Age Effects in L2 Grammar Processing as Revealed by ERPs and How (Not) to Study Them
Publication Date
December 18, 2015
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Nienke Meulman, Martijn Wieling, Simone A. Sprenger, Laurie A. Stowe, et al
Volume
10
Issue
12
Pages
e0143328
DOI
http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143328
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0143328
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26683335
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4686163
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/26683335
Web of Science
000366725800007
Scopus
84956948028
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/age-effects-l2-grammar-processing-revealed-erps-not-study-them
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Age Effects in L2 Grammar processing as revealed by ERPs and How (Not) to Study Them", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Nienke", "last_name"=>"Meulman", "scopus_author_id"=>"56364529200"}, {"first_name"=>"Martijn", "last_name"=>"Wieling", "scopus_author_id"=>"21935581000"}, {"first_name"=>"Simone A.", "last_name"=>"Sprenger", "scopus_author_id"=>"35987418300"}, {"first_name"=>"Laurie A.", "last_name"=>"Stowe", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003899615"}, {"first_name"=>"Monika S.", "last_name"=>"Schmid", "scopus_author_id"=>"35077440100"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84956948028", "sgr"=>"84956948028", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0143328", "pui"=>"608028537", "pmid"=>"26683335", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"295a9d41-4dab-3f03-872b-01807517b056", "abstract"=>"In this study we investigate the effect of age of acquisition (AoA) on grammatical processing in second language learners as measured by event-related brain potentials (ERPs). We compare a traditional analysis involving the calculation of averages across a certain time window of the ERP waveform, analyzed with categorical groups (early vs. late), with a gen-eralized additive modeling analysis, which allows us to take into account the full range of variability in both AoA and time. Sixty-six Slavic advanced learners of German listened to German sentences with correct and incorrect use of non-finite verbs and grammatical gen-der agreement. We show that the ERP signal depends on the AoA of the learner, as well as on the regularity of the structure under investigation. For gender agreement, a gradual change in processing strategies can be shown that varies by AoA, with younger learners showing a P600 and older learners showing a posterior negativity. For verb agreement, all learners show a P600 effect, irrespective of AoA. Based on their behavioral responses in an offline grammaticality judgment task, we argue that the late learners resort to computation-ally less efficient processing strategies when confronted with (lexically determined) syntac-tic constructions different from the L1. In addition, this study highlights the insights the explicit focus on the time course of the ERP signal in our analysis framework can offer com-pared to the traditional analysis.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/age-effects-l2-grammar-processing-revealed-erps-not-study-them", "reader_count"=>49, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2, "Neuroscience"=>3, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>11, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Computer Science"=>2, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Linguistics"=>21}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>3}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>11}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>21}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2612328"], "description"=>"<p>Schematic representations of L2 proficiency (vertical axis) declining over AoA (horizontal axis). Only Panels B and C support a potential ‘critical period’, because of the presence of a discontinuity in the AoA function. Figure taken from [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0143328#pone.0143328.ref036\" target=\"_blank\">36</a>].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["offline grammaticality judgment task", "ERP signal", "learners", "aoa", "L 2 Grammar Processing", "gender agreement", "additive modeling analysis", "P 600 effect", "processing strategies"], "article_id"=>1627299, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Nienke Meulman", "Martijn Wieling", "Simone A. Sprenger", "Laurie A. Stowe", "Monika S. Schmid"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143328.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Various_age_curves_/1627299", "title"=>"Various age curves.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-23 10:06:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2612329"], "description"=>"<p>An example of how ERP signatures can differ between groups (in this case native speakers, beginning and intermediate L2 learners). We see variation in form, latency and amplitude of parts of the ERP wave across these groups. It is difficult to objectively capture these differences in a traditional analysis, which is often artificially limited to time windows. Figure taken from [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0143328#pone.0143328.ref023\" target=\"_blank\">23</a>].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["offline grammaticality judgment task", "ERP signal", "learners", "aoa", "L 2 Grammar Processing", "gender agreement", "additive modeling analysis", "P 600 effect", "processing strategies"], "article_id"=>1627300, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Nienke Meulman", "Martijn Wieling", "Simone A. Sprenger", "Laurie A. Stowe", "Monika S. Schmid"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143328.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Group_differences_in_multiple_aspects_of_the_ERP_signal_/1627300", "title"=>"Group differences in multiple aspects of the ERP signal.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-23 10:06:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2612330"], "description"=>"<p>A cubic regression spline is a non-linear curve constructed from sections of cubic polynomials joined together so that the curve is continuous. The cubic regression spline shown (dotted curve) is made up of seven sections of cubic polynomials (solid lines). The points at which they are joined (and the two end points) are known as the ‘knots’ of the spline. Figure taken from [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0143328#pone.0143328.ref043\" target=\"_blank\">43</a>].