Cities through the Prism of People’s Spending Behavior
Publication Date
February 05, 2016
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Stanislav Sobolevsky, Izabela Sitko, Remi Tachet Des Combes, Bartosz Hawelka, et al
Volume
11
Issue
2
Pages
e0146291
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146291
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0146291
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26849218
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4743849
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/26849218
Web of Science
000369554000008
Scopus
84959204515
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/cities-through-prism-peoples-spending-behavior
Events
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Mendeley | Further Information

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Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4246132"], "description"=>"<p>A: Frequency of distant travels. B: Average distance to home of local transactions. Insets: Logarithmic distributions for both genders and different age groups.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spending activity exhibits", "novel classification", "classification approach", "classification scheme", "spending behavior", "city definitions", "city size", "classification exhibits", "European bank", "city signatures", "city residents", "bank card transactions"], "article_id"=>2598049, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Sociology", "Cancer", "Science Policy", "Plant Biology", "Computational Biology"], "users"=>["Stanislav Sobolevsky", "Izabela Sitko", "Remi Tachet des Combes", "Bartosz Hawelka", "Juan Murillo Arias", "Carlo Ratti"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146291.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Impact_of_age_and_gender_on_customer_mobility_/2598049", "title"=>"Impact of age and gender on customer mobility.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-05 20:08:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4246135"], "description"=>"<p>Total spending activity is defined as the cumulative number of transactions made by city residents. Scaling exponent: 1.045, confidence interval: [1.03,1.06], p-value: 4 ⋅ 10<sup>−205</sup>, <i>R</i><sup>2</sup> = 99.0%.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spending activity exhibits", "novel classification", "classification approach", "classification scheme", "spending behavior", "city definitions", "city size", "classification exhibits", "European bank", "city signatures", "city residents", "bank card transactions"], "article_id"=>2598052, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Sociology", "Cancer", "Science Policy", "Plant Biology", "Computational Biology"], "users"=>["Stanislav Sobolevsky", "Izabela Sitko", "Remi Tachet des Combes", "Bartosz Hawelka", "Juan Murillo Arias", "Carlo Ratti"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146291.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Superlinear_scaling_of_total_spending_activity_with_city_size_for_the_Conurbation_level_/2598052", "title"=>"Superlinear scaling of total spending activity with city size for the Conurbation level.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-05 20:08:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4246138"], "description"=>"<p>A: For the level of Large Urban Zones. Scaling exponent: 1.052, CI: [1.00,1.10], p-value: 5 ⋅ 10<sup>−23</sup>, <i>R</i><sup>2</sup> = 98.90%. B: For the level of Functional Urban Areas. Scaling exponent: 1.044, CI: [1.00,1.08], p-value: 1 ⋅ 10<sup>−37</sup>, <i>R</i><sup>2</sup> = 98.71%. Total spending activity is defined as the cumulative number of transactions made by city residents.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spending activity exhibits", "novel classification", "classification approach", "classification scheme", "spending behavior", "city definitions", "city size", "classification exhibits", "European bank", "city signatures", "city residents", "bank card transactions"], "article_id"=>2598055, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Sociology", "Cancer", "Science Policy", "Plant Biology", "Computational Biology"], "users"=>["Stanislav Sobolevsky", "Izabela Sitko", "Remi Tachet des Combes", "Bartosz Hawelka", "Juan Murillo Arias", "Carlo Ratti"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146291.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Superlinear_scaling_of_total_spending_activity_with_city_size_/2598055", "title"=>"Superlinear scaling of total spending activity with city size.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-05 20:08:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4246174"], "description"=>"<p>Scaling of customers’ activity with CON size for different business categories.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spending activity exhibits", "novel classification", "classification approach", "classification scheme", "spending behavior", "city definitions", "city size", "classification exhibits", "European bank", "city signatures", "city residents", "bank card transactions"], "article_id"=>2598091, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Sociology", "Cancer", "Science Policy", "Plant Biology", "Computational Biology"], "users"=>["Stanislav Sobolevsky", "Izabela Sitko", "Remi Tachet des Combes", "Bartosz Hawelka", "Juan Murillo Arias", "Carlo Ratti"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146291.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Scaling_of_customers_activity_with_CON_size_for_different_business_categories_/2598091", "title"=>"Scaling of customers’ activity with CON size for different business categories.