Children Reading to Dogs: A Systematic Review of the Literature
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{"title"=>"Children reading to dogs: A systematic review of the literature", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Sophie Susannah", "last_name"=>"Hall", "scopus_author_id"=>"55921160000"}, {"first_name"=>"Nancy R.", "last_name"=>"Gee", "scopus_author_id"=>"57023521300"}, {"first_name"=>"Daniel Simon", "last_name"=>"Mills", "scopus_author_id"=>"55963188300"}], "year"=>2016, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"608920420", "pmid"=>"26901412", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0149759", "issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84960473014", "sgr"=>"84960473014", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"bc754706-68d7-3a5d-afb1-9d471e39a443", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Despite growing interest in the value of human-animal interactions (HAI) to human mental and physical health the quality of the evidence on which postulated benefits from animals to human psychological health are based is often unclear. To date there exist no systematic reviews on the effects of HAI in educational settings specifically focussing on the perceived benefits to children of reading to dogs. With rising popularity and implementation of these programmes in schools, it is essential that the evidence base exploring the pedagogic value of these initiatives is well documented.\\n\\nMETHODS: Using PRISMA guidelines we systematically investigated the literature reporting the pedagogic effects of reading to dogs. Because research in this area is in the early stages of scientific enquiry we adopted broad inclusion criteria, accepting all reports which discussed measurable effects related to the topic that were written in English. Multiple online databases were searched during January-March 2015; grey literature searches were also conducted. The search results which met the inclusion criteria were evaluated, and discussed, in relation to the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine levels of evidence; 27 papers were classified as Level 5, 13 as Level 4, 7 as Level 2c and 1 as Level 2b.\\n\\nCONCLUSION: The evidence suggests that reading to a dog may have a beneficial effect on a number of behavioural processes which contribute to a positive effect on the environment in which reading is practiced, leading to improved reading performance. However, the evidence base on which these inferences are made is of low quality. There is a clear need for the use of higher quality research methodologies and the inclusion of appropriate controls in order to draw causal inferences on whether or how reading to dogs may benefit children's reading practices. The mechanisms for any effect remain a matter of conjecture.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/children-reading-dogs-systematic-review-literature-5", "reader_count"=>60, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>19, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>19, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>4, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>5, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>6, "Psychology"=>12, "Social Sciences"=>16, "Linguistics"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>6}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>16}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>12}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>5}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>2}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>4}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "Hungary"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>5}

Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4409818"], "description"=>"<p><sup>1</sup>Increased arousal can heighten cognitive performance on some tasks [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0149759#pone.0149759.ref064\" target=\"_blank\">64</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0149759#pone.0149759.ref065\" target=\"_blank\">65</a>]. Whether increased our decreased arousal results in optimal performance is typically determined by the individual and the nature of the task (see Individual Zone of Optimal Functioning) [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0149759#pone.0149759.ref066\" target=\"_blank\">66</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0149759#pone.0149759.ref067\" target=\"_blank\">67</a>] <sup>2</sup>Reading anxiety (over-arousal) can impair children’s reading performance in the classroom [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0149759#pone.0149759.ref012\" target=\"_blank\">12</a>] by negatively impacting on cognitive processes involved in reading, including problem-solving and self-regulation [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0149759#pone.0149759.ref068\" target=\"_blank\">68</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0149759#pone.0149759.ref069\" target=\"_blank\">69</a>]. <sup>3</sup> A reader’s self-concept or confidence in their reading ability determines reading practices [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0149759#pone.0149759.ref070\" target=\"_blank\">70</a>], by influencing the amount of time and the degree of effort which is put into reading [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0149759#pone.0149759.ref071\" target=\"_blank\">71</a>]. There is a positive relationship between reading self-concept and reading achievement [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0149759#pone.0149759.ref072\" target=\"_blank\">72</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0149759#pone.0149759.ref073\" target=\"_blank\">73</a>]. The dynamics of the relationship between self-concept and achievement is still debated it is thought to be reciprocal, with greater achievement raising student’s self-concept, as well as higher self-concept leading to improved academic achievements [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0149759#pone.0149759.ref074\" target=\"_blank\">74</a>]. <sup>4</sup>There is an association between reading attitudes and reading performance in children, with those who have a positive attitude doing better in reading tests than those who have a negative attitude [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0149759#pone.0149759.ref075\" target=\"_blank\">75</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0149759#pone.0149759.ref076\" target=\"_blank\">76</a>]. Attitudes towards reading are thought to influence attainment by determining reading behaviours (e.g. frequency of reading) [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0149759#pone.0149759.ref070\" target=\"_blank\">70</a>]. <sup>5</sup>In reading studies motivation is often discussed in terms of intrinsic motivation (motivated from within; e.g., curiosity to read, enjoyment of the experience) and extrinsic (motivated by external factors; e.g., to get a good grade) [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0149759#pone.0149759.ref077\" target=\"_blank\">77</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0149759#pone.0149759.ref078\" target=\"_blank\">78</a>]. Although both factors are thought to play in role in influencing reading behaviours, intrinsic motivation is thought to be the key determiner [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0149759#pone.0149759.ref078\" target=\"_blank\">78</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0149759#pone.0149759.ref080\" target=\"_blank\">80</a>]. <sup>6</sup>Engagement in reading is often associated with motivation. According to Guthrie and Wigfield [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0149759#pone.0149759.ref081\" target=\"_blank\">81</a>] reading motivation is an interaction with text that is both motivated and strategic, engaged reading is related to reading comprehension success, and engaged reading can be improved by instructional practices that use motivational and cognitive strategies.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["documented.MethodsUsing PRISMA guidelines", "HAI", "inclusion criteria", "evidence base", "Level 2 c", "quality research methodologies", "Level 2 b.ConclusionThe evidence"], "article_id"=>2733394, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Sophie Susannah Hall", "Nancy R. Gee", "Daniel Simon Mills"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149759.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/An_Illustration_of_how_Reading_to_a_Dog_may_Influence_Reading_Performance_/2733394", "title"=>"An Illustration of how Reading to a Dog may Influence Reading Performance.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-22 09:42:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4409794", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4409797"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Despite growing interest in the value of human-animal interactions (HAI) to human mental and physical health the quality of the evidence on which postulated benefits from animals to human psychological health are based is often unclear. To date there exist no systematic reviews on the effects of HAI in educational settings specifically focussing on the perceived benefits to children of reading to dogs. With rising popularity and implementation of these programmes in schools, it is essential that the evidence base exploring the pedagogic value of these initiatives is well documented.</p><p>Methods</p><p>Using PRISMA guidelines we systematically investigated the literature reporting the pedagogic effects of reading to dogs. Because research in this area is in the early stages of scientific enquiry we adopted broad inclusion criteria, accepting all reports which discussed measurable effects related to the topic that were written in English. Multiple online databases were searched during January-March 2015; grey literature searches were also conducted. The search results which met the inclusion criteria were evaluated, and discussed, in relation to the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine levels of evidence; 27 papers were classified as Level 5, 13 as Level 4, 7 as Level 2c and 1 as Level 2b.</p><p>Conclusion</p><p>The evidence suggests that reading to a dog may have a beneficial effect on a number of behavioural processes which contribute to a positive effect on the environment in which reading is practiced, leading to improved reading performance. However, the evidence base on which these inferences are made is of low quality. There is a clear need for the use of higher quality research methodologies and the inclusion of appropriate controls in order to draw causal inferences on whether or how reading to dogs may benefit children’s reading practices. The mechanisms for any effect remain a matter of conjecture.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["documented.MethodsUsing PRISMA guidelines", "HAI", "inclusion criteria", "evidence base", "Level 2 c", "quality research methodologies", "Level 2 b.ConclusionThe evidence"], "article_id"=>2733379, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Sophie Susannah Hall", "Nancy R. Gee", "Daniel Simon Mills"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149759.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149759.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Children_Reading_to_Dogs_A_Systematic_Review_of_the_Literature/2733379", "title"=>"Children Reading to Dogs: A Systematic Review of the Literature", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2016-02-22 09:42:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4409851"], "description"=>"<p>Evidence for the Value of Children Reading to Dogs.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["documented.MethodsUsing PRISMA guidelines", "HAI", "inclusion criteria", "evidence base", "Level 2 c", "quality research methodologies", "Level 2 b.ConclusionThe evidence"], "article_id"=>2733415, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Sophie Susannah Hall", "Nancy R. Gee", "Daniel Simon Mills"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149759.