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["offline grammaticality judgment task", "ERP signal", "learners", "aoa", "L 2 Grammar Processing", "gender agreement", "additive modeling analysis", "P 600 effect", "processing strategies"], "article_id"=>1627301, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Nienke Meulman", "Martijn Wieling", "Simone A. Sprenger", "Laurie A. Stowe", "Monika S. Schmid"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143328.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Example_of_a_basis_function_a_cubic_regression_spline_/1627301", "title"=>"Example of a basis function: a cubic regression spline.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-23 10:06:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2612331"], "description"=>"<p>Approximate location of the EEG recording sites and the central-posterior region of interest used for analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["offline grammaticality judgment task", "ERP signal", "learners", "aoa", "L 2 Grammar Processing", "gender agreement", "additive modeling analysis", "P 600 effect", "processing strategies"], "article_id"=>1627302, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Nienke Meulman", "Martijn Wieling", "Simone A. Sprenger", "Laurie A. Stowe", "Monika S. Schmid"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143328.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Location_of_the_electrodes_and_ROI_/1627302", "title"=>"Location of the electrodes and ROI.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-23 10:06:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2612332"], "description"=>"<p>Performance in percentage of accurate responses is plotted separately for each level of group (learners, natives), structure (verb, gender) and grammaticality (grammatical, ungrammatical).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["offline grammaticality judgment task", "ERP signal", "learners", "aoa", "L 2 Grammar Processing", "gender agreement", "additive modeling analysis", "P 600 effect", "processing strategies"], "article_id"=>1627303, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Nienke Meulman", "Martijn Wieling", "Simone A. Sprenger", "Laurie A. Stowe", "Monika S. Schmid"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143328.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Accuracy_on_behavioral_grammaticality_judgments_made_during_the_EEG_recording_session_/1627303", "title"=>"Accuracy on (behavioral) grammaticality judgments made during the EEG recording session.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-23 10:06:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2612334"], "description"=>"<p>Waveforms show the ERP signal averaged over the electrodes in the central-posterior region of interest (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0143328#pone.0143328.g004\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 4</a>) for natives and learners. The green lines represent the average response to grammatical targets, the red lines show the response to violations. Underneath the waveform graphs, voltage maps are plotted, which show the scalp topography of the effect in the difference wave (i.e. mean amplitude in ungrammatical minus grammatical condition) in the 0–500, 500–1000 and 1000–1400 ms time window. The scalp topographies are visualized looking down on the head (i.e. the location of the nose is at the top), with positive differences in red, negative differences in blue, and green representing no difference. A traditional group split divides learners into early (7–16) and late (17–36) age of onset of acquisition groups. Both natives and learners show P600 effects for non-finite verb agreement. Only early learners show the same effect for gender agreement, whereas late learners do not show sensitivity for gender violations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["offline grammaticality judgment task", "ERP signal", "learners", "aoa", "L 2 Grammar Processing", "gender agreement", "additive modeling analysis", "P 600 effect", "processing strategies"], "article_id"=>1627305, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Nienke Meulman", "Martijn Wieling", "Simone A. Sprenger", "Laurie A. Stowe", "Monika S. Schmid"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143328.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Grand_average_ERP_responses_/1627305", "title"=>"Grand average ERP responses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-23 10:06:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2612335"], "description"=>"<p>The figure shows the average magnitude of the difference wave per individual (<i>x</i>-axis), against that individual’s AoA (<i>y</i>-axis). This magnitude was calculated by taking the ERP signal per condition, averaged over the electrodes in the central-posterior region of interest (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0143328#pone.0143328.g004\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 4</a>) using the mean amplitude in the 500–1200 ms time window, to calculate the difference between the individual’s response to ungrammatical versus grammatical targets. The plots reveal a weak correlation between AoA and the magnitude of the grammaticality effect in the gender condition (<i>r</i>(64) = -0.32, <i>p</i> = .009), but no effect in the verb condition (<i>r</i>(64) = 0.03, <i>p</i> = .825).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["offline grammaticality judgment task", "ERP signal", "learners", "aoa", "L 2 Grammar Processing", "gender agreement", "additive modeling analysis", "P 600 effect", "processing strategies"], "article_id"=>1627306, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Nienke Meulman", "Martijn Wieling", "Simone A. Sprenger", "Laurie A. Stowe", "Monika S. Schmid"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143328.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_effect_of_AoA_on_the_average_ERP_signal_/1627306", "title"=>"The effect of AoA on the average ERP signal.