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-02-05 20:08:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4246147"], "description"=>"<p>Colors indicate three clusters of cities obtained based on the k-mean clustering, in accordance with <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0146291#pone.0146291.g007\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 7</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spending activity exhibits", "novel classification", "classification approach", "classification scheme", "spending behavior", "city definitions", "city size", "classification exhibits", "European bank", "city signatures", "city residents", "bank card transactions"], "article_id"=>2598064, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Sociology", "Cancer", "Science Policy", "Plant Biology", "Computational Biology"], "users"=>["Stanislav Sobolevsky", "Izabela Sitko", "Remi Tachet des Combes", "Bartosz Hawelka", "Juan Murillo Arias", "Carlo Ratti"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146291.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Deviations_of_spending_parameters_from_their_respective_scaling_trends_with_city_size_for_the_cities_defined_at_the_level_Large_Urban_Zones_LUZ_Functional_Urban_Areas_FUA_and_Conurbations_CON_/2598064", "title"=>"Deviations of spending parameters from their respective scaling trends with city size, for the cities defined at the level Large Urban Zones (LUZ), Functional Urban Areas (FUA), and Conurbations (CON).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-05 20:08:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4246102", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4246105", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4246108", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4246111", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4246114", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4246117"], "description"=>"<div><p>Scientific studies of society increasingly rely on digital traces produced by various aspects of human activity. In this paper, we exploit a relatively unexplored source of data–anonymized records of bank card transactions collected in Spain by a big European bank, and propose a new classification scheme of cities based on the economic behavior of their residents. First, we study how individual spending behavior is qualitatively and quantitatively affected by various factors such as customer’s age, gender, and size of his/her home city. We show that, similar to other socioeconomic urban quantities, individual spending activity exhibits a statistically significant superlinear scaling with city size. With respect to the general trends, we quantify the distinctive signature of each city in terms of residents’ spending behavior, independently from the effects of scale and demographic heterogeneity. Based on the comparison of city signatures, we build a novel classification of cities across Spain in three categories. That classification exhibits a substantial stability over different city definitions and connects with a meaningful socioeconomic interpretation. Furthermore, it corresponds with the ability of cities to attract foreign visitors, which is a particularly remarkable finding given that the classification was based exclusively on the behavioral patterns of city residents. This highlights the far-reaching applicability of the presented classification approach and its ability to discover patterns that go beyond the quantities directly involved in it.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spending activity exhibits", "novel classification", "classification approach", "classification scheme", "spending behavior", "city definitions", "city size", "classification exhibits", "European bank", "city signatures", "city residents", "bank card transactions"], "article_id"=>2598034, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Sociology", "Cancer", "Science Policy", "Plant Biology", "Computational Biology"], "users"=>["Stanislav Sobolevsky", "Izabela Sitko", "Remi Tachet des Combes", "Bartosz Hawelka", "Juan Murillo Arias", "Carlo Ratti"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146291.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146291.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146291.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146291.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146291.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146291.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Cities_through_the_Prism_of_People_s_Spending_Behavior/2598034", "title"=>"Cities through the Prism of People’s Spending Behavior", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2016-02-05 20:08:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4246120"], "description"=>"<p>A: Average number of transactions per year. B: Average value of a single purchase. Insets: Logarithmic distributions for both genders and different age groups.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spending activity exhibits", "novel classification", "classification approach", "classification scheme", "spending behavior", "city definitions", "city size", "classification exhibits", "European bank", "city signatures", "city residents", "bank card transactions"], "article_id"=>2598037, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Sociology", "Cancer", "Science Policy", "Plant Biology", "Computational Biology"], "users"=>["Stanislav Sobolevsky", "Izabela Sitko", "Remi Tachet des Combes", "Bartosz Hawelka", "Juan Murillo Arias", "Carlo Ratti"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146291.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Impact_of_age_and_gender_on_selected_parameters_of_customers_spending_behavior_/2598037", "title"=>"Impact of age and gender on selected parameters of customers’ spending behavior.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-05 20:08:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4246153"], "description"=>"<p>Classification was performed separately for the three different city definition levels–Large Urban Zones (LUZ), Functional Urban Areas (FUA), and Conurbations (CON). Clustering into two categories can be, to large extent, recreated by merging clusters B and C into one (the consistency between the two- and three-cluster cases was quantified as high as 100% for LUZ, 98% for FUA, and 97% for CON).