An Integrated Hypothesis on the Domestication of Bactris gasipaes
Publication Date
December 10, 2015
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Gea Galluzzi, Dominique Dufour, Evert Thomas, Maarten Van Zonneveld, et al
Volume
10
Issue
12
Pages
e0144644
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144644
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0144644
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26658881
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4675520
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/26658881
Scopus
84957109281
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/integrated-hypothesis-domestication-bactris-gasipaes
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Mendeley | Further Information

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Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2605058"], "description"=>"<p>Metrics of model calibrations and evaluation under current environmental conditions for projections to past and future climate conditions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phenotypic diversity", "data collection", "domestication events", "climate suitability", "selection pressures", "Bactris gasipaes Kunth", "chichagui", "phenotypic diversity data", "type", "Bactris gasipaes Peach palm", "Integrated Hypothesis", "Peruvian Amazon", "Central America", "Domesticated var gasipaes", "domestication event", "dispersal patterns", "amazonia"], "article_id"=>1622208, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Gea Galluzzi", "Dominique Dufour", "Evert Thomas", "Maarten van Zonneveld", "Andrés Felipe Escobar Salamanca", "Andrés Giraldo Toro", "Andrés Rivera", "Hector Salazar Duque", "Harold Suárez Baron", "Gerardo Gallego", "Xavier Scheldeman", "Alonso Gonzalez Mejia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144644.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Metrics_of_model_calibrations_and_evaluation_under_current_environmental_conditions_for_projections_to_past_and_future_climate_conditions_/1622208", "title"=>"Metrics of model calibrations and evaluation under current environmental conditions for projections to past and future climate conditions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-12-10 10:25:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2605031"], "description"=>"<p>The blue, green and red polygons in Fig 3d indicate areas of occurrence of different peach palm landraces [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0144644#pone.0144644.ref020\" target=\"_blank\">20</a>] (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0144644#sec010\" target=\"_blank\">discussion</a>). Blue polygons enclose the mesocarpa landraces (20–75 gr) Rama (1), Útilis (2), Cauca (3), Pampa Hermosa (7), Tigre (8), Pastaza (9) and Inirida (10); green areas include the microcarpa landraces (< 20 gr) Tembe (4), Juruá (5) and Pará (6); and red polygons refer to the macrocarpa landraces (75–200 gr) Putumayo (including Solimões, 11) and Vaupés (12). It is important to note that the many locations for which only one accession was included in the phenotypical characterization are not included in the Fig 3d because the coefficient of variance can only be calculated for two or more individuals.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phenotypic diversity", "data collection", "domestication events", "climate suitability", "selection pressures", "Bactris gasipaes Kunth", "chichagui", "phenotypic diversity data", "type", "Bactris gasipaes Peach palm", "Integrated Hypothesis", "Peruvian Amazon", "Central America", "Domesticated var gasipaes", "domestication event", "dispersal patterns", "amazonia"], "article_id"=>1622187, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Gea Galluzzi", "Dominique Dufour", "Evert Thomas", "Maarten van Zonneveld", "Andrés Felipe Escobar Salamanca", "Andrés Giraldo Toro", "Andrés Rivera", "Hector Salazar Duque", "Harold Suárez Baron", "Gerardo Gallego", "Xavier Scheldeman", "Alonso Gonzalez Mejia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144644.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Spatial_distribution_of_allelic_richness_A_locally_common_alleles_B_observed_heterozygosity_C_and_variation_in_standardized_phenotypic_diversity_D_measured_as_coefficient_of_variation_st_dev_mean_in_our_Bactris_gasipaes_var_gasipaes_dataset_/1622187", "title"=>"Spatial distribution of allelic richness (A), locally common alleles (B), observed heterozygosity (C) and variation in standardized phenotypic diversity (D), measured as coefficient of variation (st dev/mean) in our <i>Bactris gasipaes</i> var. <i>gasipaes</i> dataset.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-10 10:25:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2605044"], "description"=>"<p>Spatial distribution of allelic richness (A) and locally common alleles (B) based on the cultivated samples (~20 individuals per population) from the <i>Bactris gasipaes</i> var. <i>gasipaes</i> dataset of Hernández <i>et al</i> [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0144644#pone.0144644.ref037\" target=\"_blank\">37</a>].