Endocranial Morphology of the Primitive Nodosaurid Dinosaur Pawpawsaurus campbelli from the Early Cretaceous of North America
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{"title"=>"Endocranial morphology of the primitive nodosaurid dinosaur Pawpawsaurus campbelli from the Early Cretaceous of North America", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Ariana", "last_name"=>"Paulina-Carabajal", "scopus_author_id"=>"16686669900"}, {"first_name"=>"Yuong Nam", "last_name"=>"Lee", "scopus_author_id"=>"16245034500"}, {"first_name"=>"Louis L.", "last_name"=>"Jacobs", "scopus_author_id"=>"35584473700"}], "year"=>2016, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"609304071", "pmid"=>"27007950", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0150845", "issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84962091284", "sgr"=>"84962091284"}, "id"=>"a15e1c32-56b7-3926-9590-b2f2b129bc97", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Ankylosaurs are one of the least explored clades of dinosaurs regarding endocranial anatomy, with few available descriptions of braincase anatomy and even less information on brain and inner ear morphologies. The main goal of this study is to provide a detailed description of the braincase and internal structures of the Early Cretaceous nodosaurid Pawpawsaurus campbelli, based on recently made CT scans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The skull of Pawpawsaurus was CT scanned at University of Texas at Austin (UTCT). Three-dimensional models were constructed using Mimics 18.0 (Materialise). The digital data and further processed 3D models revealed inaccessible anatomic structures, allowing a detailed description of the lateral wall of the braincase (obscured by other bones in the articulated skull), and endocranial structures such as the cranial endocast, the most complete inner ear morphology for a nodosaurid, and the interpretation of the airflow system within the nasal cavities. CONSLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The new information on the endocranial morphology of Pawpawsaurus adds anatomical data to the poorly understand ankylosaur paleoneurology. The new set of data has potential use not only in taxonomy and phylogeny, but also in paleobiological interpretations based on the relative development of sense organs, such as olfaction, hearing and balance.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/endocranial-morphology-primitive-nodosaurid-dinosaur-pawpawsaurus-campbelli-early-cretaceous-north-a", "reader_count"=>19, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Master"=>1, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Master"=>1, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>8, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>8}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Sweden"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4876789", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4876801"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Ankylosaurs are one of the least explored clades of dinosaurs regarding endocranial anatomy, with few available descriptions of braincase anatomy and even less information on brain and inner ear morphologies. The main goal of this study is to provide a detailed description of the braincase and internal structures of the Early Cretaceous nodosaurid <i>Pawpawsaurus campbelli</i>, based on recently made CT scans.</p><p>Methodology/Principal Findings</p><p>The skull of <i>Pawpawsaurus</i> was CT scanned at University of Texas at Austin (UTCT). Three-dimensional models were constructed using Mimics 18.0 (Materialise). The digital data and further processed 3D models revealed inaccessible anatomic structures, allowing a detailed description of the lateral wall of the braincase (obscured by other bones in the articulated skull), and endocranial structures such as the cranial endocast, the most complete inner ear morphology for a nodosaurid, and the interpretation of the airflow system within the nasal cavities.</p><p>Conslusions/Significance</p><p>The new information on the endocranial morphology of <i>Pawpawsaurus</i> adds anatomical data to the poorly understand ankylosaur paleoneurology. The new set of data has potential use not only in taxonomy and phylogeny, but also in paleobiological interpretations based on the relative development of sense organs, such as olfaction, hearing and balance.