Mitigating the Impact of Bats in Historic Churches: The Response of Natterer’s Bats Myotis nattereri to Artificial Roosts and Deterrence
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{"title"=>"Mitigating the impact of Bats in historic churches: The response of Natterer's Bats Myotis nattereri to artificial roosts and deterrence", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Matt R.K.", "last_name"=>"Zeale", "scopus_author_id"=>"36338052600"}, {"first_name"=>"Emily", "last_name"=>"Bennitt", "scopus_author_id"=>"56245811500"}, {"first_name"=>"Stuart E.", "last_name"=>"Newson", "scopus_author_id"=>"8889109300"}, {"first_name"=>"Charlotte", "last_name"=>"Packman", "scopus_author_id"=>"57073372600"}, {"first_name"=>"William J.", "last_name"=>"Browne", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005983588"}, {"first_name"=>"Stephen", "last_name"=>"Harris", "scopus_author_id"=>"57190539420"}, {"first_name"=>"Gareth", "last_name"=>"Jones", "scopus_author_id"=>"57001861400"}, {"first_name"=>"Emma", "last_name"=>"Stone", "scopus_author_id"=>"26647183800"}], "year"=>2016, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "sgr"=>"84955271679", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0146782", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84955271679", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"26771548", "pui"=>"607806906"}, "id"=>"59c70a8d-0773-37d0-854c-3832544248e0", "abstract"=>"Bats frequently roost in historic churches, and these colonies are of considerable conservation value. Inside churches, bat droppings and urine can cause damage to the historic fabric of the building and to items of cultural significance. In extreme cases, large quantities of droppings can restrict the use of a church for worship and/or other community functions. In the United Kingdom, bats and their roosts are protected by law, and striking a balance between conserving the natural and cultural heritage can be a significant challenge. We investigated mitigation strategies that could be employed in churches and other historic buildings to alleviate problems caused by bats without adversely affecting their welfare or conservation status. We used a combination of artificial roost provision and deterrence at churches in Norfolk, England, where significant maternity colonies of Natterer's bats Myotis nattereri damage church features. Radio-tracking data and population modelling showed that excluding M. nattereri from churches is likely to have a negative impact on their welfare and conservation status, but that judicious use of deterrents, especially high intensity ultrasound, can mitigate problems caused by bats. We show that deterrence can be used to move bats humanely from specific roosting sites within a church and limit the spread of droppings and urine so that problems to congregations and damage to cultural heritage can be much reduced. In addition, construction of bespoke roost spaces within churches can allow bats to continue to roost within the fabric of the building without flying in the church interior. We highlight that deterrence has the potential to cause serious harm to M. nattereri populations if not used judiciously, and so the effects of deterrents will need careful monitoring, and their use needs strict regulation.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/mitigating-impact-bats-historic-churches-response-natterers-bats-myotis-nattereri-artificial-roosts", "reader_count"=>51, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>7, "Student > Master"=>13, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>14, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>7, "Student > Master"=>13, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Environmental Science"=>17, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>30, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>30}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>17}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"New Zealand"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4290469"], "description"=>"<p>Elasticities and sensitivities for the constituents of productivity derived from the population projection matrices for female <i>Myotis nattereri</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["United", "urine", "welfare", "worship", "Kingdom", "spread", "Norfolk", "combination", "intensity ultrasound", "roost", "congregation", "provision", "Artificial Roosts", "England", "nattereri populations", "item", "Impact", "harm", "impact", "Mitigating", "community functions", "population modelling", "maternity colonies", "fabric", "strategy", "regulation", "heritage", "Response", "construction", "Historic Churches", "conservation status", "challenge", "problem", "bespoke", "move bats", "mitigation strategies", "site", "conservation value", "deterrent", "monitoring", "bat droppings", "significance", "data", "deterrence", "Natterer", "Deterrence Bats", "Myoti", "quantity"], "article_id"=>2638600, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Matt R. K. Zeale", "Emily Bennitt", "Stuart E. Newson", "Charlotte Packman", "William J. Browne", "Stephen Harris", "Gareth Jones", "Emma Stone"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146782.t010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Elasticities_and_sensitivities_for_the_constituents_of_productivity_derived_from_the_population_projection_matrices_for_female_i_Myotis_nattereri_i_/2638600", "title"=>"Elasticities and sensitivities for the constituents of productivity derived from the population projection matrices for female <i>Myotis nattereri</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-01-15 05:57:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4290472"], "description"=>"<p>The figures in brackets show the vital rates used in the population models.