An eDNA Assay to Monitor a Globally Invasive Fish Species from Flowing Freshwater
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{"title"=>"An eDNA assay to monitor a globally invasive fish species from flowing freshwater", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Irene", "last_name"=>"Adrian-Kalchhauser", "scopus_author_id"=>"56946755000"}, {"first_name"=>"Patricia", "last_name"=>"Burkhardt-Holm", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004305774"}], "year"=>2016, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"608273622", "pmid"=>"26814998", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0147558", "issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84958213542", "sgr"=>"84958213542"}, "id"=>"5f5a8b74-8699-3872-9ec0-9d69c4d485a3", "abstract"=>"Ponto-Caspian gobies are a flock of five invasive fish species that have colonized freshwaters and brackish waters in Europe and North America. One of them, the round goby Neogobius melanostomus, figures among the 100 worst invaders in Europe. Current methods to detect the presence of Ponto-Caspian gobies involve catching or sighting the fish. These approaches are labor intense and not very sensitive. Consequently, populations are usually detected only when they have reached high densities and when management or containment efforts are futile. To improve monitoring, we developed an assay based on the detection of DNA traces (environmental DNA, or eDNA) of Ponto-Caspian gobies in river water. The assay specifically detects invasive goby DNA and does not react to any native fish species. We apply the assay to environmental samples and demonstrate that parameters such as sampling depth, sampling location, extraction protocol, PCR protocol and PCR inhibition greatly impact detection. We further successfully outline the invasion front of Ponto-Caspian gobies in a large river, the High Rhine in Switzerland, and thus demonstrate the applicability of the assay to lotic environments. The eDNA assay requires less time, equipment, manpower, skills, and financial resources than the conventional monitoring methods such as electrofishing, angling or diving. Samples can be taken by untrained individuals, and the assay can be performed by any molecular biologist on a conventional PCR machine. Therefore, this assay enables environment managers to map invaded areas independently of fishermen's' reports and fish community monitorings.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/edna-assay-monitor-globally-invasive-fish-species-flowing-freshwater", "reader_count"=>115, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>26, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>33, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>21, "Other"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>26, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>33, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>21, "Other"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Engineering"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>19, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>18, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>65, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>65}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>18}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>19}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>8}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4750759"], "description"=>"<p>Three water samples were taken from the invaded commercial harbor at site #2b. DNA was isolated, and each sample was subjected to conventional PCR and touchdown PCR with or without BSA. Primers: Ponto-Caspian goby primers. Experimental control: Carp pond (site #1) sampled after the field trip. Positive control: 5 ng <i>N</i>. <i>melanostomus</i> DNA as template. Negative control: ultrapure water as template.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["assay", "round goby Neogobius melanostomus", "PCR", "fish community monitorings", "Invasive Fish Species", "eDNA", "DNA", "fish species", "gobie"], "article_id"=>3045409, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Science Policy", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Cancer", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Irene Adrian-Kalchhauser", "Patricia Burkhardt-Holm"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147558.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/PCR_protocol_tests_/3045409", "title"=>"PCR protocol tests.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-27 14:01:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4750795"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Conceptual illustration of an inhibition testing PCR. An inhibition testing PCR is set up so that its endpoint is placed in the linear phase of a PCR amplification. Changes in the degree of PCR inhibition, template or cycle number will therefore result in changes in signal intensity. For a PCR with an endpoint as indicated by a black dot, more inhibition would result in lower signal intensity, and less inhibition would result in higher signal intensity. (B) Determination of the optimal cycle number for the inhibition testing PCR. Between cycles 10 to 28, the amplification curve is in the dynamic range. (C) Inhibition tests using environmental samples. Three microliters of the indicated environmental sample were added to the inhibition testing PCR, and PCR was run for 22 cycles in the absence (left) or presence (right) of BSA as an anti-inhibitory agent. Positive control, 70% EtOH. Negative control 1, ddH<sub>2</sub>O. Negative control 2, independent DNA preparation isolated with the Qiagen Blood and Tissue kit.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["assay", "round goby Neogobius melanostomus", "PCR", "fish community monitorings", "Invasive Fish Species", "eDNA", "DNA", "fish species", "gobie"], "article_id"=>3045442, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Science Policy", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Cancer", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Irene Adrian-Kalchhauser", "Patricia Burkhardt-Holm"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147558.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Testing_environmental_samples_for_PCR_inhibition_/3045442", "title"=>"Testing environmental samples for PCR inhibition.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-27 14:01:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4750765"], "description"=>"<p>Nine samples from a heavily invaded site at the local commercial harbor (site #2b) were assigned randomly to one of three extraction methods (EtOH precipitation, glass fiber filtration followed by Qiagen Blood and Tissue (B+T) kit lysis, and glass fiber filtration followed by CTAB lysis). Control samples were processed with glass fiber filtration followed by Qiagen Blood and Tissue kit lysis. Control sample 1: tap water, re-bottled at the sampling site. Control sample 2: uninvaded carp pond (site #1), sampled after the field trip. Primers: Ponto-Caspian goby primers. Positive control: 5 ng <i>N</i>. <i>melanostomus</i> DNA as template. Negative control: ultrapure water as template.