Adaptive Control of Exoskeleton Robots for Periodic Assistive Behaviours Based on EMG Feedback Minimisation
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{"title"=>"Adaptive control of exoskeleton robots for periodic assistive behaviours based on EMG feedback minimisation", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Luka", "last_name"=>"Peternel", "scopus_author_id"=>"56943287700"}, {"first_name"=>"Tomoyuki", "last_name"=>"Noda", "scopus_author_id"=>"36662869100"}, {"first_name"=>"Tadej", "last_name"=>"Petrič", "scopus_author_id"=>"36447813900"}, {"first_name"=>"Aleš", "last_name"=>"Ude", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701345288"}, {"first_name"=>"Jun", "last_name"=>"Morimoto", "scopus_author_id"=>"36464057500"}, {"first_name"=>"Jan", "last_name"=>"Babič", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701699940"}], "year"=>2016, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "sgr"=>"84979020342", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0148942", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84979020342", "pmid"=>"26881743", "pui"=>"611263015"}, "id"=>"54adb597-ccd5-3833-8d33-ad31e17fdeca", "abstract"=>"In this paper we propose an exoskeleton control method for adaptive learning of assistive joint torque profiles in periodic tasks. We use human muscle activity as feedback to adapt the assistive joint torque behaviour in a way that the muscle activity is minimised. The user can then relax while the exoskeleton takes over the task execution. If the task is altered and the existing assistive behaviour becomes inadequate, the exoskeleton gradually adapts to the new task execution so that the increased muscle activity caused by the new desired task can be reduced. The advantage of the proposed method is that it does not require biomechanical or dynamical models. Our proposed learning system uses Dynamical Movement Primitives (DMPs) as a trajectory generator and parameters of DMPs are modulated using Locally Weighted Regression. Then, the learning system is combined with adaptive oscillators that determine the phase and frequency of motion according to measured Electromyography (EMG) signals. We tested the method with real robot experiments where subjects wearing an elbow exoskeleton had to move an object of an unknown mass according to a predefined reference motion. We further evaluated the proposed approach on a whole-arm exoskeleton to show that it is able to adaptively derive assistive torques even for multiple-joint motion.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/adaptive-control-exoskeleton-robots-periodic-assistive-behaviours-based-emg-feedback-minimisation", "reader_count"=>68, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>26, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>15, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>26, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>15, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>52, "Unspecified"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>2, "Computer Science"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>52}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>7}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"France"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>7}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/3981700"], "description"=>"<p>The graphs show trajectories as they were gradually learnt by the DMP system and fed to PAM pressure controller. Each colour variation represents one periodic cycle. The time sequence is illustrated by the colour spectrum, where the earlier trajectories are plotted with red and the later with violet colour. The left graph shows the first stage, the middle graph the second stage and the right graph shows the third stage of the experiment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["muscle activity", "torque", "exoskeleton control method", "EMG Feedback Minimisation", "assistive", "adaptive", "Periodic Assistive Behaviours", "behaviour", "predefined reference motion", "DMP", "task execution", "Dynamical Movement Primitives"], "article_id"=>2343520, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Luka Peternel", "Tomoyuki Noda", "Tadej Petrič", "Aleš Ude", "Jun Morimoto", "Jan Babič"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0148942.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Control_pressure_trajectory_updates_as_a_function_of_phase_/2343520", "title"=>"Control pressure trajectory updates as a function of phase.", "pos_in_sequence"=>6, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-16 07:56:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/3981994"], "description"=>"<p>Graphs are showing normalised tracking error of amplitude and frequency with respect to the given reference conditions in passive and active mode. Standard error of mean is marked with black.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["muscle activity", "torque", "exoskeleton control method", "EMG Feedback Minimisation", "assistive", "adaptive", "Periodic Assistive Behaviours", "behaviour", "predefined reference motion", "DMP", "task execution", "Dynamical Movement Primitives"], "article_id"=>2343712, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Luka Peternel", "Tomoyuki Noda", "Tadej Petrič", "Aleš Ude", "Jun Morimoto", "Jan Babič"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0148942.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Results_of_the_experiment_on_multiple_subjects_/2343712", "title"=>"Results of the experiment on multiple subjects.", "pos_in_sequence"=>10, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-16 07:56:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/3981514"], "description"=>"<p>The human is included into the robot control loop through EMG-based biofeedback and DMP learning system. DMP system was made to minimise the EMG-based biofeedback by generating appropriate periodic feed-forward exoskeleton control trajectories. The adaptive oscillators are used to extract the phase and frequency information from human biofeedback and modulate the phase and frequency of the learnt feed-forward trajectories.