A Hominin Femur with Archaic Affinities from the Late Pleistocene of Southwest China
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{"title"=>"A hominin femur with archaic affinities from the Late Pleistocene of Southwest China", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Darren", "last_name"=>"Curnoe", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602541175"}, {"first_name"=>"Xueping", "last_name"=>"Ji", "scopus_author_id"=>"55810938300"}, {"first_name"=>"Wu", "last_name"=>"Liu", "scopus_author_id"=>"28567979400"}, {"first_name"=>"Zhende", "last_name"=>"Bao", "scopus_author_id"=>"55831448700"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul S.C.", "last_name"=>"Taçon", "scopus_author_id"=>"55919228000"}, {"first_name"=>"Liang", "last_name"=>"Ren", "scopus_author_id"=>"57089621200"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"26678851", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0143332", "pui"=>"608000912", "issn"=>"19326203", "sgr"=>"84956602550", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84956602550"}, "id"=>"0b34e7d6-12ca-30b5-882d-fcc7f9e5528c", "abstract"=>"The number of Late Pleistocene hominin species and the timing of their extinction are issues receiving renewed attention following genomic evidence for interbreeding between the ancestors of some living humans and archaic taxa. Yet, major gaps in the fossil record and uncertainties surrounding the age of key fossils have meant that these questions remain poorly understood. Here we describe and compare a highly unusual femur from Late Pleistocene sediments at Maludong (Yunnan), Southwest China, recovered along with cranial remains that exhibit a mixture of anatomically modern human and archaic traits. Our studies show that the Maludong femur has affinities to archaic hominins, especially Lower Pleistocene femora. However, the scarcity of later Middle and Late Pleistocene archaic remains in East Asia makes an assessment of systematically relevant character states difficult, warranting caution in assigning the specimen to a species at this time. The Maludong fossil probably samples an archaic population that survived until around 14,000 years ago in the biogeographically complex region of Southwest China.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/hominin-femur-archaic-affinities-late-pleistocene-southwest-china", "reader_count"=>34, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>4, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>4, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>11, "Arts and Humanities"=>8, "Chemistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>6, "Computer Science"=>1, "Linguistics"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>6}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>11}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>8}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2611067"], "description"=>"<p>Scatterplots comparing sample medians for subtrochanteric (ST) variables, neck-shaft angle and reconstructed body mass: (A) Anteroposterior (AP) diameter (mm). (B) Mediolateral (ML) diameter (mm). (C) Total area (TA: mm<sup>2</sup>). (D) Cortical area (CA: mm<sup>2</sup>). (E) %-Cortical area (%-CA). (F) Platymeric index (%). (G) Neck-shaft angle (°). (H) Reconstructed body mass (kg). (Error bars = 95% confidence interval of median [dark] and 1.5 x interquartile range [light]; Abbreviations: LPHO = Lower Pleistocene <i>Homo</i>; MPHO = Middle Pleistocene <i>Homo</i>; NEAN = Neanderthals; MPMH = Middle Pleistocene Modern Humans; EULU = Early Upper-Late Upper Palaeolithic humans [see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0143332#pone.0143332.s004\" target=\"_blank\">S1 Table</a>]).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["femur", "Southwest China", "Pleistocene hominin species", "maludong"], "article_id"=>1626496, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Darren Curnoe", "Xueping Ji", "Wu Liu", "Zhende Bao", "Paul S. C. Taçon", "Liang Ren"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143332.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_Hominin_Femur_with_Archaic_Affinities_from_the_Late_Pleistocene_of_Southwest_China_Fig_2_/1626496", "title"=>"A Hominin Femur with Archaic Affinities from the Late Pleistocene of Southwest China - Fig 2", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-18 11:22:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2611070"], "description"=>"<p>Scatterplots comparing sample medians for mid-shaft (MS) variables, size-adjusted variables and mid-shaft/subtrochanteric area index: (A) Anteroposterior (AP) diameter (mm). (B) Mediolateral (ML) diameter (mm). (C) Total area (TA: mm<sup>2</sup>). (D) Cortical area (CA: mm<sup>2</sup>). (E) %-Cortical area (%-CA). (F) Size-adjusted total area. (G) Size-adjusted cortical area. (H) Pilastric index (%). (I) Mid-shaft/subtrochanteric (MS/ST) area index (%). (Error bars = 95% confidence interval of median [dark] and 1.5 x interquartile range [light]; Abbreviations: LPHO = Lower Pleistocene <i>Homo</i>; MPHO = Middle Pleistocene <i>Homo</i>; NEAN = Neanderthals; MPMH = Middle Pleistocene Modern Humans; EULU = Early Upper-Late Upper Palaeolithic humans [see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0143332#pone.0143332.s004\" target=\"_blank\">S1 Table</a>]).