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["United", "urine", "welfare", "worship", "Kingdom", "spread", "Norfolk", "combination", "intensity ultrasound", "roost", "congregation", "provision", "Artificial Roosts", "England", "nattereri populations", "item", "Impact", "harm", "impact", "Mitigating", "community functions", "population modelling", "maternity colonies", "fabric", "strategy", "regulation", "heritage", "Response", "construction", "Historic Churches", "conservation status", "challenge", "problem", "bespoke", "move bats", "mitigation strategies", "site", "conservation value", "deterrent", "monitoring", "bat droppings", "significance", "data", "deterrence", "Natterer", "Deterrence Bats", "Myoti", "quantity"], "article_id"=>2638603, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Matt R. K. Zeale", "Emily Bennitt", "Stuart E. Newson", "Charlotte Packman", "William J. Browne", "Stephen Harris", "Gareth Jones", "Emma Stone"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146782.t011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Critical_threshold_of_population_parameters_for_female_i_Myotis_nattereri_i_below_which_a_population_of_100_females_is_likely_to_become_extinct_within_an_arbitrary_500_years_/2638603", "title"=>"Critical threshold of population parameters for female <i>Myotis nattereri</i>, below which a population of 100 females is likely to become extinct within an arbitrary 500 years.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-01-15 05:57:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4290412"], "description"=>"<p>The vital rates used are shown in brackets. In the absence of perturbation, the mean stochastic growth rate λ<sub>s</sub> was 0.986 i.e. a slow decline but close to stable.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["United", "urine", "welfare", "worship", "Kingdom", "spread", "Norfolk", "combination", "intensity ultrasound", "roost", "congregation", "provision", "Artificial Roosts", "England", "nattereri populations", "item", "Impact", "harm", "impact", "Mitigating", "community functions", "population modelling", "maternity colonies", "fabric", "strategy", "regulation", "heritage", "Response", "construction", "Historic Churches", "conservation status", "challenge", "problem", "bespoke", "move bats", "mitigation strategies", "site", "conservation value", "deterrent", "monitoring", "bat droppings", "significance", "data", "deterrence", "Natterer", "Deterrence Bats", "Myoti", "quantity"], "article_id"=>2638543, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Matt R. K. Zeale", "Emily Bennitt", "Stuart E. Newson", "Charlotte Packman", "William J. Browne", "Stephen Harris", "Gareth Jones", "Emma Stone"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146782.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Effects_of_changing_age_specific_annual_survival_rates_top_and_the_constituents_of_productivity_bottom_on_the_population_growth_rate_of_i_Myotis_nattereri_i_/2638543", "title"=>"Effects of changing age-specific annual survival rates (top) and the constituents of productivity (bottom) on the population growth rate of <i>Myotis nattereri</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-15 05:57:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4290370"], "description"=>"<p>The black polygons denote 100% MCP home ranges and the red polygons 80% cluster cores. Data are from 18 bats radio-tracked at three churches (Guestwick, Salle and Wood Dalling; <i>n</i> = 6 bats per site).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["United", "urine", "welfare", "worship", "Kingdom", "spread", "Norfolk", "combination", "intensity ultrasound", "roost", "congregation", "provision", "Artificial Roosts", "England", "nattereri populations", "item", "Impact", "harm", "impact", "Mitigating", "community functions", "population modelling", "maternity colonies", "fabric", "strategy", "regulation", "heritage", "Response", "construction", "Historic Churches", "conservation status", "challenge", "problem", "bespoke", "move bats", "mitigation strategies", "site", "conservation value", "deterrent", "monitoring", "bat droppings", "significance", "data", "deterrence", "Natterer", "Deterrence Bats", "Myoti", "quantity"], "article_id"=>1638420, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Matt R. K. Zeale", "Emily Bennitt", "Stuart E. Newson", "Charlotte Packman", "William J. Browne", "Stephen Harris", "Gareth Jones", "Emma Stone"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146782.