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["muscle activity", "torque", "exoskeleton control method", "EMG Feedback Minimisation", "assistive", "adaptive", "Periodic Assistive Behaviours", "behaviour", "predefined reference motion", "DMP", "task execution", "Dynamical Movement Primitives"], "article_id"=>2343394, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Luka Peternel", "Tomoyuki Noda", "Tadej Petrič", "Aleš Ude", "Jun Morimoto", "Jan Babič"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0148942.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Schematic_presentation_of_proposed_adaptive_exoskeleton_control_system_/2343394", "title"=>"Schematic presentation of proposed adaptive exoskeleton control system.", "pos_in_sequence"=>3, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-16 07:56:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/3981787"], "description"=>"<p>The red colour represents the earlier while violet represents the later trajectories. The lower two graphs show the control pressure trajectories updated as a function of phase for each joint.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["muscle activity", "torque", "exoskeleton control method", "EMG Feedback Minimisation", "assistive", "adaptive", "Periodic Assistive Behaviours", "behaviour", "predefined reference motion", "DMP", "task execution", "Dynamical Movement Primitives"], "article_id"=>2343562, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Luka Peternel", "Tomoyuki Noda", "Tadej Petrič", "Aleš Ude", "Jun Morimoto", "Jan Babič"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0148942.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_three_graphs_in_the_first_row_show_the_end_effector_motion_at_the_end_of_there_different_stages_of_experiment_4_phases_plotted_for_each_/2343562", "title"=>"The three graphs in the first row show the end-effector motion at the end of there different stages of experiment (4 phases plotted for each).", "pos_in_sequence"=>7, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-16 07:56:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/3981928"], "description"=>"<p>Images in the first sub-row show the end-effector when it moved the object to the lower reference position, while the images in second sub-row show it in the upper position.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["muscle activity", "torque", "exoskeleton control method", "EMG Feedback Minimisation", "assistive", "adaptive", "Periodic Assistive Behaviours", "behaviour", "predefined reference motion", "DMP", "task execution", "Dynamical Movement Primitives"], "article_id"=>2343661, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Luka Peternel", "Tomoyuki Noda", "Tadej Petrič", "Aleš Ude", "Jun Morimoto", "Jan Babič"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0148942.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Sequence_of_photographs_taken_during_the_experiment_that_illustrate_the_state_of_the_exoskeleton_at_the_end_of_the_3_stages_/2343661", "title"=>"Sequence of photographs taken during the experiment that illustrate the state of the exoskeleton at the end of the 3 stages.", "pos_in_sequence"=>9, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-16 07:56:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/3981355"], "description"=>"<div><p>In this paper we propose an exoskeleton control method for adaptive learning of assistive joint torque profiles in periodic tasks. We use human muscle activity as feedback to adapt the assistive joint torque behaviour in a way that the muscle activity is minimised. The user can then relax while the exoskeleton takes over the task execution. If the task is altered and the existing assistive behaviour becomes inadequate, the exoskeleton gradually adapts to the new task execution so that the increased muscle activity caused by the new desired task can be reduced. The advantage of the proposed method is that it does not require biomechanical or dynamical models. Our proposed learning system uses Dynamical Movement Primitives (DMPs) as a trajectory generator and parameters of DMPs are modulated using Locally Weighted Regression. Then, the learning system is combined with adaptive oscillators that determine the phase and frequency of motion according to measured Electromyography (EMG) signals. We tested the method with real robot experiments where subjects wearing an elbow exoskeleton had to move an object of an unknown mass according to a predefined reference motion. We further evaluated the proposed approach on a whole-arm exoskeleton to show that it is able to adaptively derive assistive torques even for multiple-joint motion.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["muscle activity", "torque", "exoskeleton control method", "EMG Feedback Minimisation", "assistive", "adaptive", "Periodic Assistive Behaviours", "behaviour", "predefined reference motion", "DMP", "task execution", "Dynamical Movement Primitives"], "article_id"=>2343310, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Luka Peternel", "Tomoyuki Noda", "Tadej Petrič", "Aleš Ude", "Jun Morimoto", "Jan Babič"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0148942", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Adaptive_Control_of_Exoskeleton_Robots_for_Periodic_Assistive_Behaviours_Based_on_EMG_Feedback_Minimisation/2343310", "title"=>"Adaptive Control of Exoskeleton Robots for Periodic Assistive Behaviours Based on EMG Feedback Minimisation", "pos_in_sequence"=>1, "defined_type"=>2, "published_date"=>"2016-02-16 07:56:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/3981592"], "description"=>"<p>The first graph shows commanded PAM pressure as it was learned by the DMP system. The second graph shows the joint torque calculated based on the force measurement from the load cell. The third graph shows the human muscle activity based feedback obtained from the measured EMG. The fourth graph shows the angle of the robot elbow joint as measured by the encoder in the exoskeleton joint. The fifth graph shows the frequency of motion as extracted by the adaptive oscillator from the muscle activity feedback <i>U</i>. The given referent states are highlighted by black lines.