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["endocranial morphology", "Mimics 18.0", "endocranial anatomy", "Cretaceous nodosaurid Pawpawsaurus campbelli", "North America BackgroundAnkylosaurs", "paleobiological interpretations", "Endocranial Morphology", "endocranial structures", "cranial endocast", "ankylosaur paleoneurology", "airflow system", "Primitive Nodosaurid Dinosaur Pawpawsaurus campbelli", "braincase anatomy", "ear morphology", "CT", "skull", "UTCT", "3 D models", "information", "data", "sense organs", "ear morphologies"], "article_id"=>3135808, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Information Systems not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ariana Paulina-Carabajal", "Yuong-Nam Lee", "Louis L. Jacobs"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150845.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150845.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Endocranial_Morphology_of_the_Primitive_Nodosaurid_Dinosaur_i_Pawpawsaurus_campbelli_i_from_the_Early_Cretaceous_of_North_America/3135808", "title"=>"Endocranial Morphology of the Primitive Nodosaurid Dinosaur <i>Pawpawsaurus campbelli</i> from the Early Cretaceous of North America", "pos_in_sequence"=>1, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2016-03-23 06:13:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4876897"], "description"=>"<p>The posterior olfactory region of the nasal cavity is indicated in color magenta. The airflow pathway interpretation is indicated as black arrows in (C). In left lateral (A), dorsal (B) and lateroventral (C) views. Abbreviations: aw, airway; ca.lo, caudal loop?; dalv, dorsal alveolar canal (for maxillary branch of trigeminal nerve, and maxillary vein and artery); endo, endocranial cavity; nar, external nostril; nlc, nasolacrimal canal (for nasolacrimal duct); ob, olfactory bulbs; olf, olfactory region; ro.lo, rostral loop?; ves, vestibulum of the nasal cavity. Scale bar equals 10 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["endocranial morphology", "Mimics 18.0", "endocranial anatomy", "Cretaceous nodosaurid Pawpawsaurus campbelli", "North America BackgroundAnkylosaurs", "paleobiological interpretations", "Endocranial Morphology", "endocranial structures", "cranial endocast", "ankylosaur paleoneurology", "airflow system", "Primitive Nodosaurid Dinosaur Pawpawsaurus campbelli", "braincase anatomy", "ear morphology", "CT", "skull", "UTCT", "3 D models", "information", "data", "sense organs", "ear morphologies"], "article_id"=>3135907, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Information Systems not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ariana Paulina-Carabajal", "Yuong-Nam Lee", "Louis L. Jacobs"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150845.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Surface_rendered_CT_based_reconstruction_of_the_cranial_endocast_and_nasal_cavities_of_i_Pawpawsaurus_campbelli_i_FWMSH93B_00026_/3135907", "title"=>"Surface-rendered CT-based reconstruction of the cranial endocast and nasal cavities of <i>Pawpawsaurus campbelli</i> (FWMSH93B.00026).", "pos_in_sequence"=>8, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-23 06:13:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4876864"], "description"=>"<p>In the figures, the right inner ear is a mirrored image from the left inner ear. Cranial endocast in dorsal (A), ventral (B), right lateral (C), and lateroventral (D) views. Abbreviations: cer, cerebral hemisphere; dhv, dorsal head vein; fo, fenestra ovalis; ic, internal carotid artery; ie, inner ear; lag, lagena; med, medulla; ob, olfactory bulb; ocv, orbitocerebral vein; ot, olfactory tract; pit, pituitary;; rmcv, rostral middle cerebral vein; sph. sphenoid artery; I–XII, Cranial nerves; ve? vein?. Scale bar equals 10 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["endocranial morphology", "Mimics 18.0", "endocranial anatomy", "Cretaceous nodosaurid Pawpawsaurus campbelli", "North America BackgroundAnkylosaurs", "paleobiological interpretations", "Endocranial Morphology", "endocranial structures", "cranial endocast", "ankylosaur paleoneurology", "airflow system", "Primitive Nodosaurid Dinosaur Pawpawsaurus campbelli", "braincase anatomy", "ear morphology", "CT", "skull", "UTCT", "3 D models", "information", "data", "sense organs", "ear morphologies"], "article_id"=>3135877, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Information Systems not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ariana Paulina-Carabajal", "Yuong-Nam Lee", "Louis L. Jacobs"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150845.