Use of Photo-Identification and Mark-Recapture Methodology to Assess Basking Shark (Cetorhinus maximus) Populations
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{"title"=>"Use of photo-identification and mark-recapture methodology to assess basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) populations", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Mauvis A.", "last_name"=>"Gore", "scopus_author_id"=>"56228856600"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter H.", "last_name"=>"Frey", "scopus_author_id"=>"57169772800"}, {"first_name"=>"Rupert F.", "last_name"=>"Ormond", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004091642"}, {"first_name"=>"Holly", "last_name"=>"Allan", "scopus_author_id"=>"57170103800"}, {"first_name"=>"Gabriella", "last_name"=>"Gilkes", "scopus_author_id"=>"57170612500"}], "year"=>2016, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"608947623", "sgr"=>"84960844918", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84960844918", "pmid"=>"26930611", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0150160"}, "id"=>"e4d580e1-75a3-3e05-9e66-e91004f9bedc", "abstract"=>"Following centuries of exploitation, basking sharks (Cetorhinus maximus) are considered by IUCN as Endangered in the Northeast Atlantic, where they have now been substantially protected for over two decades. However, the present size of this population remains unknown. We investigated the use of photo-identification of individuals' dorsal fins, combined with mark-recapture methodology, to investigate the size of populations of basking shark within the west coast of Scotland. From a total of 921 encounters photographed between 2004 and 2011, 710 sharks were found to be individually identifiable based on dorsal fin damage and natural features. Of these, only 41 individuals were re-sighted, most commonly both within days of, and close to the site of, the initial encounter. A smaller number were re-sighted after longer periods of up to two years. A comparison of the distinguishing features of individuals on first recording and subsequent re-sighting showed that in almost all cases these features remained little changed, suggesting the low re-sighting rate was not due to a loss of distinguishing features. Because of the low number of re-sighting we were not able to produce reliable estimates for the long-term regional population. However, for one 50 km diameter study area between the islands of Mull, Coll and Tiree, we were able to generate closed-population estimates for 6-9 day periods in 2010 of 985 (95% CI = 494-1683), and in 2011 of 201 (95% CI = 143-340). For the same 2011 period an open-population model generated a similar estimate of 213 (95% CI = 111-317). Otherwise the low rate and temporal patterning of re-sightings support the view that such local basking shark populations are temporary, dynamic groupings of individuals drawn from a much larger regional population than previously supposed. The study demonstrated the feasibility and limitations of photo-identification as a non-invasive technique for identifying individual basking sharks.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/photoidentification-markrecapture-methodology-assess-basking-shark-cetorhinus-maximus-populations", "reader_count"=>38, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>9, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>24, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>24}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>9}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Mexico"=>1, "Portugal"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4800238"], "description"=>"<p>Jolly-Seber model estimates.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dorsal fin damage", "encounter", "IUCN", "individual", "Cetorhinus maximus", "CI", "50 km diameter study area"], "article_id"=>3087808, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Mauvis A. Gore", "Peter H. Frey", "Rupert F. Ormond", "Holly Allan", "Gabriella Gilkes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150160.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Jolly_Seber_model_estimates_/3087808", "title"=>"Jolly-Seber model estimates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-03-01 06:46:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4799524"], "description"=>"<p>The histogram shows the numbers of re-sightings of sharks after different periods of time, where the numbers of sharks re-sighted refer to the numbers of re-sightings and not the numbers of individual sharks involved, which were lower due to multiple re-sightings. The periods of time refer to the numbers of calendar days or weeks or years that had elapsed since the previous sighting; thus “1 day” means the shark was re-sighted on the following day, but not necessarily after more than 24 hours. All re-sightings were in the Inner Hebrides study area.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dorsal fin damage", "encounter", "IUCN", "individual", "Cetorhinus maximus", "CI", "50 km diameter study area"], "article_id"=>3087232, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Mauvis A. Gore", "Peter H. Frey", "Rupert F. Ormond", "Holly Allan", "Gabriella Gilkes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150160.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Numbers_of_basking_sharks_re_sighted_after_different_periods_of_time_following_first_encounter_/3087232", "title"=>"Numbers of basking sharks re-sighted after different periods of time following first encounter.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-01 06:46:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4799617"], "description"=>"<p>The top three pairs of images show the same individuals photographed on first encounter and again after a period of one year, the fourth pair a shark resighted after two years, and the fifth pair a shark resighted after one week. The dates on which each photograph was taken are shown on the image.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dorsal fin damage", "encounter", "IUCN", "individual", "Cetorhinus maximus", "CI", "50 km diameter study area"], "article_id"=>3087298, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Mauvis A. Gore", "Peter H. Frey", "Rupert F. Ormond", "Holly Allan", "Gabriella Gilkes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150160.