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spending activity exhibits", "novel classification", "classification approach", "classification scheme", "spending behavior", "city definitions", "city size", "classification exhibits", "European bank", "city signatures", "city residents", "bank card transactions"], "article_id"=>2598070, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Sociology", "Cancer", "Science Policy", "Plant Biology", "Computational Biology"], "users"=>["Stanislav Sobolevsky", "Izabela Sitko", "Remi Tachet des Combes", "Bartosz Hawelka", "Juan Murillo Arias", "Carlo Ratti"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146291.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Classification_of_Spanish_cities_into_three_categories_based_on_the_spending_behavior_of_their_residents_/2598070", "title"=>"Classification of Spanish cities into three categories based on the spending behavior of their residents.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-05 20:08:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4246156"], "description"=>"<p>Unemployment, Disposal Annual Income of Households, and Gross Domestic Product were available for both city levels. Total Expenditure of Households, from the Household Budget Survey, was available only for the Autonomous Communities and reassigned to the corresponding LUZ. The data comes for the Urban Audit survey of Eurostat [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0146291#pone.0146291.ref042\" target=\"_blank\">42</a>] and the Spanish National Statistics Institute [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0146291#pone.0146291.ref045\" target=\"_blank\">45</a>]. Socioeconomic parameters were quantified as log residuals from their respective scaling trends with city size. Colors correspond to the three clusters of cities obtained based on the spending behavior of city residents, as presented in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0146291#pone.0146291.g007\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 7</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spending activity exhibits", "novel classification", "classification approach", "classification scheme", "spending behavior", "city definitions", "city size", "classification exhibits", "European bank", "city signatures", "city residents", "bank card transactions"], "article_id"=>2598073, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Sociology", "Cancer", "Science Policy", "Plant Biology", "Computational Biology"], "users"=>["Stanislav Sobolevsky", "Izabela Sitko", "Remi Tachet des Combes", "Bartosz Hawelka", "Juan Murillo Arias", "Carlo Ratti"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146291.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Deviations_of_standard_socioeconomic_statistics_within_the_three_clusters_of_Spanish_cities_at_the_level_of_LUZ_and_FUA_/2598073", "title"=>"Deviations of standard socioeconomic statistics within the three clusters of Spanish cities at the level of LUZ, and FUA.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-05 20:08:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4246129"], "description"=>"<p>A: Average spending diversity against age for men and women. B: Normalized Herfindahl-Hirschman Index of visited business categories for the customers with different levels of spending activity.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spending activity exhibits", "novel classification", "classification approach", "classification scheme", "spending behavior", "city definitions", "city size", "classification exhibits", "European bank", "city signatures", "city residents", "bank card transactions"], "article_id"=>2598046, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Sociology", "Cancer", "Science Policy", "Plant Biology", "Computational Biology"], "users"=>["Stanislav Sobolevsky", "Izabela Sitko", "Remi Tachet des Combes", "Bartosz Hawelka", "Juan Murillo Arias", "Carlo Ratti"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146291.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Impact_of_age_and_gender_on_customers_spending_diversity_/2598046", "title"=>"Impact of age and gender on customers’ spending diversity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-05 20:08:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4246162"], "description"=>"<p>Attractiveness is calculated based on the spending activity of foreign visitors. Presented deviations are quantified as log residuals from their respective scaling trends with city size at the levels of LUZ, FUA and CON. Colors correspond to the three clusters of cities obtained based on the spending behavior of city residents, as presented in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0146291#pone.0146291.g007\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 7</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spending activity exhibits", "novel classification", "classification approach", "classification scheme", "spending behavior", "city definitions", "city size", "classification exhibits", "European bank", "city signatures", "city residents", "bank card transactions"], "article_id"=>2598079, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Sociology", "Cancer", "Science Policy", "Plant Biology", "Computational Biology"], "users"=>["Stanislav Sobolevsky", "Izabela Sitko", "Remi Tachet des Combes", "Bartosz Hawelka", "Juan Murillo Arias", "Carlo Ratti"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146291.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Correspondence_of_the_received_clusters_of_Spanish_cities_with_the_attractiveness_of_these_cities_/2598079", "title"=>"Correspondence of the received clusters of Spanish cities with the attractiveness of these cities.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-05 20:08:50"}

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{"start_date"=>"2016-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2016-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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