The Frequency of Rapid Pupil Dilations as a Measure of Linguistic Processing Difficulty
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{"title"=>"The frequency of rapid pupil dilations as a measure of linguistic processing difficulty", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Vera", "last_name"=>"Demberg", "scopus_author_id"=>"25228475800"}, {"first_name"=>"Asad", "last_name"=>"Sayeed", "scopus_author_id"=>"25925461500"}], "year"=>2016, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"1932-6203", "sgr"=>"84958225614", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84958225614", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"608240209", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0146194", "pmid"=>"26799065"}, "id"=>"b903485c-3c1b-38e4-bd4e-c5ce38fba230", "abstract"=>"While it has long been known that the pupil reacts to cognitive load, pupil size has received little attention in cognitive research because of its long latency and the difficulty of separating effects of cognitive load from the light reflex or effects due to eye movements. A novel measure, the Index of Cognitive Activity (ICA), relates cognitive effort to the frequency of small rapid dilations of the pupil. We report here on a total of seven experiments which test whether the ICA reliably indexes linguistically induced cognitive load: three experiments in reading (a manipulation of grammatical gender match / mismatch, an experiment of semantic fit, and an experiment comparing locally ambiguous subject versus object relative clauses, all in German), three dual-task experiments with simultaneous driving and spoken language comprehension (using the same manipulations as in the single-task reading experiments), and a visual world experiment comparing the processing of causal versus concessive discourse markers. These experiments are the first to investigate the effect and time course of the ICA in language processing. All of our experiments support the idea that the ICA indexes linguistic processing difficulty. The effects of our linguistic manipulations on the ICA are consistent for reading and auditory presentation. Furthermore, our experiments show that the ICA allows for usage within a multi-task paradigm. Its robustness with respect to eye movements means that it is a valid measure of processing difficulty for usage within the visual world paradigm, which will allow researchers to assess both visual attention and processing difficulty at the same time, using an eye-tracker. We argue that the ICA is indicative of activity in the locus caeruleus area of the brain stem, which has recently also been linked to P600 effects observed in psycholinguistic EEG experiments.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/frequency-rapid-pupil-dilations-measure-linguistic-processing-difficulty", "reader_count"=>56, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>24, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>12, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>24, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1, "Philosophy"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>4, "Engineering"=>6, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Neuroscience"=>5, "Psychology"=>13, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Linguistics"=>17}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>13}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>6}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>5}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>4}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>17}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Luxembourg"=>1, "Germany"=>3, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2632535"], "description"=>"<p>Critical region onset for the experiment is located at word number 0; the grey bar marks the hypothesised critical region of 500ms, peaking at 1s. The difference between conditions in this region is significant at <i>p</i> < 0.05 on both eyes, see also <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0146194#pone.0146194.t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Rapid Pupil Dilations", "processing difficulty", "Linguistic Processing Difficulty", "eye movements", "psycholinguistic EEG experiments", "concessive discourse markers", "P 600 effects", "ica", "locus caeruleus area"], "article_id"=>1641056, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Vera Demberg", "Asad Sayeed"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146194.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Raw_ICA_for_the_grammatical_gender_violation_experiment_/1641056", "title"=>"Raw ICA for the grammatical gender violation experiment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-28 12:40:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2632536"], "description"=>"<p>The critical region is located at word number 0.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Rapid Pupil Dilations", "processing difficulty", "Linguistic Processing Difficulty", "eye movements", "psycholinguistic EEG experiments", "concessive discourse markers", "P 600 effects", "ica", "locus caeruleus area"], "article_id"=>1641057, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Vera Demberg", "Asad Sayeed"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146194.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Self_paced_reading_times_for_the_semantic_anomaly_experiment_/1641057", "title"=>"Self-paced reading times for the semantic anomaly experiment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-28 12:40:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2632537"], "description"=>"<p>Critical region onset for the experiment is located at word number 0; the grey bar marks the region of 500ms, peaking at 1s. The difference between conditions is significant at <i>p</i> < 0.001 for the left eye and <i>p</i> < 0.01 for the right eye, see also <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0146194#pone.0146194.t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Rapid Pupil Dilations", "processing difficulty", "Linguistic Processing Difficulty", "eye movements", "psycholinguistic EEG experiments", "concessive discourse markers", "P 600 effects", "ica", "locus caeruleus area"], "article_id"=>1641058, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Vera Demberg", "Asad Sayeed"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146194.