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["muscle activity", "torque", "exoskeleton control method", "EMG Feedback Minimisation", "assistive", "adaptive", "Periodic Assistive Behaviours", "behaviour", "predefined reference motion", "DMP", "task execution", "Dynamical Movement Primitives"], "article_id"=>2343439, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Luka Peternel", "Tomoyuki Noda", "Tadej Petrič", "Aleš Ude", "Jun Morimoto", "Jan Babič"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0148942.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Results_of_experiment_on_elbow_exoskeleton_using_a_trained_subject_/2343439", "title"=>"Results of experiment on elbow exoskeleton using a trained subject.", "pos_in_sequence"=>4, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-16 07:56:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/3981868"], "description"=>"<p>The upper four graphs show the variables related to the shoulder joint. The lower five graphs show the variables related to the elbow joint. The last graph shows the estimated frequency from the elbow joint muscle activity feedback. Variable <i>p</i> corresponds to the commanded pressure learned by the DMP system, variable <i>τ</i> to the joint torques calculated from measured forces in the load cells, variables <i>U</i><sub><i>S</i></sub> and <i>U</i><sub><i>E</i></sub> to muscle activity feedback signals from shoulder and elbow flexion/extension joints, variable Θ to measured joint angles by the encoders and Ω to the frequency estimated by the adaptive oscillator from <i>U</i><sub><i>E</i></sub>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["muscle activity", "torque", "exoskeleton control method", "EMG Feedback Minimisation", "assistive", "adaptive", "Periodic Assistive Behaviours", "behaviour", "predefined reference motion", "DMP", "task execution", "Dynamical Movement Primitives"], "article_id"=>2343601, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Luka Peternel", "Tomoyuki Noda", "Tadej Petrič", "Aleš Ude", "Jun Morimoto", "Jan Babič"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0148942.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Results_of_experiment_on_whole_arm_exoskeleton_using_a_trained_subject_/2343601", "title"=>"Results of experiment on whole-arm exoskeleton using a trained subject.", "pos_in_sequence"=>8, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-16 07:56:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/3981439"], "description"=>"<p>The top photo shows the elbow exoskeleton [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0148942#pone.0148942.ref034\" target=\"_blank\">34</a>] and the bottom photo shows the whole-arm exoskeleton [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0148942#pone.0148942.ref035\" target=\"_blank\">35</a>].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["muscle activity", "torque", "exoskeleton control method", "EMG Feedback Minimisation", "assistive", "adaptive", "Periodic Assistive Behaviours", "behaviour", "predefined reference motion", "DMP", "task execution", "Dynamical Movement Primitives"], "article_id"=>2343355, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Luka Peternel", "Tomoyuki Noda", "Tadej Petrič", "Aleš Ude", "Jun Morimoto", "Jan Babič"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0148942.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Exoskeleton_systems_used_in_the_experiments_developed_at_BRI_ATR_/2343355", "title"=>"Exoskeleton systems used in the experiments, developed at BRI ATR.", "pos_in_sequence"=>2, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-16 07:56:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/3982045"], "description"=>"<p>Conceptual comparison between different types of control methods.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["muscle activity", "torque", "exoskeleton control method", "EMG Feedback Minimisation", "assistive", "adaptive", "Periodic Assistive Behaviours", "behaviour", "predefined reference motion", "DMP", "task execution", "Dynamical Movement Primitives"], "article_id"=>2343742, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Luka Peternel", "Tomoyuki Noda", "Tadej Petrič", "Aleš Ude", "Jun Morimoto", "Jan Babič"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0148942.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Conceptual_comparison_between_different_types_of_control_methods_/2343742", "title"=>"Conceptual comparison between different types of control methods.", "pos_in_sequence"=>11, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-02-16 07:56:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/3981652"], "description"=>"<p>Images in the first sub-row show the exoskeleton when it moved the object to the lower reference position, while the images in second sub-row show it in the upper position.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["muscle activity", "torque", "exoskeleton control method", "EMG Feedback Minimisation", "assistive", "adaptive", "Periodic Assistive Behaviours", "behaviour", "predefined reference motion", "DMP", "task execution", "Dynamical Movement Primitives"], "article_id"=>2343487, "categories"=>["Physiology", "Biotechnology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Luka Peternel", "Tomoyuki Noda", "Tadej Petrič", "Aleš Ude", "Jun Morimoto", "Jan Babič"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0148942.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Sequence_of_photographs_taken_during_the_experiment_that_illustrate_the_state_of_the_exoskeleton_at_the_end_of_the_3_stages_/2343487", "title"=>"Sequence of photographs taken during the experiment that illustrate the state of the exoskeleton at the end of the 3 stages.", "pos_in_sequence"=>5, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-16 07:56:30"}

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{"start_date"=>"2016-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2016-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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