Regional-Scale Declines in Productivity of Pink and Chum Salmon Stocks in Western North America
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{"title"=>"Regional-scale declines in productivity of pink and chum salmon stocks in western North America", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Michael J.", "last_name"=>"Malick", "scopus_author_id"=>"37101939900"}, {"first_name"=>"Sean P.", "last_name"=>"Cox", "scopus_author_id"=>"7401456247"}], "year"=>2016, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"607808516", "pmid"=>"26760510", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0146009", "issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84955279053", "sgr"=>"84955279053", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"05f0e75b-2922-3b51-961c-53fe319f9a87", "abstract"=>"Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) stocks throughout the southern part of their North American range have experienced declines in productivity over the past two decades. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) salmon stocks have also experienced recent declines in productivity by investigating temporal and spatial trends in productivity of 99 wild North American pink and chum salmon stocks. We used a combination of population dynamics and time series models to quantify individual stock trends as well as common temporal trends in pink and chum salmon productivity across local, regional, and continental spatial scales. Our results indicated widespread declines in productivity of wild chum salmon stocks throughout Washington (WA) and British Columbia (BC) with 81% of stocks showing recent declines in productivity, although the exact form of the trends varied among regions. For pink salmon, the majority of stocks in WA and BC (65%) did not have strong temporal trends in productivity; however, all stocks that did have trends in productivity showed declining productivity since at least brood year 1996. We found weaker evidence of widespread declines in productivity for Alaska pink and chum salmon, with some regions and stocks showing declines in productivity (e.g., Kodiak chum salmon stocks) and others showing increases (e.g., Alaska Peninsula pink salmon stocks). We also found strong positive covariation between stock productivity series at the regional spatial scale for both pink and chum salmon, along with evidence that this regional-scale positive covariation has become stronger since the early 1990s in WA and BC. In general, our results suggest that common processes operating at the regional or multi-regional spatial scales drive productivity of pink and chum salmon stocks in western North America and that the effects of these process on productivity may change over time.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/regionalscale-declines-productivity-pink-chum-salmon-stocks-western-north-america", "reader_count"=>28, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>9, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>15, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>15}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>9}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "United States"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2627232"], "description"=>"<p>Each time series shows the smoothed <i>α</i><sub><i>t</i></sub> estimates from the Kalman filter model where each series is standardized to a mean of 0 and standard deviation of 1. The ordinate gives the stock, which are arranged south (bottom) to north (top) and grouped by geographic region. The area of the circle indicates the magnitude of the productivity values. Open circles represent negative values (red) and filled circles indicate positive values (blue). Small solid grey dots indicate zero values, whereas missing values are not shown.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["wa", "bc", "trend", "chum salmon", "brood year 1996.", "Chum Salmon Stocks", "chum salmon productivity", "decline", "stock productivity series", "scales drive productivity", "salmon stocks", "North American range", "time series models", "Western North America Sockeye salmon"], "article_id"=>1637377, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael J. Malick", "Sean P. Cox"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146009.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pink_salmon_productivity_time_series_from_the_Kalman_filter_models_/1637377", "title"=>"Pink salmon productivity time series from the Kalman filter models.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-18 15:33:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2627233"], "description"=>"<p>(a) The first (solid line) and second (dashed line) common productivity trends and (b) stock specific loadings for the first (solid horizontal bars) and second (dashed horizontal bars) common trends. In the bottom panel, stocks are ordered south (bottom) to north (top) and are grouped by geographic region.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["wa", "bc", "trend", "chum salmon", "brood year 1996.", "Chum Salmon Stocks", "chum salmon productivity", "decline", "stock productivity series", "scales drive productivity", "salmon stocks", "North American range", "time series models", "Western North America Sockeye salmon"], "article_id"=>1637378, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael J. Malick", "Sean P. Cox"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146009.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Chum_salmon_common_productivity_trends_from_the_best_fit_dynamic_factor_analysis_model_/1637378", "title"=>"Chum salmon common productivity trends from the best fit dynamic factor analysis model.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-18 15:33:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2627234"], "description"=>"<p>(a) the single pink salmon common trend and (b) the stock specific loadings for the single common trend. In the bottom panel, stocks are ordered south (bottom) to north (top) and are grouped by geographic region.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["wa", "bc", "trend", "chum salmon", "brood year 1996.", "Chum Salmon Stocks", "chum salmon productivity", "decline", "stock productivity series", "scales drive productivity", "salmon stocks", "North American range", "time series models", "Western North America Sockeye salmon"], "article_id"=>1637379, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael J. Malick", "Sean P. Cox"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146009.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pink_salmon_common_productivity_trend_from_the_best_fit_dynamic_factor_analysis_model_/1637379", "title"=>"Pink salmon common productivity trend from the best fit dynamic factor analysis model.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-18 15:33:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2627235"], "description"=>"<p>(a) between-stock correlation coefficients calculated using all available brood years, (b) correlations for brood years 1950–1990, and (c) correlations for brood years 1991–2007. The magnitude of the between-stock correlation is given by the area of the circle with larger circles representing larger correlations than smaller circles. Negative correlations between stocks are shown as open circles (red) and positive correlations are shown as filled circles (blue). Stocks are grouped by geographic region, which are arranged south (bottom, left) to north (top, right).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["wa", "bc", "trend", "chum salmon", "brood year 1996.", "Chum Salmon Stocks", "chum salmon productivity", "decline", "stock productivity series", "scales drive productivity", "salmon stocks", "North American range", "time series models", "Western North America Sockeye salmon"], "article_id"=>1637380, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael J. Malick", "Sean P. Cox"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146009.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pairwise_correlation_coefficients_between_chum_salmon_stock_residual_productivity_time_series_for_three_time_period_/1637380", "title"=>"Pairwise correlation coefficients between chum salmon stock residual productivity time series for three time period.