On the Skill of Balancing While Riding a Bicycle
Publication Date
February 24, 2016
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Stephen M. Cain, James A. Ashton Miller & Noel C. Perkins
Volume
11
Issue
2
Pages
e0149340
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149340
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0149340
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26910774
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4766243
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/26910774
Scopus
84977547737
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/skill-balancing-while-riding-bicycle
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Mendeley | Further Information

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Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4730392", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4730398"], "description"=>"<div><p>Humans have ridden bicycles for over 200 years, yet there are no continuous measures of how skill differs between novice and expert. To address this knowledge gap, we measured the dynamics of human bicycle riding in 14 subjects, half of whom were skilled and half were novice. Each subject rode an instrumented bicycle on training rollers at speeds ranging from 1 to 7 m/s. Steer angle and rate, steer torque, bicycle speed, and bicycle roll angle and rate were measured and steering power calculated. A force platform beneath the roller assembly measured the net force and moment that the bicycle, rider and rollers exerted on the floor, enabling calculations of the lateral positions of the system centers of mass and pressure. Balance performance was quantified by cross-correlating the lateral positions of the centers of mass and pressure. The results show that all riders exhibited similar balance performance at the slowest speed. However at higher speeds, the skilled riders achieved superior balance performance by employing more rider lean control (quantified by cross-correlating rider lean angle and bicycle roll angle) and less steer control (quantified by cross-correlating steer rate and bicycle roll rate) than did novice riders. Skilled riders also used smaller steering control input with less variation (measured by average positive steering power and standard deviations of steer angle and rate) and less rider lean angle variation (measured by the standard deviation of the rider lean angle) independent of speed. We conclude that the reduction in balance control input by skilled riders is not due to reduced balance demands but rather to more effective use of lean control to guide the center of mass via center of pressure movements.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["balance control input", "bicycle roll rate", "steering control input", "speed", "bicycle roll angle", "center", "balance performance", "steering power", "rider"], "article_id"=>3028000, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Stephen M. Cain", "James A. Ashton-Miller", "Noel C. Perkins"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149340.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149340.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/On_the_Skill_of_Balancing_While_Riding_a_Bicycle/3028000", "title"=>"On the Skill of Balancing While Riding a Bicycle", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2016-02-24 09:19:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4731007"], "description"=>"<p>Cyclists exhibit less variation of steer rate (F = 15.121, p < 0.001) than non-cyclists. All subject data are shown; connected points indicate data from the same subject.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["balance control input", "bicycle roll rate", "steering control input", "speed", "bicycle roll angle", "center", "balance performance", "steering power", "rider"], "article_id"=>3028480, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Stephen M. Cain", "James A. Ashton-Miller", "Noel C. Perkins"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149340.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Standard_deviation_of_steer_rate_versus_speed_/3028480", "title"=>"Standard deviation of steer rate () versus speed.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-24 09:19:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4730584"], "description"=>"<p>The rider lean angle (<i>ϕ</i><sub><i>lean</i></sub>) quantifies how a rider is shifting his/her COM to alter the location of the rider-bicycle COM relative to the bicycle. The arrows define the positive sense of all angles. Rider lean (<i>ϕ</i><sub><i>lean</i></sub>) is defined as the COM roll angle (<i>ϕ</i><sub><i>COM</i></sub>) minus the bicycle roll angle (<i>ϕ</i>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["balance control input", "bicycle roll rate", "steering control input", "speed", "bicycle roll angle", "center", "balance performance", "steering power", "rider"], "article_id"=>3028162, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Stephen M. Cain", "James A. Ashton-Miller", "Noel C. Perkins"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149340.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Rider_lean_angle_as_viewed_from_behind_the_rider_bicycle_/3028162", "title"=>"Rider lean angle as viewed from behind the rider-bicycle.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-24 09:19:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4730782"], "description"=>"<p>The cross-correlation decreased significantly with increasing speed (F = 29.113, p < 0.001) and decreased significantly more with increasing speed for non-cyclists than cyclists (F = 14.843, p < 0.001). All subject data are shown; connected points indicate data from the same subject.