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Raw_ICA_for_the_semantic_fit_experiment_/1641058", "title"=>"Raw ICA for the semantic fit experiment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-28 12:40:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2632538"], "description"=>"<p>Critical region <i>hat/haben</i> is located at word number 0. Extremely slow reading times in the ORC case are reflective of the high difficulty in this condition.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Rapid Pupil Dilations", "processing difficulty", "Linguistic Processing Difficulty", "eye movements", "psycholinguistic EEG experiments", "concessive discourse markers", "P 600 effects", "ica", "locus caeruleus area"], "article_id"=>1641059, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Vera Demberg", "Asad Sayeed"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146194.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Self_paced_reading_times_for_the_RC_Experiment_/1641059", "title"=>"Self-paced reading times for the RC Experiment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-28 12:40:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2632539"], "description"=>"<p>Critical region onset for the experiment is located at word number 0; the grey bar marks the hypothesized critical region of 500ms, peaking at 1s. For details, see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0146194#pone.0146194.t003\" target=\"_blank\">Table 3</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Rapid Pupil Dilations", "processing difficulty", "Linguistic Processing Difficulty", "eye movements", "psycholinguistic EEG experiments", "concessive discourse markers", "P 600 effects", "ica", "locus caeruleus area"], "article_id"=>1641060, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Vera Demberg", "Asad Sayeed"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146194.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Raw_ICA_for_the_relative_clause_experiment_/1641060", "title"=>"Raw ICA for the relative clause experiment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-28 12:40:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2632540"], "description"=>"<p>Cross-correlation values for the reference bar (top plots) and steering bar (bottom plots) with the ICA of the left eye (left plots) and right eye (right plots). Dashed lines indicate 95%CIs. The periodicity in the cross-correlation plot is due to the periodicity of the steering task. We can see that the correlation of the ICA is higher for steering (i.e. the driver’s own reaction) than for the reference bar (i.e., the stimulus).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Rapid Pupil Dilations", "processing difficulty", "Linguistic Processing Difficulty", "eye movements", "psycholinguistic EEG experiments", "concessive discourse markers", "P 600 effects", "ica", "locus caeruleus area"], "article_id"=>1641061, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Vera Demberg", "Asad Sayeed"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146194.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cross_correlations_for_the_ICA_with_the_reference_bar_and_the_steering_bar_respectively_/1641061", "title"=>"Cross-correlations for the ICA with the reference bar and the steering bar, respectively.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-28 12:40:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2632541"], "description"=>"<p>Critical region onset for the experiment is located at word number 0; the grey bar marks the region of 500ms, peaking at 1s. The difference between conditions was statistically significant, see also <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0146194#pone.0146194.t005\" target=\"_blank\">Table 5</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Rapid Pupil Dilations", "processing difficulty", "Linguistic Processing Difficulty", "eye movements", "psycholinguistic EEG experiments", "concessive discourse markers", "P 600 effects", "ica", "locus caeruleus area"], "article_id"=>1641062, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Vera Demberg", "Asad Sayeed"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146194.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Raw_ICA_for_the_dual_task_grammatical_gender_violation_experiment_/1641062", "title"=>"Raw ICA for the dual-task grammatical gender violation experiment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-28 12:40:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2632542"], "description"=>"<p>Critical region onset for the experiment is located at word number 0; the grey bar marks the critical region of 500ms, peaking at 1s. Differences between conditions are not statistically significant for this region. However, there is an earlier significant effect for the 500ms time window peaking at 700ms after word onset (indicated here by dashed vertical bars); see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0146194#pone.0146194.t006\" target=\"_blank\">Table 6</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Rapid Pupil Dilations", "processing difficulty", "Linguistic Processing Difficulty", "eye movements", "psycholinguistic EEG experiments", "concessive discourse markers", "P 600 effects", "ica", "locus caeruleus area"], "article_id"=>1641063, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Vera Demberg", "Asad Sayeed"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146194.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Raw_ICA_for_the_dual_task_semantic_violation_experiment_/1641063", "title"=>"Raw ICA for the dual-task semantic violation experiment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-28 12:40:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2632543"], "description"=>"<p>Critical region onset for the experiment is located at word number 0; the gray bar marks the hypothesized critical region of 500ms, peaking at 1s. The differences between the conditions are statistically significant at <i>p</i> < 0.05 for both eyes; see also <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0146194#pone.0146194.t007\" target=\"_blank\">Table 7</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Rapid Pupil Dilations", "processing difficulty", "Linguistic Processing Difficulty", "eye movements", "psycholinguistic EEG experiments", "concessive discourse markers", "P 600 effects", "ica", "locus caeruleus area"], "article_id"=>1641064, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Vera Demberg", "Asad Sayeed"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146194.