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-23 10:06:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2612337"], "description"=>"<p>First, the individual smooths and surfaces for the <i>additive</i> effects of time (Panels A1 and B1), AoA (Panels A2 and B2) and their pure interaction (Panels A3 and B3) are plotted separately. These are followed by a plot that summarizes all these effects together (the ‘full effect’ plots, Panels A4 and B4). After taking out the main effect of time, the effect of AoA is not significant on its own, for either verb or gender, but only in interaction with time (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0143328#pone.0143328.t004\" target=\"_blank\">Table 4</a>). These adjustments to the general time pattern match the complexity of the AoA effects on timing, slope and polarity of the ERP components seen in the ‘full effect’ plots: In the verb condition, we see a P600 effect across all AoAs, with only minor adjustments to amplitude, onset and duration of this component for earlier vs. later learners. For gender, there is a diminishing P600 effect for early AoAs and instead a negativity that peaks around 500 ms for later AoAs.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["offline grammaticality judgment task", "ERP signal", "learners", "aoa", "L 2 Grammar Processing", "gender agreement", "additive modeling analysis", "P 600 effect", "processing strategies"], "article_id"=>1627308, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Nienke Meulman", "Martijn Wieling", "Simone A. Sprenger", "Laurie A. Stowe", "Monika S. Schmid"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143328.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Visualization_of_the_GAM_model_for_the_effects_of_time_and_AoA_on_the_difference_wave_for_the_verb_Panel_A_and_gender_Panel_B_condition_/1627308", "title"=>"Visualization of the GAM model for the effects of time and AoA on the difference wave, for the verb (Panel A) and gender (Panel B) condition.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-23 10:06:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2612339"], "description"=>"<p>These plots present an alternative visualization of the two-dimensional ‘full effect’ surfaces of <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0143328#pone.0143328.g008\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 8</a>: AoA values, which were represented on the y-axis in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0143328#pone.0143328.g008\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 8</a> Panels A4 and B4, are now represented by three separate plots for particular AoA values, with microvoltage on the <i>y</i>-axis. The gradual transitions towards different AoAs illustrate the continuity of the effect.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["offline grammaticality judgment task", "ERP signal", "learners", "aoa", "L 2 Grammar Processing", "gender agreement", "additive modeling analysis", "P 600 effect", "processing strategies"], "article_id"=>1627310, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Nienke Meulman", "Martijn Wieling", "Simone A. Sprenger", "Laurie A. Stowe", "Monika S. Schmid"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143328.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_effect_over_time_on_the_ERP_signal_for_learners_with_an_AoA_of_10_20_and_30_for_verb_and_gender_violations_/1627310", "title"=>"The effect over time on the ERP signal for learners with an AoA of 10, 20 and 30 for verb and gender violations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-23 10:06:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2612350", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2612351", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2612352"], "description"=>"<div><p>In this study we investigate the effect of age of acquisition (AoA) on grammatical processing in second language learners as measured by event-related brain potentials (ERPs). We compare a traditional analysis involving the calculation of averages across a certain time window of the ERP waveform, analyzed with categorical groups (early vs. late), with a generalized additive modeling analysis, which allows us to take into account the full range of variability in both AoA and time. Sixty-six Slavic advanced learners of German listened to German sentences with correct and incorrect use of non-finite verbs and grammatical gender agreement. We show that the ERP signal depends on the AoA of the learner, as well as on the regularity of the structure under investigation. For gender agreement, a gradual change in processing strategies can be shown that varies by AoA, with younger learners showing a P600 and older learners showing a posterior negativity. For verb agreement, all learners show a P600 effect, irrespective of AoA. Based on their behavioral responses in an offline grammaticality judgment task, we argue that the late learners resort to computationally less efficient processing strategies when confronted with (lexically determined) syntactic constructions different from the L1. In addition, this study highlights the insights the explicit focus on the time course of the ERP signal in our analysis framework can offer compared to the traditional analysis.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["offline grammaticality judgment task", "ERP signal", "learners", "aoa", "L 2 Grammar Processing", "gender agreement", "additive modeling analysis", "P 600 effect", "processing strategies"], "article_id"=>1627320, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Nienke Meulman", "Martijn Wieling", "Simone A. Sprenger", "Laurie A. Stowe", "Monika S. Schmid"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143328.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143328.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143328.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Age_Effects_in_L2_Grammar_Processing_as_Revealed_by_ERPs_and_How_Not_to_Study_Them_/1627320", "title"=>"Age Effects in L2 Grammar Processing as Revealed by ERPs and How (Not) to Study Them", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-12-23 10:06:06"}

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{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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