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["balance control input", "bicycle roll rate", "steering control input", "speed", "bicycle roll angle", "center", "balance performance", "steering power", "rider"], "article_id"=>3028291, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Stephen M. Cain", "James A. Ashton-Miller", "Noel C. Perkins"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149340.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Cross_correlation_of_the_lateral_position_of_the_center_of_mass_i_y_i_sub_i_COM_i_sub_to_the_center_of_pressure_i_y_i_sub_i_COP_i_sub_versus_speed_/3028291", "title"=>"Cross-correlation of the lateral position of the center of mass (<i>y</i><sub><i>COM</i></sub>) to the center of pressure (<i>y</i><sub><i>COP</i></sub>) versus speed.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-24 09:19:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4730506"], "description"=>"<p>The ground reaction forces (<i>F</i><sub><i>x</i></sub>, <i>F</i><sub><i>y</i></sub>, <i>F</i><sub><i>z</i></sub>) and moments (<i>M</i><sub><i>x</i></sub>, <i>M</i><sub><i>y</i></sub>, <i>M</i><sub><i>z</i></sub>) were measured by the force platform beneath the rollers. The bicycle rides on an effective ground surface located a distance <i>d</i><sub><i>z</i></sub> above the force platform.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["balance control input", "bicycle roll rate", "steering control input", "speed", "bicycle roll angle", "center", "balance performance", "steering power", "rider"], "article_id"=>3028102, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Stephen M. Cain", "James A. Ashton-Miller", "Noel C. Perkins"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149340.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Force_and_moment_measurements_from_the_force_platform_were_used_to_calculate_the_rider_bicycle_system_COM_and_COP_locations_in_the_lateral_or_y_direction_/3028102", "title"=>"Force and moment measurements from the force platform were used to calculate the rider-bicycle system COM and COP locations in the lateral or y-direction.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-24 09:19:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4731184"], "description"=>"<p>The cross-correlation decreases significantly with increasing speed (F = 32.948, p < 0.001) and decreases significantly more with increasing speed for non-cyclists than cyclists (F = 17.639, p < 0.001). All subject data are shown; connected points indicate data from the same subject.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["balance control input", "bicycle roll rate", "steering control input", "speed", "bicycle roll angle", "center", "balance performance", "steering power", "rider"], "article_id"=>3028648, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Stephen M. Cain", "James A. Ashton-Miller", "Noel C. Perkins"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149340.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Cross_correlation_of_rider_lean_angle_i_i_sub_i_lean_i_sub_to_bicycle_roll_angle_i_i_versus_speed_/3028648", "title"=>"Cross-correlation of rider lean angle (<i>ϕ</i><sub><i>lean</i></sub>) to bicycle roll angle (<i>ϕ</i>) versus speed.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-24 09:19:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4731130"], "description"=>"<p>Data from a representative trial (cyclist, <i>v</i> = 2.526 m/s) demonstrates that rider lean (<i>ϕ</i><sub><i>lean</i></sub>) is highly correlated, but negatively so, with bicycle roll angle (<i>ϕ</i>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["balance control input", "bicycle roll rate", "steering control input", "speed", "bicycle roll angle", "center", "balance performance", "steering power", "rider"], "article_id"=>3028594, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Stephen M. Cain", "James A. Ashton-Miller", "Noel C. Perkins"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149340.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Bicycle_roll_angle_i_i_and_rider_lean_angle_i_i_sub_i_lean_i_sub_versus_time_/3028594", "title"=>"Bicycle roll angle (<i>ϕ</i>) and rider lean angle (<i>ϕ</i><sub><i>lean</i></sub>) versus time.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-24 09:19:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4731265"], "description"=>"<p>The standard deviation of the lateral position of the center of pressure decreases significantly with increasing speed (F = 25.294, p < 0.001). Although it may appear that cyclists exhibit less variation in the center of pressure position than non-cyclists, there was not a significant difference between the two groups (F = 3.695, p = 0.059). All subject data are shown; connected points indicate data from the same subject.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["balance control input", "bicycle roll rate", "steering control input", "speed", "bicycle roll angle", "center", "balance performance", "steering power", "rider"], "article_id"=>3028720, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Stephen M. Cain", "James A. Ashton-Miller", "Noel C. Perkins"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149340.g013", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Standard_deviation_of_the_lateral_position_of_the_center_of_pressure_i_y_i_sub_i_COP_i_sub_versus_speed_/3028720", "title"=>"Standard deviation of the lateral position of the center of pressure (<i>y</i><sub><i>COP</i></sub>) versus speed.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-24 09:19:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4731220"], "description"=>"<p>Cyclists exhibit significantly less rider lean than non-cyclists (F = 19.643, p < 0.001). All subject data are shown; connected points indicate data from the same subject.