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-18 15:33:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2627237"], "description"=>"<p>(a) between-stock correlation coefficients calculated using all available brood years, (b) correlations for brood years 1950–1990, and (c) correlations for brood years 1991–2009. The magnitude of the between-stock correlation is given by the area of the circle with larger circles representing larger correlations than smaller circles. Negative correlations between stocks are shown as open circles (red) and positive correlations are shown as filled circles (blue). Stocks are grouped by geographic region, which are arranged south (bottom, left) to north (top, right).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["wa", "bc", "trend", "chum salmon", "brood year 1996.", "Chum Salmon Stocks", "chum salmon productivity", "decline", "stock productivity series", "scales drive productivity", "salmon stocks", "North American range", "time series models", "Western North America Sockeye salmon"], "article_id"=>1637382, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael J. Malick", "Sean P. Cox"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146009.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pairwise_correlation_coefficients_between_pink_salmon_stock_residual_productivity_time_series_for_three_time_period_/1637382", "title"=>"Pairwise correlation coefficients between pink salmon stock residual productivity time series for three time period.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-18 15:33:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2627239", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2627240", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2627241", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2627242", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2627243", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2627244", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2627245", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2627246", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2627247", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2627248"], "description"=>"<div><p>Sockeye salmon (<i>Oncorhynchus nerka</i>) stocks throughout the southern part of their North American range have experienced declines in productivity over the past two decades. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that pink (<i>O</i>. <i>gorbuscha</i>) and chum (<i>O</i>. <i>keta</i>) salmon stocks have also experienced recent declines in productivity by investigating temporal and spatial trends in productivity of 99 wild North American pink and chum salmon stocks. We used a combination of population dynamics and time series models to quantify individual stock trends as well as common temporal trends in pink and chum salmon productivity across local, regional, and continental spatial scales. Our results indicated widespread declines in productivity of wild chum salmon stocks throughout Washington (WA) and British Columbia (BC) with 81% of stocks showing recent declines in productivity, although the exact form of the trends varied among regions. For pink salmon, the majority of stocks in WA and BC (65%) did not have strong temporal trends in productivity; however, all stocks that did have trends in productivity showed declining productivity since at least brood year 1996. We found weaker evidence of widespread declines in productivity for Alaska pink and chum salmon, with some regions and stocks showing declines in productivity (e.g., Kodiak chum salmon stocks) and others showing increases (e.g., Alaska Peninsula pink salmon stocks). We also found strong positive covariation between stock productivity series at the regional spatial scale for both pink and chum salmon, along with evidence that this regional-scale positive covariation has become stronger since the early 1990s in WA and BC. In general, our results suggest that common processes operating at the regional or multi-regional spatial scales drive productivity of pink and chum salmon stocks in western North America and that the effects of these process on productivity may change over time.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["wa", "bc", "trend", "chum salmon", "brood year 1996.", "Chum Salmon Stocks", "chum salmon productivity", "decline", "stock productivity series", "scales drive productivity", "salmon stocks", "North American range", "time series models", "Western North America Sockeye salmon"], "article_id"=>1637384, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Michael J. Malick", "Sean P. Cox"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146009.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146009.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146009.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146009.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146009.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146009.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146009.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146009.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146009.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146009.s010"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>12, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Regional_Scale_Declines_in_Productivity_of_Pink_and_Chum_Salmon_Stocks_in_Western_North_America_/1637384", "title"=>"Regional-Scale Declines in Productivity of Pink and Chum Salmon Stocks in Western North America", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2016-01-18 15:33:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2627229"], "description"=>"<p>The 14 geographical regions are separated by dotted lines and the number of pink salmon and chum salmon stocks within a region are given by the numbers inside the circles (pink salmon) and squares (chum salmon). Map data from <a href=\"http://www.naturalearthdata.com/\" target=\"_blank\">http://www.naturalearthdata.com</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["wa", "bc", "trend", "chum salmon", "brood year 1996.", "Chum Salmon Stocks", "chum salmon productivity", "decline", "stock productivity series", "scales drive productivity", "salmon stocks", "North American range", "time series models", "Western North America Sockeye salmon"], "article_id"=>1637374, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Michael J. Malick", "Sean P. Cox"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146009.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Study_area_showing_the_unique_ocean_entry_locations_for_each_salmon_stock_solid_dots_/1637374", "title"=>"Study area showing the unique ocean entry locations for each salmon stock (solid dots).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-18 15:33:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2627230"], "description"=>"<p>Each time series shows the smoothed <i>α</i><sub><i>t</i></sub> estimates from the Kalman filter model where each series is standardized to a mean of 0 and standard deviation of 1. The ordinate gives the stock, which are arranged south (bottom) to north (top) and grouped by geographic region. The area of the circle indicates the magnitude of the productivity values. Open circles represent negative values (red) and filled circles indicate positive values (blue). Small solid grey dots indicate zero values, whereas missing values are not shown.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["wa", "bc", "trend", "chum salmon", "brood year 1996.", "Chum Salmon Stocks", "chum salmon productivity", "decline", "stock productivity series", "scales drive productivity", "salmon stocks", "North American range", "time series models", "Western North America Sockeye salmon"], "article_id"=>1637375, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Michael J. Malick", "Sean P. Cox"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146009.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Chum_salmon_productivity_time_series_from_the_Kalman_filter_models_/1637375", "title"=>"Chum salmon productivity time series from the Kalman filter models.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-18 15:33:34"}

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{"start_date"=>"2016-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2016-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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