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["femur", "Southwest China", "Pleistocene hominin species", "maludong"], "article_id"=>1626498, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Darren Curnoe", "Xueping Ji", "Wu Liu", "Zhende Bao", "Paul S. C. Taçon", "Liang Ren"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143332.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_Hominin_Femur_with_Archaic_Affinities_from_the_Late_Pleistocene_of_Southwest_China_Fig_3_/1626498", "title"=>"A Hominin Femur with Archaic Affinities from the Late Pleistocene of Southwest China - Fig 3", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-18 11:22:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2611073"], "description"=>"<p>Object plot from principal component analysis of 10 continuous variables: PC1 (52.85%) versus PC2 (28.92%) (AMH femora labeled in black; archaic hominins in blue; minimal spanning tree shown).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["femur", "Southwest China", "Pleistocene hominin species", "maludong"], "article_id"=>1626499, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Darren Curnoe", "Xueping Ji", "Wu Liu", "Zhende Bao", "Paul S. C. Taçon", "Liang Ren"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143332.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Object_plot_from_principal_component_analysis_of_10_continuous_variables_PC1_52_85_versus_PC2_28_92_AMH_femora_labeled_in_black_archaic_hominins_in_blue_minimal_spanning_tree_shown_/1626499", "title"=>"Object plot from principal component analysis of 10 continuous variables: PC1 (52.85%) versus PC2 (28.92%) (AMH femora labeled in black; archaic hominins in blue; minimal spanning tree shown).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-18 11:22:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2611074"], "description"=>"<p>Neighbor-joining tree from an analysis of 10 continuous variables (AMH femora labeled in black; archaic hominins in blue; bootstrap scores are from 100,000 replicates with only those ≥60% shown).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["femur", "Southwest China", "Pleistocene hominin species", "maludong"], "article_id"=>1626500, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Darren Curnoe", "Xueping Ji", "Wu Liu", "Zhende Bao", "Paul S. C. Taçon", "Liang Ren"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143332.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Neighbor_joining_tree_from_an_analysis_of_10_continuous_variables_AMH_femora_labeled_in_black_archaic_hominins_in_blue_bootstrap_scores_are_from_100_000_replicates_with_only_those_8805_60_shown_/1626500", "title"=>"Neighbor-joining tree from an analysis of 10 continuous variables (AMH femora labeled in black; archaic hominins in blue; bootstrap scores are from 100,000 replicates with only those ≥60% shown).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-18 11:22:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2611075"], "description"=>"<p>(Bootstrap scores are from 100,000 replicates; Abbreviations: LPHO = Lower Pleistocene <i>Homo</i>; MPHO = Middle Pleistocene <i>Homo</i>; NEAN = Neanderthals; MPMH = Middle Pleistocene Modern Humans; EULU = Early Upper-Late Upper Palaeolithic humans [see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0143332#pone.0143332.s004\" target=\"_blank\">S1 Table</a>]).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["femur", "Southwest China", "Pleistocene hominin species", "maludong"], "article_id"=>1626501, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Darren Curnoe", "Xueping Ji", "Wu Liu", "Zhende Bao", "Paul S. C. Taçon", "Liang Ren"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143332.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Neighbor_joining_tree_from_an_analysis_of_15_variables_5_discrete_and_10_continuous_using_comparative_sample_medians_as_OTUs_/1626501", "title"=>"Neighbor-joining tree from an analysis of 15 variables (5 discrete and 10 continuous) using comparative sample medians as OTUs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-18 11:22:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2611076"], "description"=>"<p><sup>1</sup>Calculated by dividing the relevant area by reconstructed body mass, after Ref [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0143332#pone.0143332.ref034\" target=\"_blank\">34</a>].</p><p>Metric data for the Maludong femur (MLDG 1678).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["femur", "Southwest China", "Pleistocene hominin species", "maludong"], "article_id"=>1626503, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Darren Curnoe", "Xueping Ji", "Wu Liu", "Zhende Bao", "Paul S. C. Taçon", "Liang Ren"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143332.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Metric_data_for_the_Maludong_femur_MLDG_1678_/1626503", "title"=>"Metric data for the Maludong femur (MLDG 1678).