Can Inconsistent Association between Hypertension and Cognition in Elders be Explained by Levels of Organochlorine Pesticides?
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{"title"=>"Can inconsistent association between hypertension and cognition in elders be explained by levels of organochlorine pesticides?", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Se A.", "last_name"=>"Kim", "scopus_author_id"=>"56311702800"}, {"first_name"=>"Yu Mi", "last_name"=>"Lee", "scopus_author_id"=>"57075191600"}, {"first_name"=>"Ho Won", "last_name"=>"Lee", "scopus_author_id"=>"35337240700"}, {"first_name"=>"David R.", "last_name"=>"Jacobs", "scopus_author_id"=>"24495657500"}, {"first_name"=>"Duk Hee", "last_name"=>"Lee", "scopus_author_id"=>"35233989100"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "sgr"=>"84955501804", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84955501804", "pmid"=>"26630154", "pui"=>"607884068", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0144205"}, "id"=>"a683c400-1d26-3012-8b78-cfa0d04b615b", "abstract"=>"The relation between hypertension and cognition in elders remains unclear, and studies on the effect of antihypertensive drugs on cognition have demonstrated conflicting results. This study was performed to evaluate if the association between hypertension and cognition in elders differed depending on serum concentrations of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, common neurotoxic chemicals. Participants were 644 elders aged 60-85 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002 and were able to complete a cognitive test. We selected 6 OC pesticides that were commonly detected in the elderly. Cognition was assessed by the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), a relevant tool for evaluating hypertension-related cognitive function, and low cognition was defined by the DSST score < 25th percentile. When OC pesticides were not considered in the analyses, elders with hypertension had about 1.7 times higher risk of low cognition than those without hypertension. However, in analyses stratified by serum concentrations of OC pesticides, the associations between hypertension and low cognition were stronger the higher the serum concentrations of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, beta-hexachlorocyclohexane, and trans-nonachlor increased. Among elders in the 3rd tertile of these pesticides, adjusted odds ratios were from 2.5 to 3.5. In contrast, hypertension was not clearly associated with the risk of low cognition in elders in the 1st tertile of these pesticides. Similar patterns were observed for the continuous DSST score dependent variable. The difference in the association between hypertension and DSST scores according to the levels of OC pesticides suggest a key role of OC pesticides in the development of hypertension-related cognitive impairment and may help to identify hypertensive elders who are at a high risk of cognitive impairment.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/inconsistent-association-between-hypertension-cognition-elders-explained-levels-organochlorine-pesti", "reader_count"=>7, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Psychology"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597597"], "description"=>"<p>The summary measure was calculated by summing the rank orders of the individual 4 compounds (p,p’-DDT, p,p’-DDE, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, and trans-nonachlor) which showed little association in the 1st tertile, but the significant positive association in the 3rd tertile in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0144205#pone.0144205.t003\" target=\"_blank\">Table 3</a>. Odds ratios were estimated using a common reference group of elderly without HTN within the 1st tertile of OC pesticides, adjusted for age, sex, race-ethnicity, education, poverty income ratio, cigarette smoking, and body mass index. The upper fig A used tertiles of the summary measure of OC pesticides, while the lower fig B further categorized the last tertile by the cutoff point of 90%. Statistically significant odds ratios were marked with *. T1, first tertile; T2, second tertile; T3, third tertile. Sample sizes are given in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0144205#pone.0144205.t003\" target=\"_blank\">Table 3</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["association", "cognition", "Digit Symbol Substitution Test", "1 st tertile", "OC pesticides", "elder", "serum concentrations", "6 OC pesticides", "hypertension", "3 rd tertile", "DSST score"], "article_id"=>1616688, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Se-A Kim", "Yu-Mi Lee", "Ho-Won Lee", "David R. Jacobs Jr", "Duk-Hee Lee"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144205.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Associations_of_hypertension_HTN_and_summary_measure_of_organochlorine_OC_pesticides_with_the_risk_of_low_cognitive_score_lt_25th_of_study_subjects_28_of_133_symbols_correctly_substituted_/1616688", "title"=>"Associations of hypertension (HTN) and summary measure of organochlorine (OC) pesticides with the risk of low cognitive score (<25th % of study subjects, 28 of 133 symbols correctly substituted).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-02 03:44:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597598"], "description"=>"<p>*Adjusted for age, sex, race-ethnicity, education, poverty income ratio, cigarette smoking, and body mass index.