The Impact of Third-Party Information on Trust: Valence, Source, and Reliability
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{"title"=>"The impact of third-party information on trust: Valence, source, and reliability", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Christiane", "last_name"=>"Bozoyan", "scopus_author_id"=>"44761057500"}, {"first_name"=>"Sonja", "last_name"=>"Vogt", "scopus_author_id"=>"36725706500"}], "year"=>2016, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84960540839", "sgr"=>"84960540839", "pui"=>"608920772", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0149542"}, "id"=>"1bfff401-5d67-3894-8fac-1097a89d3a87", "abstract"=>"Economic exchange between strangers happens extremely frequently due to the growing number of internet transactions. In trust situations like online transactions, a trustor usually does not know whether she encounters a trustworthy trustee. However, the trustor might form beliefs about the trustee's trustworthiness by relying on third-party information. Differ- ent kinds of third-party information can vary dramatically in their importance to the trustor. We ran a factorial design to study how the different characteristics of third-party information affect the trustor’s decision to trust. We systematically varied unregulated third-party infor- mation regarding the source (friend or a stranger), the reliability (gossip or experiences), and the valence (positive or negative) of the information. The results show that negative information is more salient for withholding trust than positive information is for placing trust. If third-party information is positive, experience of a friend has the strongest effect on trust- ing followed by friend’s gossip. Positive information from a stranger does not matter to the trustor. With respect to negative information, the data show that even the slightest hint of an untrustworthy trustee leads to significantly less placed trust irrespective of the source or the reliability of the information.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/impact-thirdparty-information-trust-valence-source-reliability", "reader_count"=>15, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>4, "Social Sciences"=>7, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>7}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Brazil"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/3997861"], "description"=>"<p>Valence of information.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Positive information", "results show", "Reliability Economic exchange", "Different kinds", "trustor", "data show", "trust situations", "factorial design", "withholding trust", "internet transactions"], "article_id"=>2358688, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Sociology", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Christiane Bozoyan", "Sonja Vogt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149542.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Valence_of_information_/2358688", "title"=>"Valence of information.", "pos_in_sequence"=>7, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-02-16 12:03:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/3997639", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/3997654"], "description"=>"<div><p>Economic exchange between strangers happens extremely frequently due to the growing number of internet transactions. In trust situations like online transactions, a trustor usually does not know whether she encounters a trustworthy trustee. However, the trustor might form beliefs about the trustee's trustworthiness by relying on third-party information. Different kinds of third-party information can vary dramatically in their importance to the trustor. We ran a factorial design to study how the different characteristics of third-party information affect the trustor’s decision to trust. We systematically varied unregulated third-party information regarding the source (friend or a stranger), the reliability (gossip or experiences), and the valence (positive or negative) of the information. The results show that negative information is more salient for withholding trust than positive information is for placing trust. If third-party information is positive, experience of a friend has the strongest effect on trusting followed by friend’s gossip. Positive information from a stranger does not matter to the trustor. With respect to negative information, the data show that even the slightest hint of an untrustworthy trustee leads to significantly less placed trust irrespective of the source or the reliability of the information.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Positive information", "results show", "Reliability Economic exchange", "Different kinds", "trustor", "data show", "trust situations", "factorial design", "withholding trust", "internet transactions"], "article_id"=>2358466, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Sociology", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Christiane Bozoyan", "Sonja Vogt"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149542.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149542.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_Impact_of_Third_Party_Information_on_Trust_Valence_Source_and_Reliability/2358466", "title"=>"The Impact of Third-Party Information on Trust: Valence, Source, and Reliability", "pos_in_sequence"=>1, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2016-02-16 12:03:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/3997822"], "description"=>"<p>Overview of the complete 2x2x2 vignette set and the baseline vignette with no third-party information.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Positive information", "results show", "Reliability Economic exchange", "Different kinds", "trustor", "data show", "trust situations", "factorial design", "withholding trust", "internet transactions"], "article_id"=>2358649, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Sociology", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Christiane Bozoyan", "Sonja Vogt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149542.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Overview_of_the_complete_2x2x2_vignette_set_and_the_baseline_vignette_with_no_third_party_information_/2358649", "title"=>"Overview of the complete 2x2x2 vignette set and the baseline vignette with no third-party information.", "pos_in_sequence"=>6, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-02-16 12:03:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/3997690"], "description"=>"<p>Fig 1 shows the predicted relative effects on trust for third-party information under different combinations of source and reliability. The triangles on the left side indicate increasing effect sizes in terms of placing trust (+) and withholding trust (-). Each line represents third-party information with a specific set of characteristics in terms of the source and reliability of the information. When both source and reliability operate in the same direction, effects should be relatively large in magnitude (e.g. friend tells experience) or relatively small in magnitude (e.g. stranger tells gossip). When source and reliability work in opposite directions (e.g. friend tells gossip or a stranger conveys an experience), relative effects cannot be predicted a priori. The baseline involves no third-party information.