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["assay", "round goby Neogobius melanostomus", "PCR", "fish community monitorings", "Invasive Fish Species", "eDNA", "DNA", "fish species", "gobie"], "article_id"=>3045412, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Science Policy", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Cancer", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Irene Adrian-Kalchhauser", "Patricia Burkhardt-Holm"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147558.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Extraction_method_tests_/3045412", "title"=>"Extraction method tests.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-27 14:01:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4750798"], "description"=>"<p>Sampling sites.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["assay", "round goby Neogobius melanostomus", "PCR", "fish community monitorings", "Invasive Fish Species", "eDNA", "DNA", "fish species", "gobie"], "article_id"=>3045445, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Science Policy", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Cancer", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Irene Adrian-Kalchhauser", "Patricia Burkhardt-Holm"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147558.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Sampling_sites_/3045445", "title"=>"Sampling sites.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-01-27 14:01:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4750771"], "description"=>"<p>None of the primer pairs amplifies bands on ultrapure water (negative control), or on DNA isolated from tap water (1), tap water rebottled in the harbor (2), samples taken from an uninvaded carp pond (site #1) before (3) or after (4) a field trip to an invaded site (site #2b). Positive control: 5ng of DNA from <i>Neogobius melanostomus</i> (Ponto-Caspian goby primers, <i>N</i>. <i>melanostomus</i> primers) or from <i>Ponticola kessleri</i> (<i>P</i>. <i>kessleri</i> primers) as used as template.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["assay", "round goby Neogobius melanostomus", "PCR", "fish community monitorings", "Invasive Fish Species", "eDNA", "DNA", "fish species", "gobie"], "article_id"=>3045418, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Science Policy", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Cancer", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Irene Adrian-Kalchhauser", "Patricia Burkhardt-Holm"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147558.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Negative_Controls_/3045418", "title"=>"Negative Controls.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-27 14:01:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4750726", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4750729", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4750732", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4750735", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4750738", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4750741"], "description"=>"<div><p>Ponto-Caspian gobies are a flock of five invasive fish species that have colonized freshwaters and brackish waters in Europe and North America. One of them, the round goby <i>Neogobius melanostomus</i>, figures among the 100 worst invaders in Europe. Current methods to detect the presence of Ponto-Caspian gobies involve catching or sighting the fish. These approaches are labor intense and not very sensitive. Consequently, populations are usually detected only when they have reached high densities and when management or containment efforts are futile. To improve monitoring, we developed an assay based on the detection of DNA traces (environmental DNA, or eDNA) of Ponto-Caspian gobies in river water. The assay specifically detects invasive goby DNA and does not react to any native fish species. We apply the assay to environmental samples and demonstrate that parameters such as sampling depth, sampling location, extraction protocol, PCR protocol and PCR inhibition greatly impact detection. We further successfully outline the invasion front of Ponto-Caspian gobies in a large river, the High Rhine in Switzerland, and thus demonstrate the applicability of the assay to lotic environments. The eDNA assay requires less time, equipment, manpower, skills, and financial resources than the conventional monitoring methods such as electrofishing, angling or diving. Samples can be taken by untrained individuals, and the assay can be performed by any molecular biologist on a conventional PCR machine. Therefore, this assay enables environment managers to map invaded areas independently of fishermen’s’ reports and fish community monitorings.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["assay", "round goby Neogobius melanostomus", "PCR", "fish community monitorings", "Invasive Fish Species", "eDNA", "DNA", "fish species", "gobie"], "article_id"=>3045391, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Science Policy", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Cancer", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Irene Adrian-Kalchhauser", "Patricia Burkhardt-Holm"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147558.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147558.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147558.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147558.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147558.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147558.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/An_eDNA_Assay_to_Monitor_a_Globally_Invasive_Fish_Species_from_Flowing_Freshwater/3045391", "title"=>"An eDNA Assay to Monitor a Globally Invasive Fish Species from Flowing Freshwater", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2016-01-27 14:01:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4750777"], "description"=>"<p>Nine samples were collected from the invaded commercial harbor on Wednesday (weekday) or Sunday (weekend) and from the surface or the bottom of the harbor at site #2b. 1–3: experimental controls. 1: Carp pond (site #1) sampled after weekday field trip. 2: Carp pond (site #1) sampled after weekend field trip. 3: Tap water, re-bottled during weekend field trip. Primers: Ponto-Caspian goby primers. Positive control: 5ng <i>N</i>. <i>melanostomus</i> DNA as template. Negative control: ultrapure water as template.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["assay", "round goby Neogobius melanostomus", "PCR", "fish community monitorings", "Invasive Fish Species", "eDNA", "DNA", "fish species", "gobie"], "article_id"=>3045424, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Science Policy", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Cancer", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Irene Adrian-Kalchhauser", "Patricia Burkhardt-Holm"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147558.