", "James Y. Coe", "Roger Zemp", "Dale Schuurmans", "Ian Adatia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143146.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pulmonary_arterial_hypertension_Subjects_1_8211_11_with_pulmonary_arterial_hypertension_mean_pulmonary_arterial_pressure_8805_25_mmHg_/1616749", "title"=>"Pulmonary arterial hypertension: Subjects #1–11 with pulmonary arterial hypertension (mean pulmonary arterial pressure ≥ 25 mmHg).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-12-02 03:54:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597666"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: BMI = Body Mass Index, BSA = Body Surface Area, CDH = Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia, CHD = Congenital Heart Disease, F = Female, M = Male, m = meters, kg = kilograms.</p><p>Subjects #12–22 with normal pulmonary arterial pressures (mean pulmonary arterial pressure <25mmHg).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pap", "age 6 years", "pah", "snr", "detection", "subject", "se", "S 1", "S 2", "Daubechies wavelet algorithm"], "article_id"=>1616750, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohamed Elgendi", "Shine Kumar", "Long Guo", "Jennifer Rutledge", "James Y. Coe", "Roger Zemp", "Dale Schuurmans", "Ian Adatia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143146.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>13, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Subjects_12_8211_22_with_normal_pulmonary_arterial_pressures_mean_pulmonary_arterial_pressure_lt_25mmHg_/1616750", "title"=>"Subjects #12–22 with normal pulmonary arterial pressures (mean pulmonary arterial pressure <25mmHg).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-12-02 03:54:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597667"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: LAp = Left atrial pressure, L/min/m<sup>2</sup> = Liters per minute per meter squared, PAp = Pulmonary arterial pressure, PAWp = pulmonary artery wedge pressure, PVRI = pulmonary vascular resistance index, QPI = Pulmonary blood flow index, WUm<sup>2</sup> = Wood Units x meter squared, Note PVRI calculated from pressures at the time of QPI measurement not acoustic recording</p><p>Subjects #1–11 with Pulmonary arterial hypertension (mean pulmonary arterial pressure ≥25 mmHg).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pap", "age 6 years", "pah", "snr", "detection", "subject", "se", "S 1", "S 2", "Daubechies wavelet algorithm"], "article_id"=>1616751, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohamed Elgendi", "Shine Kumar", "Long Guo", "Jennifer Rutledge", "James Y. Coe", "Roger Zemp", "Dale Schuurmans", "Ian Adatia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143146.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pulmonary_Vascular_Hemodynamic_data_/1616751", "title"=>"Pulmonary Vascular Hemodynamic data.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-12-02 03:54:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597668"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: LAp = Left atrial pressure, L/min/m<sup>2</sup> = Liters per minute per meter squared, N/A = Not Available, PAp = Pulmonary arterial pressure, PAWp = pulmonary arterial wedge pressure, PVRI = pulmonary vascular resistance index, QPI = Pulmonary blood flow index, WUm<sup>2</sup> = Wood Units x meter squared. Note PVRI calculated from pressures at the time of QPI measurement not acoustic recording</p><p>Subjects #12–22 with normal pulmonary arterial pressures (mean pulmonary arterial pressure <25mmHg).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pap", "age 6 years", "pah", "snr", "detection", "subject", "se", "S 1", "S 2", "Daubechies wavelet algorithm"], "article_id"=>1616752, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohamed Elgendi", "Shine Kumar", "Long Guo", "Jennifer Rutledge", "James Y. Coe", "Roger Zemp", "Dale Schuurmans", "Ian Adatia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143146.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pulmonary_Vascular_Hemodynamic_data_/1616752", "title"=>"Pulmonary Vascular Hemodynamic data.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-12-02 03:54:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597669"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: BP = Systemic blood pressure, msec = milliseconds, min = minute, RAp = Right atrial pressure.</p><p>Subjects #1–11 with pulmonary arterial hypertension (mean pulmonary arterial pressure ≥25 mmHg).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pap", "age 6 years", "pah", "snr", "detection", "subject", "se", "S 1", "S 2", "Daubechies wavelet algorithm"], "article_id"=>1616753, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohamed Elgendi", "Shine Kumar", "Long Guo", "Jennifer Rutledge", "James Y. Coe", "Roger Zemp", "Dale Schuurmans", "Ian Adatia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143146.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>10, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Systemic_Vascular_Hemodynamic_and_Electrocardiographic_data_/1616753", "title"=>"Systemic Vascular Hemodynamic and Electrocardiographic data.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-12-02 03:54:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597670"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: BP = Systemic blood pressure, msec = milliseconds, min = minute, RAp = Right atrial pressure.</p><p>Subjects #12–22 with normal pulmonary arterial pressures (mean pulmonary arterial pressure <25 mmHg).