A Comparison of Frontal Theta Activity During Shooting among Biathletes and Cross-Country Skiers before and after Vigorous Exercise
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{"title"=>"A Comparison of Frontal Theta Activity During Shooting among Biathletes and Cross-Country Skiers before and after Vigorous Exercise", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Harri", "last_name"=>"Luchsinger", "scopus_author_id"=>"57194486417"}, {"first_name"=>"Øyvind", "last_name"=>"Sandbakk", "scopus_author_id"=>"35389794800"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael", "last_name"=>"Schubert", "scopus_author_id"=>"55708219600"}, {"first_name"=>"Gertjan", "last_name"=>"Ettema", "scopus_author_id"=>"55928778800"}, {"first_name"=>"Jochen", "last_name"=>"Baumeister", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003980636"}], "year"=>2016, "source"=>"PloS one", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84997669541", "pmid"=>"26981639", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pui"=>"616136181", "issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84997669541", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0150461"}, "id"=>"5d4466c4-db1f-331b-80b6-867c0df3eb57", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Previous studies using electroencephalography (EEG) to monitor brain activity have linked higher frontal theta activity to more focused attention and superior performance in goal-directed precision tasks. In biathlon, shooting performance requires focused attention after high-intensity cross-country skiing. PURPOSE: To compare biathletes (serving as experts) and cross-country skiers (novices) and examine the effect of vigorous exercise on frontal theta activity during shooting. METHODS: EEG frontal theta (4-7 Hz) activity was compared between nine biathletes and eight cross-country skiers at comparable skiing performance levels who fired 100 shots on a 5-m indoor shooting range in quiescent condition followed by 20 shots after each of five 6-min high-intensity roller skiing sessions in the skating technique on a treadmill. RESULTS: Biathletes hit 80+/-14% and 81+/-10% before and after the roller skiing sessions, respectively. For the cross-country skiers these values were significantly lower than for the biathletes and amounted to 39+/-13% and 44+/-11% (p<0.01). Biathletes had on average 6% higher frontal theta activity during shooting as compared to cross-country skiers (F1,15 = 4.82, p = 0.044), but no significant effect of vigorous exercise on frontal theta activity in either of the two groups were found (F1,15 = 0.14, p = 0.72). CONCLUSIONS: Biathletes had significantly higher frontal theta activity than cross-country skiers during shooting, indicating higher focused attention in biathletes. Vigorous exercise did not decrease shooting performance or frontal theta activity during shooting in biathletes and cross-country skiers.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/comparison-frontal-theta-activity-during-shooting-among-biathletes-crosscountry-skiers-before-after", "reader_count"=>21, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>2, "Unspecified"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Sports and Recreations"=>6, "Psychology"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>6}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>5}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Belgium"=>1, "United States"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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