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phenotypic diversity", "data collection", "domestication events", "climate suitability", "selection pressures", "Bactris gasipaes Kunth", "chichagui", "phenotypic diversity data", "type", "Bactris gasipaes Peach palm", "Integrated Hypothesis", "Peruvian Amazon", "Central America", "Domesticated var gasipaes", "domestication event", "dispersal patterns", "amazonia"], "article_id"=>1622194, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Gea Galluzzi", "Dominique Dufour", "Evert Thomas", "Maarten van Zonneveld", "Andrés Felipe Escobar Salamanca", "Andrés Giraldo Toro", "Andrés Rivera", "Hector Salazar Duque", "Harold Suárez Baron", "Gerardo Gallego", "Xavier Scheldeman", "Alonso Gonzalez Mejia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144644.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Spatial_distribution_of_allelic_richness_A_and_locally_common_alleles_B_based_on_the_cultivated_samples_20_individuals_per_population_from_the_Bactris_gasipaes_var_gasipaes_dataset_of_Hern_ndez_et_al_37_/1622194", "title"=>"Spatial distribution of allelic richness (A) and locally common alleles (B) based on the cultivated samples (~20 individuals per population) from the <i>Bactris gasipaes</i> var. <i>gasipaes</i> dataset of Hernández <i>et al</i> [37].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-10 10:25:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2605046"], "description"=>"<p>A: results of model calibration undertaken based on the wild form only (<i>Bactris gasipaes</i> var. <i>chichagui)</i>; B: results of calibration based on both wild and cultivated (<i>Bactris gasipaes</i> var. <i>gasipaes</i>) trees pertaining to the ecological niche occupied by var. <i>chichagui</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phenotypic diversity", "data collection", "domestication events", "climate suitability", "selection pressures", "Bactris gasipaes Kunth", "chichagui", "phenotypic diversity data", "type", "Bactris gasipaes Peach palm", "Integrated Hypothesis", "Peruvian Amazon", "Central America", "Domesticated var gasipaes", "domestication event", "dispersal patterns", "amazonia"], "article_id"=>1622196, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Gea Galluzzi", "Dominique Dufour", "Evert Thomas", "Maarten van Zonneveld", "Andrés Felipe Escobar Salamanca", "Andrés Giraldo Toro", "Andrés Rivera", "Hector Salazar Duque", "Harold Suárez Baron", "Gerardo Gallego", "Xavier Scheldeman", "Alonso Gonzalez Mejia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144644.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Putative_distribution_of_suitable_habitat_of_peach_palm_during_the_Last_Glacial_Maximum_/1622196", "title"=>"Putative distribution of suitable habitat of peach palm during the Last Glacial Maximum.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-10 10:25:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2605080", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2605081", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2605082", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2605083", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2605084", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2605085", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2605086", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2605087", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2605088", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2605089"], "description"=>"<div><p>Peach palm (<i>Bactris gasipaes</i> Kunth) has had a central place in the livelihoods of people in the Americas since pre-Columbian times, notably for its edible fruits and multi-purpose wood. The botanical taxon includes both domesticated and wild varieties. Domesticated var <i>gasipaes</i> is believed to derive from one or more of the three wild types of var. <i>chichagui</i> identified today, although the exact dynamics and location of the domestication are still uncertain. Drawing on a combination of molecular and phenotypic diversity data, modeling of past climate suitability and existing literature, we present an integrated hypothesis about peach palm’s domestication. We support a single initial domestication event in south western Amazonia, giving rise to var. <i>chichagui</i> type 3, the putative incipient domesticate. We argue that subsequent dispersal by humans across western Amazonia, and possibly into Central America allowed for secondary domestication events through hybridization with resident wild populations, and differential human selection pressures, resulting in the diversity of present-day landraces. The high phenotypic diversity in the Ecuadorian and northern Peruvian Amazon suggest that human selection of different traits was particularly intense there. While acknowledging the need for further data collection, we believe that our results contribute new insights and tools to understand domestication and dispersal patterns of this important native staple, as well as to plan for its conservation.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phenotypic diversity", "data collection", "domestication events", "climate suitability", "selection pressures", "Bactris gasipaes Kunth", "chichagui", "phenotypic diversity data", "type", "Bactris gasipaes Peach palm", "Integrated Hypothesis", "Peruvian Amazon", "Central America", "Domesticated var gasipaes", "domestication event", "dispersal patterns", "amazonia"], "article_id"=>1622230, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Gea Galluzzi", "Dominique Dufour", "Evert Thomas", "Maarten van Zonneveld", "Andrés Felipe Escobar Salamanca", "Andrés Giraldo Toro", "Andrés Rivera", "Hector Salazar Duque", "Harold Suárez Baron", "Gerardo Gallego", "Xavier Scheldeman", "Alonso Gonzalez Mejia"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144644.