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Raw_ICA_for_the_dual_task_relative_clause_experiment_/1641064", "title"=>"Raw ICA for the dual-task relative clause experiment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-28 12:40:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2632544"], "description"=>"<p>Critical region onset for the experiment is located at word number 0. The grey bar marks the hypothesized critical region of 500ms, peaking at 1s. See also Tables <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0146194#pone.0146194.t008\" target=\"_blank\">8</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0146194#pone.0146194.t009\" target=\"_blank\">9</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Rapid Pupil Dilations", "processing difficulty", "Linguistic Processing Difficulty", "eye movements", "psycholinguistic EEG experiments", "concessive discourse markers", "P 600 effects", "ica", "locus caeruleus area"], "article_id"=>1641065, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Vera Demberg", "Asad Sayeed"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146194.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Raw_ICA_for_the_connective_region_of_the_visual_world_experiment_/1641065", "title"=>"Raw ICA for the connective region of the visual world experiment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-28 12:40:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2632545", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2632546", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2632547", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2632548"], "description"=>"<div><p>While it has long been known that the pupil reacts to cognitive load, pupil size has received little attention in cognitive research because of its long latency and the difficulty of separating effects of cognitive load from the light reflex or effects due to eye movements. A novel measure, the Index of Cognitive Activity (ICA), relates cognitive effort to the frequency of small rapid dilations of the pupil. We report here on a total of seven experiments which test whether the ICA reliably indexes linguistically induced cognitive load: three experiments in reading (a manipulation of grammatical gender match / mismatch, an experiment of semantic fit, and an experiment comparing locally ambiguous subject versus object relative clauses, all in German), three dual-task experiments with simultaneous driving and spoken language comprehension (using the same manipulations as in the single-task reading experiments), and a visual world experiment comparing the processing of causal versus concessive discourse markers. These experiments are the first to investigate the effect and time course of the ICA in language processing. All of our experiments support the idea that the ICA indexes linguistic processing difficulty. The effects of our linguistic manipulations on the ICA are consistent for reading and auditory presentation. Furthermore, our experiments show that the ICA allows for usage within a multi-task paradigm. Its robustness with respect to eye movements means that it is a valid measure of processing difficulty for usage within the visual world paradigm, which will allow researchers to assess both visual attention and processing difficulty at the same time, using an eye-tracker. We argue that the ICA is indicative of activity in the locus caeruleus area of the brain stem, which has recently also been linked to P600 effects observed in psycholinguistic EEG experiments.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Rapid Pupil Dilations", "processing difficulty", "Linguistic Processing Difficulty", "eye movements", "psycholinguistic EEG experiments", "concessive discourse markers", "P 600 effects", "ica", "locus caeruleus area"], "article_id"=>1641066, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Vera Demberg", "Asad Sayeed"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146194.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146194.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146194.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146194.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Frequency_of_Rapid_Pupil_Dilations_as_a_Measure_of_Linguistic_Processing_Difficulty_/1641066", "title"=>"The Frequency of Rapid Pupil Dilations as a Measure of Linguistic Processing Difficulty", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2016-01-28 12:40:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2632533"], "description"=>"<p>An example of a pupil size recording from our experiment, showing time points of where a rapid dilation was detected according to the ICA software (red triangles).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Rapid Pupil Dilations", "processing difficulty", "Linguistic Processing Difficulty", "eye movements", "psycholinguistic EEG experiments", "concessive discourse markers", "P 600 effects", "ica", "locus caeruleus area"], "article_id"=>1641054, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Vera Demberg", "Asad Sayeed"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146194.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_An_example_of_a_pupil_size_recording_from_our_experiment_showing_time_points_of_where_a_rapid_dilation_was_detected_according_to_the_ICA_software_red_triangles_/1641054", "title"=>"An example of a pupil size recording from our experiment, showing time points of where a rapid dilation was detected according to the ICA software (red triangles).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-28 12:40:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2632534"], "description"=>"<p>Critical regions for the experiment is located at word number 0.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Rapid Pupil Dilations", "processing difficulty", "Linguistic Processing Difficulty", "eye movements", "psycholinguistic EEG experiments", "concessive discourse markers", "P 600 effects", "ica", "locus caeruleus area"], "article_id"=>1641055, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Vera Demberg", "Asad Sayeed"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146194.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Self_paced_reading_times_for_the_grammatical_gender_violation_experiment_/1641055", "title"=>"Self-paced reading times for the grammatical gender violation experiment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-28 12:40:19"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2016-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2016-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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