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Examples_of_fins_re_photographed_after_periods_of_one_week_to_two_years_/3087298", "title"=>"Examples of fins re-photographed after periods of one week to two years.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-01 06:46:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4799722"], "description"=>"<p>The figure shows for the Inner Hebrides study area the increase with time in the proportions of recognisable sharks that were re-sighted plotted against the cumulative numbers of individuals previously recorded for: the entire 2010 season (July–September) (upper left), the 2010 peak-sightings period (August 25 –September 2) (lower left), the entire 2011 season (July–August) (upper right), and the 2010 peak-sightings period (August 25 –September 2) (lower right).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dorsal fin damage", "encounter", "IUCN", "individual", "Cetorhinus maximus", "CI", "50 km diameter study area"], "article_id"=>3087367, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Mauvis A. Gore", "Peter H. Frey", "Rupert F. Ormond", "Holly Allan", "Gabriella Gilkes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150160.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Increase_in_proportions_of_sharks_re_sighted_during_the_periods_used_for_population_estimates_/3087367", "title"=>"Increase in proportions of sharks re-sighted during the periods used for population estimates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-01 06:46:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4799134"], "description"=>"<div><p>Following centuries of exploitation, basking sharks (<i>Cetorhinus maximus</i>) are considered by IUCN as Endangered in the Northeast Atlantic, where they have now been substantially protected for over two decades. However, the present size of this population remains unknown. We investigated the use of photo-identification of individuals’ dorsal fins, combined with mark-recapture methodology, to investigate the size of populations of basking shark within the west coast of Scotland. From a total of 921 encounters photographed between 2004 and 2011, 710 sharks were found to be individually identifiable based on dorsal fin damage and natural features. Of these, only 41 individuals were re-sighted, most commonly both within days of, and close to the site of, the initial encounter. A smaller number were re-sighted after longer periods of up to two years. A comparison of the distinguishing features of individuals on first recording and subsequent re-sighting showed that in almost all cases these features remained little changed, suggesting the low re-sighting rate was not due to a loss of distinguishing features. Because of the low number of re-sighting we were not able to produce reliable estimates for the long-term regional population. However, for one 50 km diameter study area between the islands of Mull, Coll and Tiree, we were able to generate closed-population estimates for 6–9 day periods in 2010 of 985 (95% CI = 494–1683), and in 2011 of 201 (95% CI = 143–340). For the same 2011 period an open-population model generated a similar estimate of 213 (95% CI = 111–317). Otherwise the low rate and temporal patterning of re-sightings support the view that such local basking shark populations are temporary, dynamic groupings of individuals drawn from a much larger regional population than previously supposed. The study demonstrated the feasibility and limitations of photo-identification as a non-invasive technique for identifying individual basking sharks.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dorsal fin damage", "encounter", "IUCN", "individual", "Cetorhinus maximus", "CI", "50 km diameter study area"], "article_id"=>3086986, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Mauvis A. Gore", "Peter H. Frey", "Rupert F. Ormond", "Holly Allan", "Gabriella Gilkes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150160", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Use_of_Photo_Identification_and_Mark_Recapture_Methodology_to_Assess_Basking_Shark_i_Cetorhinus_maximus_i_Populations/3086986", "title"=>"Use of Photo-Identification and Mark-Recapture Methodology to Assess Basking Shark (<i>Cetorhinus maximus</i>) Populations", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>6, "published_date"=>"2016-03-01 06:46:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4799803"], "description"=>"<p>The columns relate to the outputs of the open- and closed-population models indicated; the error bars represent 95% Confidence Intervals.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dorsal fin damage", "encounter", "IUCN", "individual", "Cetorhinus maximus", "CI", "50 km diameter study area"], "article_id"=>3087436, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Mauvis A. Gore", "Peter H. Frey", "Rupert F. Ormond", "Holly Allan", "Gabriella Gilkes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150160.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Comparison_of_abundance_estimates_obtained_during_peak_periods_in_2010_and_2011_for_Inner_Hebrides_study_area_/3087436", "title"=>"Comparison of abundance estimates obtained during peak periods in 2010 and 2011 for Inner Hebrides study area.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-01 06:46:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4800328"], "description"=>"<p>Closed-population estimates.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dorsal fin damage", "encounter", "IUCN", "individual", "Cetorhinus maximus", "CI", "50 km diameter study area"], "article_id"=>3087874, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Mauvis A. Gore", "Peter H. Frey", "Rupert F. Ormond", "Holly Allan", "Gabriella Gilkes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150160.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Closed_population_estimates_/3087874", "title"=>"Closed-population estimates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-03-01 06:46:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4799212"], "description"=>"<p>The main part of the figure shows the locations in relation to the rest of Scotland of the two study areas (a) the Inner Hebrides study area (including the Isles of Mull, Coll and Tiree) and (b) the Firth of Clyde study area, including the Isle of Arran. The inset shows the location of Scotland in relation to the coast of North-west Europe. (Base map Crown Copyright OS OpenData 2016.)