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Examples_of_individual_bat_home_range_areas_and_core_foraging_areas_from_18_adult_female_Myotis_nattereri_/1638420", "title"=>"Examples of individual bat home range areas and core foraging areas from 18 adult female <i>Myotis nattereri</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2016-01-15 05:57:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4290418"], "description"=>"<p>The figures show the number of adult female <i>Myotis nattereri</i> radio-tagged between 2011 and 2014, and the estimated size of the colony at each site.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["United", "urine", "welfare", "worship", "Kingdom", "spread", "Norfolk", "combination", "intensity ultrasound", "roost", "congregation", "provision", "Artificial Roosts", "England", "nattereri populations", "item", "Impact", "harm", "impact", "Mitigating", "community functions", "population modelling", "maternity colonies", "fabric", "strategy", "regulation", "heritage", "Response", "construction", "Historic Churches", "conservation status", "challenge", "problem", "bespoke", "move bats", "mitigation strategies", "site", "conservation value", "deterrent", "monitoring", "bat droppings", "significance", "data", "deterrence", "Natterer", "Deterrence Bats", "Myoti", "quantity"], "article_id"=>2638549, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Matt R. K. Zeale", "Emily Bennitt", "Stuart E. Newson", "Charlotte Packman", "William J. Browne", "Stephen Harris", "Gareth Jones", "Emma Stone"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146782.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Church_sites_used_in_this_study_/2638549", "title"=>"Church sites used in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-01-15 05:57:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4290379"], "description"=>"<p>The figure shows the number of bats roosting inside the church (dashed lines) and in the roost above the deterrent (solid lines) each day at three churches during the control (deterrent off), deterrent (deterrent on) and post-deterrent (deterrent off) periods.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["United", "urine", "welfare", "worship", "Kingdom", "spread", "Norfolk", "combination", "intensity ultrasound", "roost", "congregation", "provision", "Artificial Roosts", "England", "nattereri populations", "item", "Impact", "harm", "impact", "Mitigating", "community functions", "population modelling", "maternity colonies", "fabric", "strategy", "regulation", "heritage", "Response", "construction", "Historic Churches", "conservation status", "challenge", "problem", "bespoke", "move bats", "mitigation strategies", "site", "conservation value", "deterrent", "monitoring", "bat droppings", "significance", "data", "deterrence", "Natterer", "Deterrence Bats", "Myoti", "quantity"], "article_id"=>1638423, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Matt R. K. Zeale", "Emily Bennitt", "Stuart E. Newson", "Charlotte Packman", "William J. Browne", "Stephen Harris", "Gareth Jones", "Emma Stone"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146782.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Response_of_Myotis_nattereri_to_long_term_applications_of_the_Deaton_ultrasound_device_/1638423", "title"=>"Response of <i>Myotis nattereri</i> to long-term applications of the Deaton (ultrasound) device.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2016-01-15 05:57:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4290382"], "description"=>"<p>The figure shows the total number of bat passes (<i>n</i> = 4 sites) recorded each night in experimental lit zones inside churches during control (ambient light), deterrent (artificial light) and post-deterrent (ambient light) periods. P. pyg = soprano pipistrelle <i>Pipistrellus pygmaeus</i>; P. pip = common pipistrelle <i>P</i>. <i>pipistrellus</i>; Myotis = <i>Myotis nattereri</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["United", "urine", "welfare", "worship", "Kingdom", "spread", "Norfolk", "combination", "intensity ultrasound", "roost", "congregation", "provision", "Artificial Roosts", "England", "nattereri populations", "item", "Impact", "harm", "impact", "Mitigating", "community functions", "population modelling", "maternity colonies", "fabric", "strategy", "regulation", "heritage", "Response", "construction", "Historic Churches", "conservation status", "challenge", "problem", "bespoke", "move bats", "mitigation strategies", "site", "conservation value", "deterrent", "monitoring", "bat droppings", "significance", "data", "deterrence", "Natterer", "Deterrence Bats", "Myoti", "quantity"], "article_id"=>1638425, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Matt R. K. Zeale", "Emily Bennitt", "Stuart E. Newson", "Charlotte Packman", "William J. Browne", "Stephen Harris", "Gareth Jones", "Emma Stone"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146782.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Response_of_bats_to_artificial_lighting_in_churches_/1638425", "title"=>"Response of bats to artificial lighting in churches.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2016-01-15 05:57:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4290424"], "description"=>"<p>Experimental procedure to examine the response of <i>Myotis nattereri</i> to short-term applications of ultrasonic acoustic and artificial lighting deterrence inside churches.