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-12-18 11:22:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2611078"], "description"=>"<p><sup>1</sup>Abbreviations: LPHO = Lower Pleistocene <i>Homo</i>; MPHO = Middle Pleistocene <i>Homo</i>; NEAN = Neanderthals; MPMH = Middle Pleistocene Modern Humans; EULU = Early Upper-Late Upper Palaeolithic humans. ST = subtrochanteric region; MS = mid-shaft region; AP = anteroposterior diameter; ML = mediolateral diameter.</p><p>Sample compositions, see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0143332#pone.0143332.s004\" target=\"_blank\">S1 Table</a>.</p><p>Comparison of systematically relevant traits in MLDG 1678<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0143332#t002fn001\" target=\"_blank\"><sup>1</sup></a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["femur", "Southwest China", "Pleistocene hominin species", "maludong"], "article_id"=>1626504, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Darren Curnoe", "Xueping Ji", "Wu Liu", "Zhende Bao", "Paul S. C. Taçon", "Liang Ren"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143332.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_systematically_relevant_traits_in_MLDG_1678_1_/1626504", "title"=>"Comparison of systematically relevant traits in MLDG 1678<sup>1</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-12-18 11:22:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2611080", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2611081", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2611082", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2611083", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2611084", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2611085"], "description"=>"<div><p>The number of Late Pleistocene hominin species and the timing of their extinction are issues receiving renewed attention following genomic evidence for interbreeding between the ancestors of some living humans and archaic taxa. Yet, major gaps in the fossil record and uncertainties surrounding the age of key fossils have meant that these questions remain poorly understood. Here we describe and compare a highly unusual femur from Late Pleistocene sediments at Maludong (Yunnan), Southwest China, recovered along with cranial remains that exhibit a mixture of anatomically modern human and archaic traits. Our studies show that the Maludong femur has affinities to archaic hominins, especially Lower Pleistocene femora. However, the scarcity of later Middle and Late Pleistocene archaic remains in East Asia makes an assessment of systematically relevant character states difficult, warranting caution in assigning the specimen to a species at this time. The Maludong fossil probably samples an archaic population that survived until around 14,000 years ago in the biogeographically complex region of Southwest China.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["femur", "Southwest China", "Pleistocene hominin species", "maludong"], "article_id"=>1626506, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Darren Curnoe", "Xueping Ji", "Wu Liu", "Zhende Bao", "Paul S. C. Taçon", "Liang Ren"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143332.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143332.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143332.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143332.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143332.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143332.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_Hominin_Femur_with_Archaic_Affinities_from_the_Late_Pleistocene_of_Southwest_China_/1626506", "title"=>"A Hominin Femur with Archaic Affinities from the Late Pleistocene of Southwest China", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-12-18 11:22:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2611065"], "description"=>"<p>Femur MLDG 1678: (A) Anterior view. (B) CT-scan slices at subtrochanteric, approximate half-way and mid-shaft levels. (C) Posterior view. (D) CT-scan slice at approximately mid-coronal plane, grayscale (left) and colour density map (right). (E) Superior view highlighting the overall outline and superior surface of the greater trochanter (anterior at left, lateral at top). (F) CT-scan transverse slices at approximate mid-neck level, grayscale (left) and colour density map (right). (G) Medial view. (H) CT-scan slices in approximate mid-plane, grayscale (left) and colour density map (right). (P = plaster added in 1989 during restoration).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["femur", "Southwest China", "Pleistocene hominin species", "maludong"], "article_id"=>1626494, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Darren Curnoe", "Xueping Ji", "Wu Liu", "Zhende Bao", "Paul S. C. Taçon", "Liang Ren"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143332.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_Hominin_Femur_with_Archaic_Affinities_from_the_Late_Pleistocene_of_Southwest_China_Fig_1_/1626494", "title"=>"A Hominin Femur with Archaic Affinities from the Late Pleistocene of Southwest China - Fig 1", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-18 11:22:17"}

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{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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