Species Diversity in the Parasitoid Genus Asobara (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from the Native Area of the Fruit Fly Pest Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae)
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{"title"=>"Species diversity in the parasitoid genus asobara (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from the native area of the fruit fly pest Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae)", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Emilio", "last_name"=>"Guerrieri", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603665859"}, {"first_name"=>"Massimo", "last_name"=>"Giorgini", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004597646"}, {"first_name"=>"Pasquale", "last_name"=>"Cascone", "scopus_author_id"=>"35763647700"}, {"first_name"=>"Simona", "last_name"=>"Carpenito", "scopus_author_id"=>"56703540700"}, {"first_name"=>"Cees", "last_name"=>"Van Achterberg", "scopus_author_id"=>"24825518300"}], "year"=>2016, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84959036367", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0147382", "pui"=>"608396047", "pmid"=>"26840953", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84959036367", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"e9413e4c-1fdf-3e30-b57c-2b4b8e35dd28", "abstract"=>"Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), commonly known as Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD), is a worldwide serious economic threat to the production of berries and stone fruits. The chemical control widely used against this pest is often not able to preventing yield losses because wild flora offers an abundance of fruits to D . suzukii where the pest is able to reproduce and from where it recolonizes neighbouring cultivated fields. Alternatively, within Integrated Pest Management protocols for D . suzukii , biological control could play a key role by reducing its populations particularly in non-cultivated habitats, thus increasing the effectiveness and reducing the side negative effects of other management strategies. Because of the scarcity and of the low efficiency of autochthonous parasitoids in the new invaded territories, in the last few years, a number of surveys started in the native area of D . suzukii to find parasitoid species to be evaluated in quarantine structures and eventually released in the field, following a classical biological control approach. This paper reports the results of these surveys carried out in South Korea and for the first time in China. Among the parasitoids collected, those belonging to the genus Asobara Foerster resulted dominant both by number and species diversity. By combining morphological characters and the mitochondrial COI gene as a molecular marker, we identified seven species of Asobara , of which two associated with D . suzukii , namely A . japonica and A leveri , and five new to science, namely Asobara brevicauda , A . elongata , A mesocauda , A unicolorata , A . triangulata . Our findings offer new opportunity to find effective parasitoids to be introduced in classical biological control programmes in the territories recently invaded by D . suzukii .", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/species-diversity-parasitoid-genus-asobara-hymenoptera-braconidae-native-area-fruit-fly-pest-drosoph", "reader_count"=>34, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>25, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>25}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4258165"], "description"=>"<p><i>Asobara unicolorata</i> sp. nov. ♀ (A) Head in dorsal view. (B) Head in frontal view. (C) Mesoscutum in dorsal view. (D) Areola. (E) Wings.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["control approach", "paper reports", "management strategies", "Drosophila suzukii", "Asobara brevicauda", "Pest Drosophila suzukii", "stone fruits", "species Diversity", "Parasitoid Genus Asobara", "Native Area", "mitochondrial COI gene", "chemical control", "findings offer", "autochthonous parasitoids", "control programmes", "parasitoid species", "SWD", "genus Asobara Foerster", "species diversity", "Wing Drosophila", "recolonizes neighbouring", "Integrated Pest Management protocols"], "article_id"=>2608549, "categories"=>["Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Emilio Guerrieri", "Massimo Giorgini", "Pasquale Cascone", "Simona Carpenito", "Cees van Achterberg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147382.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Species_Diversity_in_the_Parasitoid_Genus_i_Asobara_i_Hymenoptera_Braconidae_from_the_Native_Area_of_the_Fruit_Fly_Pest_i_Drosophila_suzukii_i_Diptera_Drosophilidae_Fig_7/2608549", "title"=>"Species Diversity in the Parasitoid Genus <i>Asobara</i> (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from the Native Area of the Fruit Fly Pest <i>Drosophila suzukii</i> (Diptera: Drosophilidae) - Fig 7", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-03 22:46:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4258102"], "description"=>"<p><i>Asobara elongata</i> sp. nov. ♀(A) Head in dorsal view. (B) Head in frontal view. (C) Basal segments of antenna. (D) Mesoscutum in dorsal view. (E) Areola.