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["United", "urine", "welfare", "worship", "Kingdom", "spread", "Norfolk", "combination", "intensity ultrasound", "roost", "congregation", "provision", "Artificial Roosts", "England", "nattereri populations", "item", "Impact", "harm", "impact", "Mitigating", "community functions", "population modelling", "maternity colonies", "fabric", "strategy", "regulation", "heritage", "Response", "construction", "Historic Churches", "conservation status", "challenge", "problem", "bespoke", "move bats", "mitigation strategies", "site", "conservation value", "deterrent", "monitoring", "bat droppings", "significance", "data", "deterrence", "Natterer", "Deterrence Bats", "Myoti", "quantity"], "article_id"=>2638555, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Matt R. K. Zeale", "Emily Bennitt", "Stuart E. Newson", "Charlotte Packman", "William J. Browne", "Stephen Harris", "Gareth Jones", "Emma Stone"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146782.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Experimental_procedure_to_examine_the_response_of_i_Myotis_nattereri_i_to_short_term_applications_of_ultrasonic_acoustic_and_artificial_lighting_deterrence_inside_churches_/2638555", "title"=>"Experimental procedure to examine the response of <i>Myotis nattereri</i> to short-term applications of ultrasonic acoustic and artificial lighting deterrence inside churches.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-01-15 05:57:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4290427"], "description"=>"<p>Vital rates used in population matrix models for <i>Myotis nattereri</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["United", "urine", "welfare", "worship", "Kingdom", "spread", "Norfolk", "combination", "intensity ultrasound", "roost", "congregation", "provision", "Artificial Roosts", "England", "nattereri populations", "item", "Impact", "harm", "impact", "Mitigating", "community functions", "population modelling", "maternity colonies", "fabric", "strategy", "regulation", "heritage", "Response", "construction", "Historic Churches", "conservation status", "challenge", "problem", "bespoke", "move bats", "mitigation strategies", "site", "conservation value", "deterrent", "monitoring", "bat droppings", "significance", "data", "deterrence", "Natterer", "Deterrence Bats", "Myoti", "quantity"], "article_id"=>2638558, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Matt R. K. Zeale", "Emily Bennitt", "Stuart E. Newson", "Charlotte Packman", "William J. Browne", "Stephen Harris", "Gareth Jones", "Emma Stone"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146782.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Vital_rates_used_in_population_matrix_models_for_i_Myotis_nattereri_i_/2638558", "title"=>"Vital rates used in population matrix models for <i>Myotis nattereri</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-01-15 05:57:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4290436"], "description"=>"<p>Figures are means ± SD (range).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["United", "urine", "welfare", "worship", "Kingdom", "spread", "Norfolk", "combination", "intensity ultrasound", "roost", "congregation", "provision", "Artificial Roosts", "England", "nattereri populations", "item", "Impact", "harm", "impact", "Mitigating", "community functions", "population modelling", "maternity colonies", "fabric", "strategy", "regulation", "heritage", "Response", "construction", "Historic Churches", "conservation status", "challenge", "problem", "bespoke", "move bats", "mitigation strategies", "site", "conservation value", "deterrent", "monitoring", "bat droppings", "significance", "data", "deterrence", "Natterer", "Deterrence Bats", "Myoti", "quantity"], "article_id"=>2638567, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Matt R. K. Zeale", "Emily Bennitt", "Stuart E. Newson", "Charlotte Packman", "William J. Browne", "Stephen Harris", "Gareth Jones", "Emma Stone"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146782.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Home_range_areas_100_minimum_convex_polygons_core_foraging_areas_80_clusters_cores_and_range_spans_mean_maximum_nightly_distance_from_roost_to_centroid_of_cluster_core_foraging_area_for_48_adult_female_i_Myotis_nattereri_i_i_n_i_6_bats_per_site_/2638567", "title"=>"Home range areas (100% minimum convex polygons), core foraging areas (80% clusters cores) and range spans (mean maximum nightly distance from roost to centroid of cluster core foraging area) for 48 adult female <i>Myotis nattereri</i> (<i>n</i> = 6 bats per site).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-01-15 05:57:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4290442"], "description"=>"<p>Habitat categories to the left of > were selected over those to the right, with >>> showing a significant difference between adjacent habitat types; <i>P</i>-values <0.05 show that the selection of habitat types was non-random.