From Insect to Man: Photorhabdus Sheds Light on the Emergence of Human Pathogenicity
Publication Date
December 17, 2015
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Geraldine Mulley, Michael L. Beeton, Paul Wilkinson, Isabella Vlisidou, et al
Volume
10
Issue
12
Pages
e0144937
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144937
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0144937
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26681201
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4683029
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/26681201
Scopus
84956635399
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/insect-man-photorhabdus-sheds-light-emergence-human-pathogenicity
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"From insect to man: Photorhabdus sheds light on the emergence of human pathogenicity", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Geraldine", "last_name"=>"Mulley", "scopus_author_id"=>"36523742900"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael L.", "last_name"=>"Beeton", "scopus_author_id"=>"26634842800"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul", "last_name"=>"Wilkinson", "scopus_author_id"=>"35789366100"}, {"first_name"=>"Isabella", "last_name"=>"Vlisidou", "scopus_author_id"=>"10539638500"}, {"first_name"=>"Nina", "last_name"=>"Ockendon-Powell", "scopus_author_id"=>"57090915300"}, {"first_name"=>"Alexia", "last_name"=>"Hapeshi", "scopus_author_id"=>"36610161600"}, {"first_name"=>"Nick J.", "last_name"=>"Tobias", "scopus_author_id"=>"27968115300"}, {"first_name"=>"Friederike I.", "last_name"=>"Nollmann", "scopus_author_id"=>"55189997700"}, {"first_name"=>"Helge B.", "last_name"=>"Bode", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103361368"}, {"first_name"=>"Jean", "last_name"=>"Van Den Elsen", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602415576"}, {"first_name"=>"Richard H.", "last_name"=>"Ffrench-Constant", "scopus_author_id"=>"34975054200"}, {"first_name"=>"Nicholas R.", "last_name"=>"Waterfield", "scopus_author_id"=>"6601935218"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"608000992", "pmid"=>"26681201", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0144937", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84956635399", "sgr"=>"84956635399", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"288634cb-59ec-363f-9617-fdbfaf82defd", "abstract"=>"Photorhabdus are highly effective insect pathogenic bacteria that exist in a mutualistic relationship with Heterorhabditid nematodes. Unlike other members of the genus, Photorhabdus asymbiotica can also infect humans. Most Photorhabdus cannot replicate above 34°C, limiting their host-range to poikilothermic invertebrates. In contrast, P. asymbiotica must necessarily be able to replicate at 37°C or above. Many well-studied mammalian pathogens use the elevated temperature of their host as a signal to regulate the necessary changes in gene expression required for infection. Here we use RNA-seq, proteomics and phenotype microarrays to examine temperature dependent differences in transcription, translation and phenotype of P. asymbiotica at 28°C versus 37°C, relevant to the insect or human hosts respectively. Our findings reveal relatively few temperature dependant differences in gene expression. There is however a striking difference in metabolism at 37°C, with a significant reduction in the range of carbon and nitrogen sources that otherwise support respiration at 28°C. We propose that the key adaptation that enables P. asymbiotica to infect humans is to aggressively acquire amino acids, peptides and other nutrients from the human host, employing a so called \"nutritional virulence\" strategy. This would simultaneously cripple the host immune response while providing nutrients sufficient for reproduction. This might explain the severity of ulcerated lesions observed in clinical cases of Photorhabdosis. Furthermore, while P. asymbiotica can invade mammalian cells they must also resist immediate killing by humoral immunity components in serum. We observed an increase in the production of the insect Phenol-oxidase inhibitor Rhabduscin normally deployed to inhibit the melanisation immune cascade. Crucially we demonstrated this molecule also facilitates protection against killing by the alternative human complement pathway.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/insect-man-photorhabdus-sheds-light-emergence-human-pathogenicity", "reader_count"=>20, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>2, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>2, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>10, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>10}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}}, "group_count"=>3}

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84956635399"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84956635399?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84956635399&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84956635399&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84956635399", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84956635399", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84956635399", "dc:title"=>"From insect to man: Photorhabdus sheds light on the emergence of human pathogenicity", "dc:creator"=>"Mulley G.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS ONE", "prism:eIssn"=>"19326203", "prism:volume"=>"10", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"12", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2015-12-01", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"1 December 2015", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0144937", "citedby-count"=>"9", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"University of Reading", "affiliation-city"=>"Reading", "affiliation-country"=>"United Kingdom"}], "pubmed-id"=>"26681201", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e0144937", "source-id"=>"10600153309", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosone%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pone.0144937", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Counter