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144644.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144644.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144644.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144644.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144644.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144644.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144644.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144644.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144644.s010"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/An_Integrated_Hypothesis_on_the_Domestication_of_Bactris_gasipaes_/1622230", "title"=>"An Integrated Hypothesis on the Domestication of <i>Bactris gasipaes</i>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-12-10 10:25:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2605050"], "description"=>"<p>The genetic data visualized is based on a spatial combination of the results from the present study and that of Hernández <i>et al</i>[<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0144644#pone.0144644.ref037\" target=\"_blank\">37</a>]. The blue, green and red polygons indicate areas of occurrence of different peach palm landraces (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0144644#sec010\" target=\"_blank\">discussion</a>) [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0144644#pone.0144644.ref020\" target=\"_blank\">20</a>]. Blue polygons enclose the mesocarpa landraces (20–75 gr) Rama (1), Útilis (2), Cauca (3), Pampa Hermosa (7), Tigre (8), Pastaza (9) and Inirida (10); green areas include the microcarpa landraces (< 20 gr) Tembe (4), Juruá (5) and Pará (6); and red polygons refer to the macrocarpa landraces (75–200 gr) Putumayo (including Solimões, 11) and Vaupés (12). Several LGM suitable areas are not visible as they graphically coincide with the extent of the circular neighbourboods of the genetic data. This is the case in particular for the circular neighborhoods overlapping with the polygons describing the distribution of the Pampa Hermosa and Tigre landraces.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phenotypic diversity", "data collection", "domestication events", "climate suitability", "selection pressures", "Bactris gasipaes Kunth", "chichagui", "phenotypic diversity data", "type", "Bactris gasipaes Peach palm", "Integrated Hypothesis", "Peruvian Amazon", "Central America", "Domesticated var gasipaes", "domestication event", "dispersal patterns", "amazonia"], "article_id"=>1622200, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Gea Galluzzi", "Dominique Dufour", "Evert Thomas", "Maarten van Zonneveld", "Andrés Felipe Escobar Salamanca", "Andrés Giraldo Toro", "Andrés Rivera", "Hector Salazar Duque", "Harold Suárez Baron", "Gerardo Gallego", "Xavier Scheldeman", "Alonso Gonzalez Mejia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144644.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_potential_LGM_refugia_of_peach_palm_green_areas_and_distribution_of_rescaled_locally_common_alleles_A_and_rescaled_allelic_richness_B_/1622200", "title"=>"Distribution of potential LGM refugia of peach palm (green areas) and distribution of rescaled locally common alleles (A) and rescaled allelic richness (B).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-10 10:25:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2605053"], "description"=>"<p>The suitable areas shown here largely correspond to the overall area for which the modelling ensemble predicts habitat suitability for at least 15 out of the 19 different future climate models considered.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phenotypic diversity", "data collection", "domestication events", "climate suitability", "selection pressures", "Bactris gasipaes Kunth", "chichagui", "phenotypic diversity data", "type", "Bactris gasipaes Peach palm", "Integrated Hypothesis", "Peruvian Amazon", "Central America", "Domesticated var gasipaes", "domestication event", "dispersal patterns", "amazonia"], "article_id"=>1622203, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Gea Galluzzi", "Dominique Dufour", "Evert Thomas", "Maarten van Zonneveld", "Andrés Felipe Escobar Salamanca", "Andrés Giraldo Toro", "Andrés Rivera", "Hector Salazar Duque", "Harold Suárez Baron", "Gerardo Gallego", "Xavier Scheldeman", "Alonso Gonzalez Mejia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144644.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Expected_changes_in_habitat_suitability_for_cultivated_Bactris_gasipaes_var_gasipaes_in_the_future_compared_with_hotspots_of_allelic_richness_based_on_a_combination_of_our_genetic_dataset_with_that_of_Hern_ndez_et_al_37_/1622203", "title"=>"Expected changes in habitat suitability for cultivated <i>Bactris gasipaes</i> var. <i>gasipaes</i> in the future compared with hotspots of allelic richness based on a combination of our genetic dataset with that of Hernández <i>et al</i> [37].