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["United", "urine", "welfare", "worship", "Kingdom", "spread", "Norfolk", "combination", "intensity ultrasound", "roost", "congregation", "provision", "Artificial Roosts", "England", "nattereri populations", "item", "Impact", "harm", "impact", "Mitigating", "community functions", "population modelling", "maternity colonies", "fabric", "strategy", "regulation", "heritage", "Response", "construction", "Historic Churches", "conservation status", "challenge", "problem", "bespoke", "move bats", "mitigation strategies", "site", "conservation value", "deterrent", "monitoring", "bat droppings", "significance", "data", "deterrence", "Natterer", "Deterrence Bats", "Myoti", "quantity"], "article_id"=>2638573, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Matt R. K. Zeale", "Emily Bennitt", "Stuart E. Newson", "Charlotte Packman", "William J. Browne", "Stephen Harris", "Gareth Jones", "Emma Stone"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146782.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Habitat_preferences_exhibited_by_i_Myotis_nattereri_i_at_eight_maternity_colony_sites_i_n_i_6_bats_per_site_/2638573", "title"=>"Habitat preferences exhibited by <i>Myotis nattereri</i> at eight maternity colony sites (<i>n</i> = 6 bats per site).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-01-15 05:57:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4290358", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4290361", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4290364", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4290367"], "description"=>"<div><p>Bats frequently roost in historic churches, and these colonies are of considerable conservation value. Inside churches, bat droppings and urine can cause damage to the historic fabric of the building and to items of cultural significance. In extreme cases, large quantities of droppings can restrict the use of a church for worship and/or other community functions. In the United Kingdom, bats and their roosts are protected by law, and striking a balance between conserving the natural and cultural heritage can be a significant challenge. We investigated mitigation strategies that could be employed in churches and other historic buildings to alleviate problems caused by bats without adversely affecting their welfare or conservation status. We used a combination of artificial roost provision and deterrence at churches in Norfolk, England, where significant maternity colonies of Natterer’s bats <i>Myotis nattereri</i> damage church features. Radio-tracking data and population modelling showed that excluding <i>M</i>. <i>nattereri</i> from churches is likely to have a negative impact on their welfare and conservation status, but that judicious use of deterrents, especially high intensity ultrasound, can mitigate problems caused by bats. We show that deterrence can be used to move bats humanely from specific roosting sites within a church and limit the spread of droppings and urine so that problems to congregations and damage to cultural heritage can be much reduced. In addition, construction of bespoke roost spaces within churches can allow bats to continue to roost within the fabric of the building without flying in the church interior. We highlight that deterrence has the potential to cause serious harm to <i>M</i>. <i>nattereri</i> populations if not used judiciously, and so the effects of deterrents will need careful monitoring, and their use needs strict regulation.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["United", "urine", "welfare", "worship", "Kingdom", "spread", "Norfolk", "combination", "intensity ultrasound", "roost", "congregation", "provision", "Artificial Roosts", "England", "nattereri populations", "item", "Impact", "harm", "impact", "Mitigating", "community functions", "population modelling", "maternity colonies", "fabric", "strategy", "regulation", "heritage", "Response", "construction", "Historic Churches", "conservation status", "challenge", "problem", "bespoke", "move bats", "mitigation strategies", "site", "conservation value", "deterrent", "monitoring", "bat droppings", "significance", "data", "deterrence", "Natterer", "Deterrence Bats", "Myoti", "quantity"], "article_id"=>2638510, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Matt R. K. Zeale", "Emily Bennitt", "Stuart E. Newson", "Charlotte Packman", "William J. Browne", "Stephen Harris", "Gareth Jones", "Emma Stone"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146782.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146782.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146782.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146782.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Mitigating_the_Impact_of_Bats_in_Historic_Churches_The_Response_of_Natterer_s_Bats_i_Myotis_nattereri_i_to_Artificial_Roosts_and_Deterrence/2638510", "title"=>"Mitigating the Impact of Bats in Historic Churches: The Response of Natterer’s Bats <i>Myotis nattereri</i> to Artificial Roosts and Deterrence", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2016-01-15 05:57:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4290445"], "description"=>"<p>‘Original’ = the roost affected by deterrent during the deterrent period, ‘alternative’ = a roost inside the church not directly affected by the deterrent, ‘outside’ = any roost not inside the church. ‘Post’ refers to post-deterrent period.