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pap", "age 6 years", "pah", "snr", "detection", "subject", "se", "S 1", "S 2", "Daubechies wavelet algorithm"], "article_id"=>1616754, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohamed Elgendi", "Shine Kumar", "Long Guo", "Jennifer Rutledge", "James Y. Coe", "Roger Zemp", "Dale Schuurmans", "Ian Adatia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143146.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>17, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Systemic_Vascular_Hemodynamic_and_Electrocardiographic_data_/1616754", "title"=>"Systemic Vascular Hemodynamic and Electrocardiographic data.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-12-02 03:54:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597671"], "description"=>"<p>The <i>p</i>-values from the Mann-Whitney test, where * and ** indicate p < 0.05 and p < 0.005, respectively.</p><p>Comparison of clinical and hemodynamic data between subjects with pulmonary arterial hypertension (mean PAp ≥25 mmHg) and normal pulmonary arterial pressure (mean PAp <25 mmHg).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pap", "age 6 years", "pah", "snr", "detection", "subject", "se", "S 1", "S 2", "Daubechies wavelet algorithm"], "article_id"=>1616755, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohamed Elgendi", "Shine Kumar", "Long Guo", "Jennifer Rutledge", "James Y. Coe", "Roger Zemp", "Dale Schuurmans", "Ian Adatia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143146.t007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>15, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_clinical_and_hemodynamic_data_between_subjects_with_pulmonary_arterial_hypertension_mean_PAp_8805_25_mmHg_and_normal_pulmonary_arterial_pressure_mean_PAp_lt_25_mmHg_/1616755", "title"=>"Comparison of clinical and hemodynamic data between subjects with pulmonary arterial hypertension (mean PAp ≥25 mmHg) and normal pulmonary arterial pressure (mean PAp <25 mmHg).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-12-02 03:54:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597672"], "description"=>"<p>The function that detects the first heart sound (S1) and the second heart sound (S2) waves has five inputs: the heart sound signal (HS<sub>signal</sub>), event-related durations <i>W</i><sub>1</sub>, <i>W</i><sub>2</sub>, anticipated block width (BlockSize), and the offset (<i>β</i>). Daubechies 'db6' wavelet is used for filtering the signal and the wavelet detail <i>D</i><sub>6</sub> represents the heart sounds in the analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pap", "age 6 years", "pah", "snr", "detection", "subject", "se", "S 1", "S 2", "Daubechies wavelet algorithm"], "article_id"=>1616756, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohamed Elgendi", "Shine Kumar", "Long Guo", "Jennifer Rutledge", "James Y. Coe", "Roger Zemp", "Dale Schuurmans", "Ian Adatia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143146.t008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pseudocode_of_Method_V_/1616756", "title"=>"Pseudocode of Method V.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-12-02 03:54:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597673"], "description"=>"<p>All possible combinations of parameters (46,376 iterations) have been investigated and sorted in descending order according to their overall accuracy. The data used in this training phase was heart sounds measured at apex for all subjects with mean PAp ≥ 25 mmHg. The overall accuracy is the average value of SE and +P.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pap", "age 6 years", "pah", "snr", "detection", "subject", "se", "S 1", "S 2", "Daubechies wavelet algorithm"], "article_id"=>1616757, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohamed Elgendi", "Shine Kumar", "Long Guo", "Jennifer Rutledge", "James Y. Coe", "Roger Zemp", "Dale Schuurmans", "Ian Adatia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143146.t009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>10, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_rigorous_optimization_over_all_parameters_of_Method_V_event_related_durations_W_1_W_2_anticipated_block_width_BlockSize_and_the_offset_946_/1616757", "title"=>"A rigorous optimization over all parameters of Method V: event-related durations <i>W</i><sub>1</sub>, <i>W</i><sub>2</sub>, anticipated block width (BlockSize), and the offset (<i>β</i>).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-12-02 03:54:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597674"], "description"=>"<p>To evaluate the performance of the detectors, two statistical measures were used: SE = 100×(TP/(TP+FN))and +P = 100×(TP/(TP+FP)), where TP is the number of true positives (S1/S2 detected as S1/S2), FN is the number of false negatives (S1/S2 has not been detected), and FP is the number of false positives (non-S1/S2 detected as S1/S2).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pap", "age 6 years", "pah", "snr", "detection", "subject", "se", "S 1", "S 2", "Daubechies wavelet algorithm"], "article_id"=>1616758, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohamed Elgendi", "Shine Kumar", "Long Guo", "Jennifer Rutledge", "James Y. Coe", "Roger Zemp", "Dale Schuurmans", "Ian Adatia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143146.t010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_the_first_S1_and_second_heart_sound_S2_detection_algorithms_/1616758", "title"=>"Comparison of the first (S1) and second heart sound (S2) detection algorithms.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-12-02 03:54:14"}

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{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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