  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"27", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"84"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"33", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"109"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"101"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"59"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"19", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"44"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"50"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"44"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"7", "html_views"=>"55"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"44"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"7", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"60"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"93"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"113"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"4", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610884"], "description"=>"<p>The optical density achieved by representative strains after overnight growth in static conditions (at 28°C in LB medium) after prior 18 h exposure to a range of temperatures. A range of clinical (N. American and Australian) and non-clinical (European) strains of <i>P</i>. <i>asymbiotica (Pa)</i> were tested, and the well-studied <i>P</i>. <i>luminescens</i> strain (<i>Pl</i><sup>TT01</sup>) was included for comparison. Green stars and red diamonds indicate thermal tolerance and intolerance respectively. <i>Pa</i> strain designations are indicated as superscripts.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["human", "gene expression", "host", "temperature dependant differences", "humoral immunity components", "asymbiotica", "Photorhabdus Sheds Light", "phenotype", "Human Pathogenicity Photorhabdus", "nutrient"], "article_id"=>1626384, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Geraldine Mulley", "Michael L. Beeton", "Paul Wilkinson", "Isabella Vlisidou", "Nina Ockendon-Powell", "Alexia Hapeshi", "Nick J. Tobias", "Friederike I. Nollmann", "Helge B. Bode", "Jean van den Elsen", "Richard H. ffrench-Constant", "Nicholas R. Waterfield"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144937.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Clinical_Photorhabdus_isolates_are_able_to_survive_exposure_to_higher_temperatures_than_most_non_clinical_isolates_/1626384", "title"=>"Clinical <i>Photorhabdus</i> isolates are able to survive exposure to higher temperatures than most non-clinical isolates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-18 11:22:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610886"], "description"=>"<p>An Artemis view of mapped RNA-seq data showing higher transcription of the <i>prtA</i> gene at 37°C compared to 28°C. A slight increase is also seen in the associated ABC transporter genes, <i>prtBCD</i>, and the predicted inhibitor gene <i>inh</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["human", "gene expression", "host", "temperature dependant differences", "humoral immunity components", "asymbiotica", "Photorhabdus Sheds Light", "phenotype", "Human Pathogenicity Photorhabdus", "nutrient"], "article_id"=>1626386, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Geraldine Mulley", "Michael L. Beeton", "Paul Wilkinson", "Isabella Vlisidou", "Nina Ockendon-Powell", "Alexia Hapeshi", "Nick J. Tobias", "Friederike I. Nollmann", "Helge B. Bode", "Jean van den Elsen", "Richard H. ffrench-Constant", "Nicholas R. Waterfield"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144937.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_secreted_metalloprotease_PrtA_is_one_of_the_most_highly_up_regulated_genes_at_37_176_C_/1626386", "title"=>"The secreted metalloprotease PrtA is one of the most highly up regulated genes at 37°C.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-18 11:22:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610888"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Artemis views of the RNA-seq reads of the three replicates mapped onto the <i>Pa</i><sup>ATCC43949</sup> operons responsible for rhabduscin synthesis. The <i>isnAB</i> genes are responsible for synthesis of the aglycon precursor shown above the left panel. The PAU_02755–7 genes encode glycosidase enzymes that add the sugar groups to produce the final rhabduscin molecule. Note PAU_02756 is unique to the <i>P</i>. <i>asymbiotica</i> (replaced by a transposase in <i>Pl</i><sup>TT01</sup>) and so the final <i>Pa</i><sup>ATCC43949</sup> rhabduscin structure from <i>Pa</i><sup>ATCC43949</sup> may not be the same as that shown from <i>Pl</i><sup>TT01</sup> (above the right panel). (B) The purified aglycon precursor of rhabduscin (shown above the key) is able to completely inhibit the human alternative complement pathway. (C) Cell free supernatants from <i>Pa</i><sup>ATCC43949</sup> (PaATCC43949), <i>Pa</i><sup>Kingscliff</sup> (Pa Kc) and <i>Pl</i><sup>TT01</sup> (Pl TT01) can all inhibit the human alternative complement pathway (AP). Note the classical (CP) is only partially inhibited, while LB alone also inhibits the Maltose binding lectin (MBLP) pathway to some extent.