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Evidence_for_the_Value_of_Children_Reading_to_Dogs_/2733415", "title"=>"Evidence for the Value of Children Reading to Dogs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-02-22 09:42:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4409803"], "description"=>"<p>PRISMA (2009) Flow Diagram.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["documented.MethodsUsing PRISMA guidelines", "HAI", "inclusion criteria", "evidence base", "Level 2 c", "quality research methodologies", "Level 2 b.ConclusionThe evidence"], "article_id"=>2733385, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Sophie Susannah Hall", "Nancy R. Gee", "Daniel Simon Mills"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149759.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/PRISMA_2009_Flow_Diagram_/2733385", "title"=>"PRISMA (2009) Flow Diagram.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-02-22 09:42:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4409872"], "description"=>"<p>Evidence for the Value of Children Reading to Dogs (continued).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["documented.MethodsUsing PRISMA guidelines", "HAI", "inclusion criteria", "evidence base", "Level 2 c", "quality research methodologies", "Level 2 b.ConclusionThe evidence"], "article_id"=>2733421, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Sophie Susannah Hall", "Nancy R. Gee", "Daniel Simon Mills"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149759.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Evidence_for_the_Value_of_Children_Reading_to_Dogs_continued_/2733421", "title"=>"Evidence for the Value of Children Reading to Dogs (continued).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-02-22 09:42:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4409833"], "description"=>"<p>Search Terms used in the Literature Search.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["documented.MethodsUsing PRISMA guidelines", "HAI", "inclusion criteria", "evidence base", "Level 2 c", "quality research methodologies", "Level 2 b.ConclusionThe evidence"], "article_id"=>2733406, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biotechnology", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Sophie Susannah Hall", "Nancy R. Gee", "Daniel Simon Mills"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149759.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Search_Terms_used_in_the_Literature_Search_/2733406", "title"=>"Search Terms used in the Literature Search.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-02-22 09:42:08"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"165", "full-text"=>"222", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"16", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"122", "full-text"=>"153", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"139", "full-text"=>"183", "pdf"=>"25", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"139", "full-text"=>"197", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"231", "full-text"=>"360", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"243", "full-text"=>"303", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"178", "full-text"=>"197", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"132", "full-text"=>"151", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"149", "full-text"=>"178", "pdf"=>"19", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"199", "full-text"=>"244", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"174", "full-text"=>"241", "pdf"=>"20", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"108", "full-text"=>"119", "pdf"=>"12", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"265", "full-text"=>"181", "pdf"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"169", "full-text"=>"209", "pdf"=>"18", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"146", "full-text"=>"161", "pdf"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"137", "full-text"=>"169", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"74", "full-text"=>"92", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"117", "full-text"=>"130", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"100", "full-text"=>"115", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"90", "full-text"=>"124", "pdf"=>"13", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"152", "full-text"=>"185", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"161", "full-text"=>"210", "pdf"=>"34", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"178", "full-text"=>"184", "pdf"=>"25", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"152", "full-text"=>"177", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"101", "full-text"=>"125", "pdf"=>"13", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"148", "full-text"=>"203", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"177", "full-text"=>"217", "pdf"=>"16", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"133", "full-text"=>"189", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"168", "full-text"=>"226", "pdf"=>"13", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"140", "full-text"=>"167", "pdf"=>"11", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"141", "full-text"=>"164", "pdf"=>"18", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"116", "full-text"=>"128", "pdf"=>"14", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"84", "full-text"=>"85", "pdf"=>"14", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"84", "full-text"=>"97", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"68", "full-text"=>"74", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"94", "full-text"=>"103", "pdf"=>"15", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"3", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2016-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2016-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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