</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dorsal fin damage", "encounter", "IUCN", "individual", "Cetorhinus maximus", "CI", "50 km diameter study area"], "article_id"=>3087040, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Mauvis A. Gore", "Peter H. Frey", "Rupert F. Ormond", "Holly Allan", "Gabriella Gilkes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150160.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_study_areas_in_relation_to_the_west_coast_of_Scotland_/3087040", "title"=>"The study areas in relation to the west coast of Scotland.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-01 06:46:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4800004"], "description"=>"<p>Results of boat-based surveys of basking sharks in the two study areas.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dorsal fin damage", "encounter", "IUCN", "individual", "Cetorhinus maximus", "CI", "50 km diameter study area"], "article_id"=>3087610, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Mauvis A. Gore", "Peter H. Frey", "Rupert F. Ormond", "Holly Allan", "Gabriella Gilkes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150160.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Results_of_boat_based_surveys_of_basking_sharks_in_the_two_study_areas_/3087610", "title"=>"Results of boat-based surveys of basking sharks in the two study areas.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-03-01 06:46:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4800160"], "description"=>"<p>Variants of the Jolly-Seber model used in population estimations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dorsal fin damage", "encounter", "IUCN", "individual", "Cetorhinus maximus", "CI", "50 km diameter study area"], "article_id"=>3087739, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Mauvis A. Gore", "Peter H. Frey", "Rupert F. Ormond", "Holly Allan", "Gabriella Gilkes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150160.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Variants_of_the_Jolly_Seber_model_used_in_population_estimations_/3087739", "title"=>"Variants of the Jolly-Seber model used in population estimations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-03-01 06:46:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4800082"], "description"=>"<p>Re-sightings of basking sharks across years.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dorsal fin damage", "encounter", "IUCN", "individual", "Cetorhinus maximus", "CI", "50 km diameter study area"], "article_id"=>3087676, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Mauvis A. Gore", "Peter H. Frey", "Rupert F. Ormond", "Holly Allan", "Gabriella Gilkes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150160.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Re_sightings_of_basking_sharks_across_years_/3087676", "title"=>"Re-sightings of basking sharks across years.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-03-01 06:46:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4799878"], "description"=>"<p>Equations for the Delta method and for the two closed-population models.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dorsal fin damage", "encounter", "IUCN", "individual", "Cetorhinus maximus", "CI", "50 km diameter study area"], "article_id"=>3087517, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Mauvis A. Gore", "Peter H. Frey", "Rupert F. Ormond", "Holly Allan", "Gabriella Gilkes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150160.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Equations_for_the_Delta_method_and_for_the_two_closed_population_models_/3087517", "title"=>"Equations for the Delta method and for the two closed-population models.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-03-01 06:46:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4799443"], "description"=>"<p>A1—very conspicuous marks or injuries, likely to be recognisable in the very long term (a badly damaged fin apex), A2—clear marks or injuries, likely recognisable across year (a smaller injury to the fin apex), B1 -surface features or patterns such as lamprey scars and mottling—likely recognisable during a season (a conspicuous lamprey scar), B2—less permanent surface features, such as copepods, likely recognisable only in the short-term (note the clusters of copepods to the rear of the fin), and C—no readily evident distinguishing marks or features (although some marking and crenulation is still visible around the lower rear margin). Image D shows the situation in which quality images were typically obtained, with a surface feeding shark approaching close to a stationary boat.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dorsal fin damage", "encounter", "IUCN", "individual", "Cetorhinus maximus", "CI", "50 km diameter study area"], "article_id"=>3087166, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Mauvis A. Gore", "Peter H. Frey", "Rupert F. Ormond", "Holly Allan", "Gabriella Gilkes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150160.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Sample_photographs_of_fins_assigned_to_each_distinctiveness_grade_/3087166", "title"=>"Sample photographs of fins assigned to each distinctiveness grade.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-01 06:46:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4799305"], "description"=>"<p>The figure illustrates how a dorsal fin photograph is used to generate a cartoon (sketch diagram) to aid recording and cataloguing of distinctive features for individual identification.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dorsal fin damage", "encounter", "IUCN", "individual", "Cetorhinus maximus", "CI", "50 km diameter study area"], "article_id"=>3087103, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Mauvis A. Gore", "Peter H. Frey", "Rupert F. Ormond", "Holly Allan", "Gabriella Gilkes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150160.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Sample_basking_shark_dorsal_fin_photograph_and_sketched_cartoon_/3087103", "title"=>"Sample basking shark dorsal fin photograph and sketched cartoon.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-01 06:46:17"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2016-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2016-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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