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["human", "gene expression", "host", "temperature dependant differences", "humoral immunity components", "asymbiotica", "Photorhabdus Sheds Light", "phenotype", "Human Pathogenicity Photorhabdus", "nutrient"], "article_id"=>1626388, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Geraldine Mulley", "Michael L. Beeton", "Paul Wilkinson", "Isabella Vlisidou", "Nina Ockendon-Powell", "Alexia Hapeshi", "Nick J. Tobias", "Friederike I. Nollmann", "Helge B. Bode", "Jean van den Elsen", "Richard H. ffrench-Constant", "Nicholas R. Waterfield"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144937.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_expression_and_function_of_the_Photorhabdus_natural_product_rhabduscin_/1626388", "title"=>"The expression and function of the <i>Photorhabdus</i> natural product rhabduscin.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-18 11:22:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610891"], "description"=>"<p>This model is predicted by integrating data from the RNA-seq, proteomics and phenotype microarray studies. Intermediates (boxes) and pathways (arrows) predicted to be down regulated at 37°C are in red while those up regulated are in green. Data suggests TCA cycle intermediates (back boxes) would be relatively isolated from glutamate/asparagine metabolism and could be maintained via the conversion of L-serine into citrate via pyruvate. Black arrows indicate certain potential enzyme pathways that are present and predicted to be unchanged at 37°C. The data suggests a central role for imported peptides and amino acids in metabolism at 37°C. Opp/Dpp represent oligo- and di-peptide importers, TCT represents tricarboxylic acid and PEP is Phosphoenolpyruvate.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["human", "gene expression", "host", "temperature dependant differences", "humoral immunity components", "asymbiotica", "Photorhabdus Sheds Light", "phenotype", "Human Pathogenicity Photorhabdus", "nutrient"], "article_id"=>1626391, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Geraldine Mulley", "Michael L. Beeton", "Paul Wilkinson", "Isabella Vlisidou", "Nina Ockendon-Powell", "Alexia Hapeshi", "Nick J. Tobias", "Friederike I. Nollmann", "Helge B. Bode", "Jean van den Elsen", "Richard H. ffrench-Constant", "Nicholas R. Waterfield"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144937.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_schematic_summarising_some_key_differences_in_metabolism_at_37_176_C_compared_to_28_176_C_centred_on_glutamate_asparagine_metabolism_and_the_TCA_cycle_/1626391", "title"=>"A schematic summarising some key differences in metabolism at 37°C compared to 28°C, centred on glutamate/asparagine metabolism and the TCA cycle.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-18 11:22:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610917", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610918", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610919", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610920", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610921", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610922", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610923", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610924", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610925", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610926", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610927", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610928", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610929", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610930", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610931", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610932", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610933", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610934", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610935", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610936", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610937", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610938", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610939", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610940", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610941", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610942", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610943", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610944"], "description"=>"<div><p><i>Photorhabdus</i> are highly effective insect pathogenic bacteria that exist in a mutualistic relationship with Heterorhabditid nematodes. Unlike other members of the genus, <i>Photorhabdus asymbiotica</i> can also infect humans. Most <i>Photorhabdus</i> cannot replicate above 34°C, limiting their host-range to poikilothermic invertebrates. In contrast, <i>P</i>. <i>asymbiotica</i> must necessarily be able to replicate at 37°C or above. Many well-studied mammalian pathogens use the elevated temperature of their host as a signal to regulate the necessary changes in gene expression required for infection. Here we use RNA-seq, proteomics and phenotype microarrays to examine temperature dependent differences in transcription, translation and phenotype of <i>P</i>. <i>asymbiotica</i> at 28°C versus 37°C, relevant to the insect or human hosts respectively. Our findings reveal relatively few temperature dependant differences in gene expression. There is however a striking difference in metabolism at 37°C, with a significant reduction in the range of carbon and nitrogen sources that otherwise support respiration at 28°C. We propose that the key adaptation that enables <i>P</i>. <i>asymbiotica</i> to infect humans is to aggressively acquire amino acids, peptides and other nutrients from the human host, employing a so called “nutritional virulence” strategy. This would simultaneously cripple the host immune response while providing nutrients sufficient for reproduction. This might explain the severity of ulcerated lesions observed in clinical cases of Photorhabdosis. Furthermore, while <i>P</i>. <i>asymbiotica</i> can invade mammalian cells they must also resist immediate killing by humoral immunity components in serum. We observed an increase in the production of the insect Phenol-oxidase inhibitor Rhabduscin normally deployed to inhibit the melanisation immune cascade. Crucially we demonstrated this molecule also facilitates protection against killing by the alternative human complement pathway.