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Sampling_depth_impacts_signal_strength_/3045424", "title"=>"Sampling depth impacts signal strength.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-27 14:01:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4750744"], "description"=>"<p>Sampling sites were distributed along 36 km of the High Rhine in Switzerland between Basel (most downstream locations: sites #2a, #2b, and #3) and Mumpf (most upstream location: site #12). For detailed coordinates of sampling sites, see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0147558#pone.0147558.t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>. In 2013, Ponto-Caspian gobies were reported, at very low densities, at a location midway between site #7 and site #8. Yellow bars, hydropower stations. Expansion of River Rhine opposite of site #7: former side arm of the river, today natural reserve. The map is oriented from North (top) to South (bottom).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["assay", "round goby Neogobius melanostomus", "PCR", "fish community monitorings", "Invasive Fish Species", "eDNA", "DNA", "fish species", "gobie"], "article_id"=>3045394, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Science Policy", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Cancer", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Irene Adrian-Kalchhauser", "Patricia Burkhardt-Holm"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147558.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Sampling_sites_/3045394", "title"=>"Sampling sites.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-27 14:01:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4750747"], "description"=>"<p>A commercially available water sampler was adapted for sampling benthic water. (A) Sampler as purchased. (B) Modified sampler, with plunger closed by a spring. (C) Sampler with bottle attached, plunger closed. (D) Bottle screw cap closed, plunger closed. (E) When the bottle touches ground, the plunger can be opened by pulling the attached cable. (F) When the plunger is opened, water can enter the bottle through holes in the bottle holder. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0147558#pone.0147558.s003\" target=\"_blank\">S2 Supplementary Material</a> for building instructions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["assay", "round goby Neogobius melanostomus", "PCR", "fish community monitorings", "Invasive Fish Species", "eDNA", "DNA", "fish species", "gobie"], "article_id"=>3045397, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Science Policy", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Cancer", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Irene Adrian-Kalchhauser", "Patricia Burkhardt-Holm"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147558.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Water_sampler_/3045397", "title"=>"Water sampler.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-27 14:01:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4750783"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Abundance. Catch data from 2012 to 2014 for sites #2a and #2b. (B) Signal strength from the same site. 1–3: field controls. 1: tap water, rebottled in harbor, site #2a. 2: tap water, rebottled in harbor, site #2b. 3: carp pond (site #1) sampled after field trip. Primers: Ponto-Caspian goby primers. Positive control: 5ng <i>N</i>. <i>melanostomus</i> DNA as template. Negative control: ultrapure water as template.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["assay", "round goby Neogobius melanostomus", "PCR", "fish community monitorings", "Invasive Fish Species", "eDNA", "DNA", "fish species", "gobie"], "article_id"=>3045430, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Science Policy", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Cancer", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Irene Adrian-Kalchhauser", "Patricia Burkhardt-Holm"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147558.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Abundance_is_not_correlated_with_signal_strength_/3045430", "title"=>"Abundance is not correlated with signal strength.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-27 14:01:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4750753"], "description"=>"<p>Ponto-Caspian goby, round goby <i>N</i>. <i>melanostomus</i> and bighead goby <i>P</i>. <i>kessleri</i> primers were tested on samples from Ponto-Caspian gobies, from other goby species, and on fish native in Switzerland. Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) was amplified as positive control from all samples.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["assay", "round goby Neogobius melanostomus", "PCR", "fish community monitorings", "Invasive Fish Species", "eDNA", "DNA", "fish species", "gobie"], "article_id"=>3045403, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Science Policy", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Cancer", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Irene Adrian-Kalchhauser", "Patricia Burkhardt-Holm"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147558.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Primer_specificity_/3045403", "title"=>"Primer specificity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-27 14:01:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4750792"], "description"=>"<p>Numbers correspond to sampling sites in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0147558#pone.0147558.g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 1</a>, with site #1 as experimental control from the carp pond, and sites #2b-12 as field samples extending upstream from the heavily invaded harbor (site #2b). Primers: Ponto-Caspian goby primers. Positive control: 5ng <i>N</i>. <i>melanostomus</i> DNA as template. Negative control: ultrapure water as template.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["assay", "round goby Neogobius melanostomus", "PCR", "fish community monitorings", "Invasive Fish Species", "eDNA", "DNA", "fish species", "gobie"], "article_id"=>3045439, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Science Policy", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Cancer", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Irene Adrian-Kalchhauser", "Patricia Burkhardt-Holm"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147558.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Ponto_Caspian_gobies_can_be_detected_from_river_water_/3045439", "title"=>"Ponto-Caspian gobies can be detected from river water.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-01-27 14:01:47"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2016-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2016-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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