(F) Wings.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["control approach", "paper reports", "management strategies", "Drosophila suzukii", "Asobara brevicauda", "Pest Drosophila suzukii", "stone fruits", "species Diversity", "Parasitoid Genus Asobara", "Native Area", "mitochondrial COI gene", "chemical control", "findings offer", "autochthonous parasitoids", "control programmes", "parasitoid species", "SWD", "genus Asobara Foerster", "species diversity", "Wing Drosophila", "recolonizes neighbouring", "Integrated Pest Management protocols"], "article_id"=>2608486, "categories"=>["Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Emilio Guerrieri", "Massimo Giorgini", "Pasquale Cascone", "Simona Carpenito", "Cees van Achterberg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147382.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Species_Diversity_in_the_Parasitoid_Genus_i_Asobara_i_Hymenoptera_Braconidae_from_the_Native_Area_of_the_Fruit_Fly_Pest_i_Drosophila_suzukii_i_Diptera_Drosophilidae_Fig_2/2608486", "title"=>"Species Diversity in the Parasitoid Genus <i>Asobara</i> (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from the Native Area of the Fruit Fly Pest <i>Drosophila suzukii</i> (Diptera: Drosophilidae) - Fig 2", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-03 22:46:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4258177"], "description"=>"<p><i>Asobara</i> specimens used for molecular characterization.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["control approach", "paper reports", "management strategies", "Drosophila suzukii", "Asobara brevicauda", "Pest Drosophila suzukii", "stone fruits", "species Diversity", "Parasitoid Genus Asobara", "Native Area", "mitochondrial COI gene", "chemical control", "findings offer", "autochthonous parasitoids", "control programmes", "parasitoid species", "SWD", "genus Asobara Foerster", "species diversity", "Wing Drosophila", "recolonizes neighbouring", "Integrated Pest Management protocols"], "article_id"=>2608561, "categories"=>["Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Emilio Guerrieri", "Massimo Giorgini", "Pasquale Cascone", "Simona Carpenito", "Cees van Achterberg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147382.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_i_Asobara_i_specimens_used_for_molecular_characterization_/2608561", "title"=>"<i>Asobara</i> specimens used for molecular characterization.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-02-03 22:46:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4258174"], "description"=>"<p>Bootstrap values ≥50% are indicated on the branches. Scale bar indicates the number of substitution per site. Asobara individuals sampled and sequenced in this study are in bold. On the right side of the tree, the names of Asobara species found in this work are in red for the new species herein described or in blue for the species already known.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["control approach", "paper reports", "management strategies", "Drosophila suzukii", "Asobara brevicauda", "Pest Drosophila suzukii", "stone fruits", "species Diversity", "Parasitoid Genus Asobara", "Native Area", "mitochondrial COI gene", "chemical control", "findings offer", "autochthonous parasitoids", "control programmes", "parasitoid species", "SWD", "genus Asobara Foerster", "species diversity", "Wing Drosophila", "recolonizes neighbouring", "Integrated Pest Management protocols"], "article_id"=>2608558, "categories"=>["Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Emilio Guerrieri", "Massimo Giorgini", "Pasquale Cascone", "Simona Carpenito", "Cees van Achterberg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147382.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Maximum_Likelihood_tree_based_on_partial_nucleotide_sequence_of_COI_gene_/2608558", "title"=>"Maximum Likelihood tree based on partial nucleotide sequence of COI gene.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-03 22:46:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4258081"], "description"=>"<p><i>Asobara brevicauda</i> sp. nov. ♀(A) Head in dorsal view. (B) Head in frontal view. (C) Mesoscutum in dorsal view. (D) Areola. (E) Ovipositor sheath. (F) Wings.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["control approach", "paper reports", "management strategies", "Drosophila suzukii", "Asobara brevicauda", "Pest Drosophila suzukii", "stone fruits", "species Diversity", "Parasitoid Genus Asobara", "Native Area", "mitochondrial COI gene", "chemical control", "findings offer", "autochthonous parasitoids", "control programmes", "parasitoid species", "SWD", "genus Asobara Foerster", "species diversity", "Wing Drosophila", "recolonizes neighbouring", "Integrated Pest Management protocols"], "article_id"=>2608465, "categories"=>["Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Emilio Guerrieri", "Massimo Giorgini", "Pasquale Cascone", "Simona Carpenito", "Cees van Achterberg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147382.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Species_Diversity_in_the_Parasitoid_Genus_i_Asobara_i_Hymenoptera_Braconidae_from_the_Native_Area_of_the_Fruit_Fly_Pest_i_Drosophila_suzukii_i_Diptera_Drosophilidae_Fig_1/2608465", "title"=>"Species Diversity in the Parasitoid Genus <i>Asobara</i> (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from the Native Area of the Fruit Fly Pest <i>Drosophila suzukii</i> (Diptera: Drosophilidae) - Fig 1", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-03 22:46:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4258114"], "description"=>"<p><i>Asobara japonica</i> Belokobylskij ♀(A) Head in dorsal view. (B) Head in frontal view. (C) Mesoscutum in dorsal view. (D) Areola. (E) Wings.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["control approach", "paper reports", "management strategies", "Drosophila suzukii", "Asobara brevicauda", "Pest Drosophila suzukii", "stone fruits", "species Diversity", "Parasitoid Genus Asobara", "Native Area", "mitochondrial COI gene", "chemical control", "findings offer", "autochthonous parasitoids", "control programmes", "parasitoid species", "SWD", "genus Asobara Foerster", "species diversity", "Wing Drosophila", "recolonizes neighbouring", "Integrated Pest Management protocols"], "article_id"=>2608498, "categories"=>["Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Emilio Guerrieri", "Massimo Giorgini", "Pasquale Cascone", "Simona Carpenito", "Cees van Achterberg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147382.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Species_Diversity_in_the_Parasitoid_Genus_i_Asobara_i_Hymenoptera_Braconidae_from_the_Native_Area_of_the_Fruit_Fly_Pest_i_Drosophila_suzukii_i_Diptera_Drosophilidae_Fig_3/2608498", "title"=>"Species Diversity in the Parasitoid Genus <i>Asobara</i> (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from the Native Area of the Fruit Fly Pest <i>Drosophila suzukii</i> (Diptera: Drosophilidae) - Fig 3", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-03 22:46:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4258144"], "description"=>"<p><i>Asobara triangulata</i> sp. nov.♀. Wings.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["control approach", "paper reports", "management strategies", "Drosophila suzukii", "Asobara brevicauda", "Pest Drosophila suzukii", "stone fruits", "species Diversity", "Parasitoid Genus Asobara", "Native Area", "mitochondrial COI gene", "chemical control", "findings offer", "autochthonous parasitoids", "control programmes", "parasitoid species", "SWD", "genus Asobara Foerster", "species diversity", "Wing Drosophila", "recolonizes neighbouring", "Integrated Pest Management protocols"], "article_id"=>2608531, "categories"=>["Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Emilio Guerrieri", "Massimo Giorgini", "Pasquale Cascone", "Simona Carpenito", "Cees van Achterberg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147382.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_i_Asobara_triangulata_i_sp_nov_Wings_/2608531", "title"=>"<i>Asobara triangulata</i> sp. nov.♀. Wings.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-03 22:46:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4258048", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4258054", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4258066"], "description"=>"<div><p><i>Drosophila suzukii</i> (Matsumura), commonly known as Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD), is a worldwide serious economic threat to the production of berries and stone fruits. The chemical control widely used against this pest is often not able to preventing yield losses because wild flora offers an abundance of fruits to <i>D</i>. <i>suzukii</i> where the pest is able to reproduce and from where it recolonizes neighbouring cultivated fields. Alternatively, within Integrated Pest Management protocols for <i>D</i>. <i>suzukii</i>, biological control could play a key role by reducing its populations particularly in non-cultivated habitats, thus increasing the effectiveness and reducing the side negative effects of other management strategies. Because of the scarcity and of the low efficiency of autochthonous parasitoids in the new invaded territories, in the last few years, a number of surveys started in the native area of <i>D</i>. <i>suzukii</i> to find parasitoid species to be evaluated in quarantine structures and eventually released in the field, following a classical biological control approach. This paper reports the results of these surveys carried out in South Korea and for the first time in China. Among the parasitoids collected, those belonging to the genus <i>Asobara</i> Foerster resulted dominant both by number and species diversity. By combining morphological characters and the mitochondrial COI gene as a molecular marker, we identified seven species of <i>Asobara</i>, of which two associated with <i>D</i>. <i>suzukii</i>, namely <i>A</i>. <i>japonica</i> and <i>A leveri</i>, and five new to science, namely <i>Asobara brevicauda</i>, <i>A</i>. <i>elongata</i>, <i>A mesocauda</i>, <i>A unicolorata</i>, <i>A</i>. <i>triangulata</i>. Our findings offer new opportunity to find effective parasitoids to be introduced in classical biological control programmes in the territories recently invaded by <i>D</i>. <i>suzukii</i>.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["control approach", "paper reports", "management strategies", "Drosophila suzukii", "Asobara brevicauda", "Pest Drosophila suzukii", "stone fruits", "species Diversity", "Parasitoid Genus Asobara", "Native Area", "mitochondrial COI gene", "chemical control", "findings offer", "autochthonous parasitoids", "control programmes", "parasitoid species", "SWD", "genus Asobara Foerster", "species diversity", "Wing Drosophila", "recolonizes neighbouring", "Integrated Pest Management protocols"], "article_id"=>2608438, "categories"=>["Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Emilio Guerrieri", "Massimo Giorgini", "Pasquale Cascone", "Simona Carpenito", "Cees van Achterberg"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147382.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147382.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147382.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Species_Diversity_in_the_Parasitoid_Genus_i_Asobara_i_Hymenoptera_Braconidae_from_the_Native_Area_of_the_Fruit_Fly_Pest_i_Drosophila_suzukii_i_Diptera_Drosophilidae_/2608438", "title"=>"Species Diversity in the Parasitoid Genus <i>Asobara</i> (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from the Native Area of the Fruit Fly Pest <i>Drosophila suzukii</i> (Diptera: Drosophilidae)", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2016-02-03 22:46:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4258126"], "description"=>"<p><i>Asobara mesocauda</i> sp. nov. ♀ (A) Head in dorsal view. (B) Head in frontal view. (C) Mesoscutum in dorsal view. (D) Areola. (E) Wings.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["control approach", "paper reports", "management strategies", "Drosophila suzukii", "Asobara brevicauda", "Pest Drosophila suzukii", "stone fruits", "species Diversity", "Parasitoid Genus Asobara", "Native Area", "mitochondrial COI gene", "chemical control", "findings offer", "autochthonous parasitoids", "control programmes", "parasitoid species", "SWD", "genus Asobara Foerster", "species diversity", "Wing Drosophila", "recolonizes neighbouring", "Integrated Pest Management protocols"], "article_id"=>2608507, "categories"=>["Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Emilio Guerrieri", "Massimo Giorgini", "Pasquale Cascone", "Simona Carpenito", "Cees van Achterberg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147382.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Species_Diversity_in_the_Parasitoid_Genus_i_Asobara_i_Hymenoptera_Braconidae_from_the_Native_Area_of_the_Fruit_Fly_Pest_i_Drosophila_suzukii_i_Diptera_Drosophilidae_Fig_4/2608507", "title"=>"Species Diversity in the Parasitoid Genus <i>Asobara</i> (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from the Native Area of the Fruit Fly Pest <i>Drosophila suzukii</i> (Diptera: Drosophilidae) - Fig 4", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-03 22:46:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4258162"], "description"=>"<p><i>Asobara leveri</i> (Nixon) ♀ (A) Head in dorsal view. (B) Head in frontal view. (C) Mesoscutum in dorsal view. (D) Areola. (E) Wings.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["control approach", "paper reports", "management strategies", "Drosophila suzukii", "Asobara brevicauda", "Pest Drosophila suzukii", "stone fruits", "species Diversity", "Parasitoid Genus Asobara", "Native Area", "mitochondrial COI gene", "chemical control", "findings offer", "autochthonous parasitoids", "control programmes", "parasitoid species", "SWD", "genus Asobara Foerster", "species diversity", "Wing Drosophila", "recolonizes neighbouring", "Integrated Pest Management protocols"], "article_id"=>2608543, "categories"=>["Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Plant Biology"], "users"=>["Emilio Guerrieri", "Massimo Giorgini", "Pasquale Cascone", "Simona Carpenito", "Cees van Achterberg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147382.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Species_Diversity_in_the_Parasitoid_Genus_i_Asobara_i_Hymenoptera_Braconidae_from_the_Native_Area_of_the_Fruit_Fly_Pest_i_Drosophila_suzukii_i_Diptera_Drosophilidae_Fig_6/2608543", "title"=>"Species Diversity in the Parasitoid Genus <i>Asobara</i> (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from the Native Area of the Fruit Fly Pest <i>Drosophila suzukii</i> (Diptera: Drosophilidae) - Fig 6", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-03 22:46:25"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2016-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2016-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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