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["United", "urine", "welfare", "worship", "Kingdom", "spread", "Norfolk", "combination", "intensity ultrasound", "roost", "congregation", "provision", "Artificial Roosts", "England", "nattereri populations", "item", "Impact", "harm", "impact", "Mitigating", "community functions", "population modelling", "maternity colonies", "fabric", "strategy", "regulation", "heritage", "Response", "construction", "Historic Churches", "conservation status", "challenge", "problem", "bespoke", "move bats", "mitigation strategies", "site", "conservation value", "deterrent", "monitoring", "bat droppings", "significance", "data", "deterrence", "Natterer", "Deterrence Bats", "Myoti", "quantity"], "article_id"=>2638576, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Matt R. K. Zeale", "Emily Bennitt", "Stuart E. Newson", "Charlotte Packman", "William J. Browne", "Stephen Harris", "Gareth Jones", "Emma Stone"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146782.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Probability_matrices_showing_the_mean_i_n_i_6_sites_probability_of_i_Myotis_nattereri_i_moving_between_different_roost_states_during_control_deterrent_off_deterrent_deterrent_on_and_post_deterrent_deterrent_off_periods_/2638576", "title"=>"Probability matrices showing the mean (<i>n</i> = 6 sites) probability of <i>Myotis nattereri</i> moving between different roost ‘states’ during control (deterrent off), deterrent (deterrent on) and post-deterrent (deterrent off) periods.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-01-15 05:57:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4290448"], "description"=>"<p>Response variables were time of emergence, time of return to church after foraging, total time spent foraging, individual bat home range area (MCP), core foraging area (cluster core), and range span (distance from roost to furthest edge of cluster core foraging area).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["United", "urine", "welfare", "worship", "Kingdom", "spread", "Norfolk", "combination", "intensity ultrasound", "roost", "congregation", "provision", "Artificial Roosts", "England", "nattereri populations", "item", "Impact", "harm", "impact", "Mitigating", "community functions", "population modelling", "maternity colonies", "fabric", "strategy", "regulation", "heritage", "Response", "construction", "Historic Churches", "conservation status", "challenge", "problem", "bespoke", "move bats", "mitigation strategies", "site", "conservation value", "deterrent", "monitoring", "bat droppings", "significance", "data", "deterrence", "Natterer", "Deterrence Bats", "Myoti", "quantity"], "article_id"=>2638579, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Matt R. K. Zeale", "Emily Bennitt", "Stuart E. Newson", "Charlotte Packman", "William J. Browne", "Stephen Harris", "Gareth Jones", "Emma Stone"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146782.t007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Foraging_responses_of_radio_tagged_i_Myotis_nattereri_i_at_6_church_sites_i_n_i_6_bats_site_and_effect_of_short_term_applications_of_acoustic_deterrence_at_roosts_inside_churches_/2638579", "title"=>"Foraging responses of radio-tagged <i>Myotis nattereri</i> at 6 church sites (<i>n</i> = 6 bats/site) and effect of short-term applications of acoustic deterrence at roosts inside churches.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-01-15 05:57:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4290454"], "description"=>"<p>Habitat categories to the left of > are selected over those to the right, with >>> showing a significant difference between adjacent habitat types; <i>P</i>-values <0.05 show that the selection of habitat types is non-random.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["United", "urine", "welfare", "worship", "Kingdom", "spread", "Norfolk", "combination", "intensity ultrasound", "roost", "congregation", "provision", "Artificial Roosts", "England", "nattereri populations", "item", "Impact", "harm", "impact", "Mitigating", "community functions", "population modelling", "maternity colonies", "fabric", "strategy", "regulation", "heritage", "Response", "construction", "Historic Churches", "conservation status", "challenge", "problem", "bespoke", "move bats", "mitigation strategies", "site", "conservation value", "deterrent", "monitoring", "bat droppings", "significance", "data", "deterrence", "Natterer", "Deterrence Bats", "Myoti", "quantity"], "article_id"=>2638585, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Matt R. K. Zeale", "Emily Bennitt", "Stuart E. Newson", "Charlotte Packman", "William J. Browne", "Stephen Harris", "Gareth Jones", "Emma Stone"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146782.t008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Habitat_preferences_of_i_Myotis_nattereri_i_i_n_i_6_bats_per_site_radio_tracked_at_five_churches_during_control_and_deterrent_periods_in_response_to_ultrasound_acoustic_deterrence_/2638585", "title"=>"Habitat preferences of <i>Myotis nattereri</i> (<i>n</i> = 6 bats per site) radio-tracked at five churches during control and deterrent periods in response to ultrasound acoustic deterrence.