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["human", "gene expression", "host", "temperature dependant differences", "humoral immunity components", "asymbiotica", "Photorhabdus Sheds Light", "phenotype", "Human Pathogenicity Photorhabdus", "nutrient"], "article_id"=>1626412, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Geraldine Mulley", "Michael L. Beeton", "Paul Wilkinson", "Isabella Vlisidou", "Nina Ockendon-Powell", "Alexia Hapeshi", "Nick J. Tobias", "Friederike I. Nollmann", "Helge B. Bode", "Jean van den Elsen", "Richard H. ffrench-Constant", "Nicholas R. Waterfield"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144937.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144937.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144937.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144937.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144937.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144937.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144937.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144937.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144937.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144937.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144937.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144937.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144937.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144937.s014", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144937.s015", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144937.s016", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144937.s017", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144937.s018", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144937.s019", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144937.s020", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144937.s021", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144937.s022", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144937.s023", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144937.s024", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144937.s025", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144937.s026", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144937.s027", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144937.s028"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>28, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/From_Insect_to_Man_Photorhabdus_Sheds_Light_on_the_Emergence_of_Human_Pathogenicity/1626412", "title"=>"From Insect to Man: <i>Photorhabdus</i> Sheds Light on the Emergence of Human Pathogenicity", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-12-18 11:22:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2610882"], "description"=>"<p>A stylized representation of a previous six gene MLST phylogeny (<i>adk</i>, <i>ghd</i>, <i>mdk</i>, <i>ndh</i>, <i>pgm</i> and <i>recA</i>) of <i>Photorhabdus</i> (adapted from [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0144937#pone.0144937.ref005\" target=\"_blank\">5</a>]) is shown. The grey areas indicate species that consist of multiple strains, the majority of which are unable to grow above 34°C, with only a few <i>P</i>. <i>luminescens</i> strains capable of growth at temperatures up to 37°C. Example strains are <i>P</i>. <i>luminescens</i><sup>TT01</sup> and <i>P</i>. <i>temperata</i><sup>K122</sup>. The clinical strains adapted to 37°C are boxed. The stars and circles indicate the potential historical timing of temperature adaptation, which could have occurred ancestrally (star) or independently (circles) in different geographical isolates.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["human", "gene expression", "host", "temperature dependant differences", "humoral immunity components", "asymbiotica", "Photorhabdus Sheds Light", "phenotype", "Human Pathogenicity Photorhabdus", "nutrient"], "article_id"=>1626382, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Geraldine Mulley", "Michael L. Beeton", "Paul Wilkinson", "Isabella Vlisidou", "Nina Ockendon-Powell", "Alexia Hapeshi", "Nick J. Tobias", "Friederike I. Nollmann", "Helge B. Bode", "Jean van den Elsen", "Richard H. ffrench-Constant", "Nicholas R. Waterfield"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144937.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_genus_Photorhabdus_contains_three_predominant_species_/1626382", "title"=>"The genus <i>Photorhabdus</i> contains three predominant species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-12-18 11:22:08"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"60", "full-text"=>"52", "pdf"=>"19", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"20", "supp-data"=>"75", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"51", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"200", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"405", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"11", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"28", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"24", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts