The Role of Compassion in Altruistic Helping and Punishment Behavior
Publication Date
December 10, 2015
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Helen Y. Weng, Andrew S. Fox, Heather C. Hessenthaler, Diane E. Stodola, et al
Volume
10
Issue
12
Pages
e0143794
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143794
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0143794
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26655837
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4675554
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/26655837
Web of Science
000366903500006
Scopus
84955589082
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/role-compassion-altruistic-helping-punishment-behavior
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Mendeley | Further Information

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Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2605339"], "description"=>"<p><b>a)</b> In the first step of the games, the Dictator transfers any X amount of $10 (100 points) to the anonymous Recipient while the Third Party observes. <b>b)</b> In the Punishment Game, the Third Party may spend any Y amount of $5 (50 points) to take twice the amount from the dictator, constrained by the amount the dictator originally gave (cannot punish below $0). <b>c)</b> In the Helping Game, the Third Party may spend any Y amount of $5 (50 points) to transfer twice the amount to the Recipient. In the Compassion and Reappraisal Training study, all participants witnessed an unfair Dictator transfer (< $2.50/$10).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["compassion training group", "compassion meditation training", "victim", "participant", "reappraisal training control group", "transgressor", "empathic concern", "Punishment Behavior Compassion", "punishment behavior", "uniform way", "trait empathic concern"], "article_id"=>1622393, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Helen Y. Weng", "Andrew S. Fox", "Heather C. Hessenthaler", "Diane E. Stodola", "Richard J. Davidson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143794.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Third_party_punishment_and_helping_game_paradigms_/1622393", "title"=>"Third-party punishment and helping game paradigms.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-10 10:46:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2605340"], "description"=>"<p><b>a)</b> In the Helping Game, individuals who report greater compassion give more to the recipient after an unfair interaction (< = 25%). Including the two “extreme altruist” outliers in Helping Game responses, the correlation remains significant (<i>r</i><sub>89</sub> = 0.214, <i>p</i> < 0.05). <b>b)</b> In the Punishment Game, trait compassion is not associated with punishment behavior after an unfair interaction in the full sample. However, within Punishers (individuals who decided to punish at all and spend > $0, indicated by black shaded circles), those who report greater compassion decide to punish less at trend level. <sup>†</sup><i>p</i> < 0.1, * <i>p</i> < 0.05</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["compassion training group", "compassion meditation training", "victim", "participant", "reappraisal training control group", "transgressor", "empathic concern", "Punishment Behavior Compassion", "punishment behavior", "uniform way", "trait empathic concern"], "article_id"=>1622394, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Helen Y. Weng", "Andrew S. Fox", "Heather C. Hessenthaler", "Diane E. Stodola", "Richard J. Davidson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143794.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_association_between_trait_compassion_and_third_party_altruistic_behavior_after_an_unfair_dictator_transfer_/1622394", "title"=>"The association between trait compassion and third-party altruistic behavior after an unfair dictator transfer.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-10 10:46:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2605341"], "description"=>"<p>Individuals who learn Compassion Training were more altruistic towards the Recipient in the Helping Game after witnessing an unfair interaction compared to Reappraisal Training (responses were ranked among 30 participants, * independent <i>t</i><sub>28</sub> = 2.29, <i>p</i> < .05). Compassion trainees spent 1.87 times more money than Reappraisal trainees in order to altruistically help the recipient. Compassion trainees on average spent $1.14 (mean rank = 19.0) and increased equality between the dictator by 29%, where the Reappraisal trainees spent an average of $0.61 (mean rank = 12.8) and increased the equality by 15%. Compassion Training did not significantly alter altruistic punishment towards the Dictator compared to Reappraisal Training. Punishment Game responses were ranked among 41 participants. Error bars indicate the standard error of the % mean rank.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["compassion training group", "compassion meditation training", "victim", "participant", "reappraisal training control group", "transgressor", "empathic concern", "Punishment Behavior Compassion", "punishment behavior", "uniform way", "trait empathic concern"], "article_id"=>1622395, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Helen Y. Weng", "Andrew S. Fox", "Heather C. Hessenthaler", "Diane E. Stodola", "Richard J. Davidson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143794.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Altruistic_behavior_after_short_term_online_Compassion_Training_or_Reappraisal_Training_/1622395", "title"=>"Altruistic behavior after short-term online Compassion Training or Reappraisal Training.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-10 10:46:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2605342"], "description"=>"<p>* <i>p</i> ≤ 0.05</p><p>** <i>p</i> ≤ 0.01</p><p>*** <i>p</i> ≤ 0.001</p><p>^ When the two “extreme altruist” outliers were included in the Helping Game regression, the relationship between empathic concern and helping behavior became non-significant (Empathic Concern Δ <i>R</i><sup>2</sup> = 0.016, <i>p</i> = 0.12).</p><p>Step 1 modeled potential confounding variables of social desirability, general prosocial behavior (as indicated by transfers made when participants played as the dictator), family income, previous earnings or punishment in the game before playing as the third party, and current mood (state positive or negative affect). Trait empathic concern (the emotional component of compassion) was entered in Step 2 and was measured by the Empathic Concern subscale of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis, 1980). Punishers represent a subset of participants who played the Punishment Game that decided to punish by spending > $0 (N = 37/89).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["compassion training group", "compassion meditation training", "victim", "participant", "reappraisal training control group", "transgressor", "empathic concern", "Punishment Behavior Compassion", "punishment behavior", "uniform way", "trait empathic concern"], "article_id"=>1622396, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Helen Y. Weng", "Andrew S. Fox", "Heather C. Hessenthaler", "Diane E. Stodola", "Richard J. Davidson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143794.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Trait_empathic_concern_predicts_altruistic_behavior_after_an_unfair_dictator_transfer_even_after_controlling_for_confounding_variables_in_a_hierarchical_regression_model_/1622396", "title"=>"Trait empathic concern predicts altruistic behavior after an unfair dictator transfer even after controlling for confounding variables in a hierarchical regression model.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-12-10 10:46:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2605343"], "description"=>"<p>* <i>p</i> ≤ 0.05</p><p>** <i>p</i> ≤ 0.01</p><p>*** <i>p</i> ≤ 0.001</p><p>^ When the two “extreme altruist” outliers were included in the Helping Game regression, the relationship between empathic concern and helping behavior became non-significant (Empathic Concern Δ <i>R</i><sup>2</sup> = 0.016, <i>p</i> = 0.12).</p><p>Trait empathic concern (the emotional component of compassion) predicts unique variance in both the Helping Game and within Punishers (spend > $0) in the Punishment Game.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["compassion training group", "compassion meditation training", "victim", "participant", "reappraisal training control group", "transgressor", "empathic concern", "Punishment Behavior Compassion", "punishment behavior", "uniform way", "trait empathic concern"], "article_id"=>1622397, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Helen Y. Weng", "Andrew S. Fox", "Heather C. Hessenthaler", "Diane E. Stodola", "Richard J. Davidson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143794.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Semipartial_correlations_indicating_the_unique_variance_predicted_by_each_variable_in_the_full_hierarchical_regression_model_/1622397", "title"=>"Semipartial correlations indicating the unique variance predicted by each variable in the full hierarchical regression model.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-12-10 10:46:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2605344", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2605345"], "description"=>"<div><p>Compassion, the emotional response of caring for another who is suffering and that results in motivation to relieve suffering, is thought to be an emotional antecedent to altruistic behavior. However, it remains unclear whether compassion enhances altruistic behavior in a uniform way or is specific to sub-types of behavior such as altruistic helping of a victim or altruistic punishment of a transgressor. We investigated the relationship between compassion and subtypes of altruistic behavior using third-party paradigms where participants 1) witnessed an unfair economic exchange between a transgressor and a victim, and 2) had the opportunity to either spend personal funds to either economically a) help the victim or b) punish the transgressor. In Study 1, we examined whether individual differences in self-reported empathic concern (the emotional component of compassion) was associated with greater altruistic helping or punishment behavior in two independent samples. For participants who witnessed an unfair transaction, trait empathic concern was associated with greater helping of a victim and had no relationship to punishment. However, in those who decided to punish the transgressor, participants who reported greater empathic concern decided to punish less. In Study 2, we directly enhanced compassion using short-term online compassion meditation training to examine whether altruistic helping and punishment were increased after two weeks of training. Compared to an active reappraisal training control group, the compassion training group gave more to help the victim and did not differ in punishment of the transgressor. Together, these two studies suggest that compassion is related to greater altruistic helping of victims and is not associated with or may mitigate altruistic punishment of transgressors.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["compassion training group", "compassion meditation training", "victim", "participant", "reappraisal training control group", "transgressor", "empathic concern", "Punishment Behavior Compassion", "punishment behavior", "uniform way", "trait empathic concern"], "article_id"=>1622398, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Helen Y. Weng", "Andrew S. Fox", "Heather C. Hessenthaler", "Diane E. Stodola", "Richard J. Davidson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143794.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143794.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Role_of_Compassion_in_Altruistic_Helping_and_Punishment_Behavior_/1622398", "title"=>"The Role of Compassion in Altruistic Helping and Punishment Behavior", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-12-10 10:46:46"}

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{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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