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-10 10:25:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2605016"], "description"=>"<p>The points used only for modelling and gathered from sources other than this study are reported in blue and green, whereas the points referring to samples used in this study are shown in red or yellow, depending on the additional analyses carried out on each (genetic or phenotypic characterization). The red, blue and green polygons show the approximate distribution of <i>Bactris</i> wild types [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0144644#pone.0144644.ref020\" target=\"_blank\">20</a>]; the grey lines divide the different regions of Amazonia (NWA: north-western Amazonia, GS: Guyana shield, EA: eastern Amazonia, CA: central Amazonia, SA: southern Amazonia, SWA: south-western Amazonia; after [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0144644#pone.0144644.ref034\" target=\"_blank\">34</a>]).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phenotypic diversity", "data collection", "domestication events", "climate suitability", "selection pressures", "Bactris gasipaes Kunth", "chichagui", "phenotypic diversity data", "type", "Bactris gasipaes Peach palm", "Integrated Hypothesis", "Peruvian Amazon", "Central America", "Domesticated var gasipaes", "domestication event", "dispersal patterns", "amazonia"], "article_id"=>1622172, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Gea Galluzzi", "Dominique Dufour", "Evert Thomas", "Maarten van Zonneveld", "Andrés Felipe Escobar Salamanca", "Andrés Giraldo Toro", "Andrés Rivera", "Hector Salazar Duque", "Harold Suárez Baron", "Gerardo Gallego", "Xavier Scheldeman", "Alonso Gonzalez Mejia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144644.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_distribution_of_cultivated_Bactris_gasipaes_var_gasipaes_triangles_and_wild_var_chichagui_dots_peach_palm_observation_points_/1622172", "title"=>"The distribution of cultivated (<i>Bactris gasipaes</i> var. <i>gasipaes</i>, triangles) and wild (var. <i>chichagui</i>, dots) peach palm observation points.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-10 10:25:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2605018"], "description"=>"<p>As in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0144644#pone.0144644.g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 1</a>, green poins are the wild form (var. <i>chichagui</i>) and blue triangles are the cultivated form (var. <i>gasipaes</i>). The two components shown here explain 94% of the overall variation in the data. The polygon represents the convex hull area constructed around all var. <i>chichagui</i> points, extended with a 3% buffer of the largest hull axis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phenotypic diversity", "data collection", "domestication events", "climate suitability", "selection pressures", "Bactris gasipaes Kunth", "chichagui", "phenotypic diversity data", "type", "Bactris gasipaes Peach palm", "Integrated Hypothesis", "Peruvian Amazon", "Central America", "Domesticated var gasipaes", "domestication event", "dispersal patterns", "amazonia"], "article_id"=>1622174, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Gea Galluzzi", "Dominique Dufour", "Evert Thomas", "Maarten van Zonneveld", "Andrés Felipe Escobar Salamanca", "Andrés Giraldo Toro", "Andrés Rivera", "Hector Salazar Duque", "Harold Suárez Baron", "Gerardo Gallego", "Xavier Scheldeman", "Alonso Gonzalez Mejia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144644.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Principal_component_analysis_of_peach_palm_wild_var_chichagui_and_domesticated_var_gasipaes_populations_/1622174", "title"=>"Principal component analysis of peach palm wild (var. <i>chichagui</i>) and domesticated (var. <i>gasipaes</i>) populations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-10 10:25:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2605057"], "description"=>"<p><b>Dotted</b> polygons represent areas likely to be occupied by indigenous peoples (based on language maps from the Ethnologue database [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0144644#pone.0144644.ref047\" target=\"_blank\">47</a>]), suggesting sites where on-farm conservation may be already carried out by local communities or could be strengthened through their involvement.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phenotypic diversity", "data collection", "domestication events", "climate suitability", "selection pressures", "Bactris gasipaes Kunth", "chichagui", "phenotypic diversity data", "type", "Bactris gasipaes Peach palm", "Integrated Hypothesis", "Peruvian Amazon", "Central America", "Domesticated var gasipaes", "domestication event", "dispersal patterns", "amazonia"], "article_id"=>1622207, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Gea Galluzzi", "Dominique Dufour", "Evert Thomas", "Maarten van Zonneveld", "Andrés Felipe Escobar Salamanca", "Andrés Giraldo Toro", "Andrés Rivera", "Hector Salazar Duque", "Harold Suárez Baron", "Gerardo Gallego", "Xavier Scheldeman", "Alonso Gonzalez Mejia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144644.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Priorities_for_on_farm_conservation_of_areas_rich_in_genetic_and_phenotypic_diversity_and_likely_to_remain_suitable_so_in_the_future_in_red_and_yellow_respectively_/1622207", "title"=>"Priorities for on-farm conservation of areas rich in genetic and phenotypic diversity and likely to remain suitable so in the future (in red and yellow, respectively).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-10 10:25:11"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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