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["balance control input", "bicycle roll rate", "steering control input", "speed", "bicycle roll angle", "center", "balance performance", "steering power", "rider"], "article_id"=>3028690, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Stephen M. Cain", "James A. Ashton-Miller", "Noel C. Perkins"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149340.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Standard_deviation_of_rider_lean_angle_i_i_sub_i_lean_i_sub_versus_speed_/3028690", "title"=>"Standard deviation of rider lean angle (<i>ϕ</i><sub><i>lean</i></sub>) versus speed.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-24 09:19:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4730449"], "description"=>"<p>The training rollers were bolted to a force platform via four brackets attached to the rectangular frame on which the rollers were mounted.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["balance control input", "bicycle roll rate", "steering control input", "speed", "bicycle roll angle", "center", "balance performance", "steering power", "rider"], "article_id"=>3028051, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Stephen M. Cain", "James A. Ashton-Miller", "Noel C. Perkins"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149340.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/A_subject_riding_the_instrumented_bicycle_on_the_training_rollers_/3028051", "title"=>"A subject riding the instrumented bicycle on the training rollers.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-24 09:19:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4730671"], "description"=>"<p>Data from a representative trial (non-cyclist, <i>v</i> = 7.46 m/s) demonstrates the lateral center of mass location closely tracks the lateral center of pressure location during bicycle riding.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["balance control input", "bicycle roll rate", "steering control input", "speed", "bicycle roll angle", "center", "balance performance", "steering power", "rider"], "article_id"=>3028213, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Stephen M. Cain", "James A. Ashton-Miller", "Noel C. Perkins"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149340.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Lateral_center_of_pressure_location_i_y_i_sub_i_COP_i_sub_and_center_of_mass_location_i_y_i_sub_i_COM_i_sub_versus_time_/3028213", "title"=>"Lateral center of pressure location (<i>y</i><sub><i>COP</i></sub>) and center of mass location (<i>y</i><sub><i>COM</i></sub>) versus time.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-24 09:19:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4731070"], "description"=>"<p>All riders developed less positive power to steer the bicycle as speed increased (F = 10.547, p = 0.002). Cyclists developed less positive power than non-cyclists (F = 19.213, p < 0.001). All subject data are shown; connected points indicate data from the same subject.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["balance control input", "bicycle roll rate", "steering control input", "speed", "bicycle roll angle", "center", "balance performance", "steering power", "rider"], "article_id"=>3028537, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Stephen M. Cain", "James A. Ashton-Miller", "Noel C. Perkins"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149340.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Average_positive_steering_power_versus_speed_/3028537", "title"=>"Average positive steering power versus speed.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-24 09:19:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4730941"], "description"=>"<p>The cross-correlation decreases significantly with increasing speed (F = 34.307, p < 0.001) and decreases significantly more with increasing speed for cyclists than non-cyclists (F = 4.650, p = 0.035). All subject data are shown; connected points indicate data from the same subject.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["balance control input", "bicycle roll rate", "steering control input", "speed", "bicycle roll angle", "center", "balance performance", "steering power", "rider"], "article_id"=>3028414, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Stephen M. Cain", "James A. Ashton-Miller", "Noel C. Perkins"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149340.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Cross_correlation_of_steer_rate_to_bicycle_roll_rate_versus_speed_/3028414", "title"=>"Cross-correlation of steer rate () to bicycle roll rate () versus speed.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-24 09:19:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4730875"], "description"=>"<p>Data from a representative trial (non-cyclist, <i>v</i> = 7.96 m/s) demonstrates that the steer rate () lags and is correlated to the bicycle roll rate () during riding.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["balance control input", "bicycle roll rate", "steering control input", "speed", "bicycle roll angle", "center", "balance performance", "steering power", "rider"], "article_id"=>3028351, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Stephen M. Cain", "James A. Ashton-Miller", "Noel C. Perkins"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149340.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Bicycle_roll_rate_and_steer_rate_versus_time_/3028351", "title"=>"Bicycle roll rate () and steer rate () versus time.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-24 09:19:39"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2016-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2016-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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