</p><p>Adjusted<sup><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0144205#t002fn001\" target=\"_blank\">*</a></sup> means of Digit Symbol Substitution Test score among all subjects or stratified by tertiles of serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["association", "cognition", "Digit Symbol Substitution Test", "1 st tertile", "OC pesticides", "elder", "serum concentrations", "6 OC pesticides", "hypertension", "3 rd tertile", "DSST score"], "article_id"=>1616689, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Se-A Kim", "Yu-Mi Lee", "Ho-Won Lee", "David R. Jacobs Jr", "Duk-Hee Lee"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144205.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Adjusted_means_of_Digit_Symbol_Substitution_Test_score_among_all_subjects_or_stratified_by_tertiles_of_serum_concentrations_of_organochlorine_pesticides_/1616689", "title"=>"Adjusted<sup>*</sup> means of Digit Symbol Substitution Test score among all subjects or stratified by tertiles of serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-12-02 03:44:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597599"], "description"=>"<p>*Adjusted for age, sex, race-ethnicity, education, poverty income ratio, cigarette smoking, and body mass index.</p><p>Adjusted<sup><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0144205#t003fn001\" target=\"_blank\">*</a></sup> odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between hypertension and the risk of low Digit Symbol Substitution Test score (<25<sup>th%</sup> of study subjects) among all subjects or stratified by serum concentrations of organochlorine (OC) pesticides.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["association", "cognition", "Digit Symbol Substitution Test", "1 st tertile", "OC pesticides", "elder", "serum concentrations", "6 OC pesticides", "hypertension", "3 rd tertile", "DSST score"], "article_id"=>1616690, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Se-A Kim", "Yu-Mi Lee", "Ho-Won Lee", "David R. Jacobs Jr", "Duk-Hee Lee"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144205.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Adjusted_odds_ratios_ORs_and_95_confidence_intervals_CIs_between_hypertension_and_the_risk_of_low_Digit_Symbol_Substitution_Test_score_th_of_study_subjects_among_all_subjects_or_stratified_by_serum_concentrations_of_organochlorine_OC_pesticides_/1616690", "title"=>"Adjusted<sup>*</sup> odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between hypertension and the risk of low Digit Symbol Substitution Test score (<25<sup>th%</sup> of study subjects) among all subjects or stratified by serum concentrations of organochlorine (OC) pesticides.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-12-02 03:44:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597600", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597601", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2597602"], "description"=>"<div><p>The relation between hypertension and cognition in elders remains unclear, and studies on the effect of antihypertensive drugs on cognition have demonstrated conflicting results. This study was performed to evaluate if the association between hypertension and cognition in elders differed depending on serum concentrations of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, common neurotoxic chemicals. Participants were 644 elders aged 60–85 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2002 and were able to complete a cognitive test. We selected 6 OC pesticides that were commonly detected in the elderly. Cognition was assessed by the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), a relevant tool for evaluating hypertension-related cognitive function, and low cognition was defined by the DSST score < 25<sup>th</sup> percentile. When OC pesticides were not considered in the analyses, elders with hypertension had about 1.7 times higher risk of low cognition than those without hypertension. However, in analyses stratified by serum concentrations of OC pesticides, the associations between hypertension and low cognition were stronger the higher the serum concentrations of p,p’-DDT, p,p’-DDE, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, and trans-nonachlor increased. Among elders in the 3<sup>rd</sup> tertile of these pesticides, adjusted odds ratios were from 2.5 to 3.5. In contrast, hypertension was not clearly associated with the risk of low cognition in elders in the 1<sup>st</sup> tertile of these pesticides. Similar patterns were observed for the continuous DSST score dependent variable. The difference in the association between hypertension and DSST scores according to the levels of OC pesticides suggest a key role of OC pesticides in the development of hypertension-related cognitive impairment and may help to identify hypertensive elders who are at a high risk of cognitive impairment.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["association", "cognition", "Digit Symbol Substitution Test", "1 st tertile", "OC pesticides", "elder", "serum concentrations", "6 OC pesticides", "hypertension", "3 rd tertile", "DSST score"], "article_id"=>1616691, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Se-A Kim", "Yu-Mi Lee", "Ho-Won Lee", "David R. Jacobs Jr", "Duk-Hee Lee"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144205.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144205.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144205.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Can_Inconsistent_Association_between_Hypertension_and_Cognition_in_Elders_be_Explained_by_Levels_of_Organochlorine_Pesticides_/1616691", "title"=>"Can Inconsistent Association between Hypertension and Cognition in Elders be Explained by Levels of Organochlorine Pesticides?", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-12-02 03:44:44"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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