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Positive information", "results show", "Reliability Economic exchange", "Different kinds", "trustor", "data show", "trust situations", "factorial design", "withholding trust", "internet transactions"], "article_id"=>2358520, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Sociology", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Christiane Bozoyan", "Sonja Vogt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149542.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Predicted_effects_for_the_interaction_of_valence_source_and_reliability_in_comparison_to_the_baseline_with_no_third_party_information_/2358520", "title"=>"Predicted effects for the interaction of valence, source, and reliability in comparison to the baseline with no third-party information.", "pos_in_sequence"=>2, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-16 12:03:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/3997723"], "description"=>"<p>Example vignette of a friend of the buyer (participant) sharing a negative experience with the seller.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Positive information", "results show", "Reliability Economic exchange", "Different kinds", "trustor", "data show", "trust situations", "factorial design", "withholding trust", "internet transactions"], "article_id"=>2358553, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Sociology", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Christiane Bozoyan", "Sonja Vogt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149542.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Example_vignette_of_a_friend_of_the_buyer_participant_sharing_a_negative_experience_with_the_seller_/2358553", "title"=>"Example vignette of a friend of the buyer (participant) sharing a negative experience with the seller.", "pos_in_sequence"=>3, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-16 12:03:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/3997798"], "description"=>"<p>In Fig 4 the vertical axis shows the predicted relative effects on trust of the valence (negative versus positive), source (stranger versus friend), and reliability (gossip versus experience) of third-party information. All eight possible combinations are shown, and they are ranked according to the predictions in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0149542#pone.0149542.g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 1</a>. As discussed in the caption to <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0149542#pone.0149542.g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 1</a>, the cases in which source and reliability operate in opposite directions have no clear ranking, and here we have simply chosen to posit a stronger effect for a friend with gossip compared to a stranger with experience. The horizontal axis shows the average marginal effects (AMEs) with confidence intervals as estimated from our data. The vertical line at zero represents the baseline category in which no third-party information was available.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Positive information", "results show", "Reliability Economic exchange", "Different kinds", "trustor", "data show", "trust situations", "factorial design", "withholding trust", "internet transactions"], "article_id"=>2358619, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Sociology", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Christiane Bozoyan", "Sonja Vogt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149542.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_average_marginal_effects_on_the_trust_decision_/2358619", "title"=>"The average marginal effects on the trust decision.", "pos_in_sequence"=>5, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-16 12:03:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/3997933"], "description"=>"<p>Source of information.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Positive information", "results show", "Reliability Economic exchange", "Different kinds", "trustor", "data show", "trust situations", "factorial design", "withholding trust", "internet transactions"], "article_id"=>2358748, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Sociology", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Christiane Bozoyan", "Sonja Vogt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149542.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Source_of_information_/2358748", "title"=>"Source of information.", "pos_in_sequence"=>9, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-02-16 12:03:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/3997759"], "description"=>"<p>Reference category is the vignette ‘No third-party information’.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Positive information", "results show", "Reliability Economic exchange", "Different kinds", "trustor", "data show", "trust situations", "factorial design", "withholding trust", "internet transactions"], "article_id"=>2358589, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Sociology", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Christiane Bozoyan", "Sonja Vogt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149542.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Descriptive_Results_/2358589", "title"=>"Descriptive Results.", "pos_in_sequence"=>4, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-16 12:03:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/3997894"], "description"=>"<p>Reliability of information.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Positive information", "results show", "Reliability Economic exchange", "Different kinds", "trustor", "data show", "trust situations", "factorial design", "withholding trust", "internet transactions"], "article_id"=>2358718, "categories"=>["Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Sociology", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Christiane Bozoyan", "Sonja Vogt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149542.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Reliability_of_information_/2358718", "title"=>"Reliability of information.", "pos_in_sequence"=>8, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-02-16 12:03:18"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2016-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2016-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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