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-01-15 05:57:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4290394"], "description"=>"<p>The figure shows the number of bat passes recorded each night for two hours after sunset using infrared video in lit (light grey lines) and unlit (dark grey lines) zones inside churches during control (ambient light), deterrent (artificial light) and post-deterrent (ambient light) periods at four churches: (a) Cley, (b) Great Hockham, (c) Holme Hale and (d) Salle.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["United", "urine", "welfare", "worship", "Kingdom", "spread", "Norfolk", "combination", "intensity ultrasound", "roost", "congregation", "provision", "Artificial Roosts", "England", "nattereri populations", "item", "Impact", "harm", "impact", "Mitigating", "community functions", "population modelling", "maternity colonies", "fabric", "strategy", "regulation", "heritage", "Response", "construction", "Historic Churches", "conservation status", "challenge", "problem", "bespoke", "move bats", "mitigation strategies", "site", "conservation value", "deterrent", "monitoring", "bat droppings", "significance", "data", "deterrence", "Natterer", "Deterrence Bats", "Myoti", "quantity"], "article_id"=>2638522, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Matt R. K. Zeale", "Emily Bennitt", "Stuart E. Newson", "Charlotte Packman", "William J. Browne", "Stephen Harris", "Gareth Jones", "Emma Stone"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146782.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Activity_of_i_Myotis_nattereri_i_in_lit_and_unlit_areas_of_churches_during_lighting_deterrence_experiments_/2638522", "title"=>"Activity of <i>Myotis nattereri</i> in lit and unlit areas of churches during lighting deterrence experiments.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-15 05:57:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4290373"], "description"=>"<p>The figure shows the mean (<i>n</i> = 6 sites) proportion of radio-tagged bats (<i>n</i> = 87) roosting each day in the original roost above the deterrent, at an alternative roost within the church, or at an alternative roost outside the church during control (deterrent off), deterrent (deterrent on) and post-deterrent (deterrent off) periods. The bats were radio-tagged on day 1.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["United", "urine", "welfare", "worship", "Kingdom", "spread", "Norfolk", "combination", "intensity ultrasound", "roost", "congregation", "provision", "Artificial Roosts", "England", "nattereri populations", "item", "Impact", "harm", "impact", "Mitigating", "community functions", "population modelling", "maternity colonies", "fabric", "strategy", "regulation", "heritage", "Response", "construction", "Historic Churches", "conservation status", "challenge", "problem", "bespoke", "move bats", "mitigation strategies", "site", "conservation value", "deterrent", "monitoring", "bat droppings", "significance", "data", "deterrence", "Natterer", "Deterrence Bats", "Myoti", "quantity"], "article_id"=>1638421, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Matt R. K. Zeale", "Emily Bennitt", "Stuart E. Newson", "Charlotte Packman", "William J. Browne", "Stephen Harris", "Gareth Jones", "Emma Stone"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146782.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Response_of_Myotis_nattereri_to_short_four_day_applications_of_the_Deaton_ultrasound_device_/1638421", "title"=>"Response of <i>Myotis nattereri</i> to short, four-day applications of the Deaton (ultrasound) device.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2016-01-15 05:57:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4290460"], "description"=>"<p>Elasticities and sensitivities derived from the population projection matrices for female <i>Myotis nattereri</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["United", "urine", "welfare", "worship", "Kingdom", "spread", "Norfolk", "combination", "intensity ultrasound", "roost", "congregation", "provision", "Artificial Roosts", "England", "nattereri populations", "item", "Impact", "harm", "impact", "Mitigating", "community functions", "population modelling", "maternity colonies", "fabric", "strategy", "regulation", "heritage", "Response", "construction", "Historic Churches", "conservation status", "challenge", "problem", "bespoke", "move bats", "mitigation strategies", "site", "conservation value", "deterrent", "monitoring", "bat droppings", "significance", "data", "deterrence", "Natterer", "Deterrence Bats", "Myoti", "quantity"], "article_id"=>2638591, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Matt R. K. Zeale", "Emily Bennitt", "Stuart E. Newson", "Charlotte Packman", "William J. Browne", "Stephen Harris", "Gareth Jones", "Emma Stone"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146782.t009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Elasticities_and_sensitivities_derived_from_the_population_projection_matrices_for_female_i_Myotis_nattereri_i_/2638591", "title"=>"Elasticities and sensitivities derived from the population projection matrices for female <i>Myotis nattereri</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-01-15 05:57:52"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2016-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2016-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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