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Surface_rendered_CT_based_reconstructions_of_the_cranial_endocast_and_left_endosseous_labyrinth_of_i_Pawpawsaurus_campbelli_i_FWMSH93B_00026_/3135877", "title"=>"Surface-rendered CT-based reconstructions of the cranial endocast and left endosseous labyrinth of <i>Pawpawsaurus campbelli</i> (FWMSH93B.00026).", "pos_in_sequence"=>6, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-23 06:13:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4876834"], "description"=>"<p>In the images of the left side the bone is rendered semitransparent to show the endocranial cavity (in blue) and the nasal cavities (in light blue). Skull right lateral (A,B), right anterolateral (C,D) and ventral (E,F) views. Abbreviations: ch, choana; endo, cranial endocast; if, lateral temporal fenestra; nar, external nostrils; oc, occipital condyle; olf, olfactory region of the nasal cavity; orb, orbit; q, quadrate; th, teeth row; ves, vestibular region of the nasal cavity; 1, dorsal alveolar canal (for maxillary branch of trigeminal nerve, and maxillary vein and artery); 2, nasolacrimal canal (for nasolacrimal duct). Scale bar equals 5 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["endocranial morphology", "Mimics 18.0", "endocranial anatomy", "Cretaceous nodosaurid Pawpawsaurus campbelli", "North America BackgroundAnkylosaurs", "paleobiological interpretations", "Endocranial Morphology", "endocranial structures", "cranial endocast", "ankylosaur paleoneurology", "airflow system", "Primitive Nodosaurid Dinosaur Pawpawsaurus campbelli", "braincase anatomy", "ear morphology", "CT", "skull", "UTCT", "3 D models", "information", "data", "sense organs", "ear morphologies"], "article_id"=>3135847, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Information Systems not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ariana Paulina-Carabajal", "Yuong-Nam Lee", "Louis L. Jacobs"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150845.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Volume_rendered_CT_based_reconstruction_of_the_skull_of_the_nodosaur_dinosaur_i_Pawpawsaurus_campbelli_i_FWMSH93B_00026_/3135847", "title"=>"Volume-rendered CT-based reconstruction of the skull of the nodosaur dinosaur <i>Pawpawsaurus campbelli</i> (FWMSH93B.00026).", "pos_in_sequence"=>3, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-23 06:13:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4876843"], "description"=>"<p>Braincase in right lateral (A), lateroventral (B), and anteroventral (C) views. Abbreviations: bt, basal tuber; btp, basipterygoid process; fo, fenestra ovalis; ic, internal carotid artery; ios, interorbital septum; met, metotic foramen (for CN IX–XI and jugular vein); oc, occipital condyle; olf, olfactory region of the nasal cavity; ocv, orbitocerebral vein; pop, paroccipital process; rid, low ridge of bone separating CN II from CN III-IV; rmcv, rostral middle cerebral vein; sph, sphenoid artery; I–XII, cranial nerves. Scale bar equals 5cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["endocranial morphology", "Mimics 18.0", "endocranial anatomy", "Cretaceous nodosaurid Pawpawsaurus campbelli", "North America BackgroundAnkylosaurs", "paleobiological interpretations", "Endocranial Morphology", "endocranial structures", "cranial endocast", "ankylosaur paleoneurology", "airflow system", "Primitive Nodosaurid Dinosaur Pawpawsaurus campbelli", "braincase anatomy", "ear morphology", "CT", "skull", "UTCT", "3 D models", "information", "data", "sense organs", "ear morphologies"], "article_id"=>3135856, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Information Systems not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ariana Paulina-Carabajal", "Yuong-Nam Lee", "Louis L. Jacobs"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150845.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Volume_rendered_CT_based_reconstruction_of_the_braincase_of_i_Pawpawsaurus_campbelli_i_FWMSH93B_00026_isolated_virtually_from_other_skull_bones_/3135856", "title"=>"Volume-rendered CT-based reconstruction of the braincase of <i>Pawpawsaurus campbelli</i> (FWMSH93B.00026), isolated virtually from other skull bones.", "pos_in_sequence"=>4, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-23 06:13:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4876882"], "description"=>"<p>In dorsal (A), lateral (B), posterior (C), and anterior (D) views. Abbreviations: asc, anterior semicircular canal; cc, crus communis; fo, fenestra ovalis; lag, lagena; lsc, lateral semicircular canal; psc, posterior semicircular canal. Scale bar equals 10 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["endocranial morphology", "Mimics 18.0", "endocranial anatomy", "Cretaceous nodosaurid Pawpawsaurus campbelli", "North America BackgroundAnkylosaurs", "paleobiological interpretations", "Endocranial Morphology", "endocranial structures", "cranial endocast", "ankylosaur paleoneurology", "airflow system", "Primitive Nodosaurid Dinosaur Pawpawsaurus campbelli", "braincase anatomy", "ear morphology", "CT", "skull", "UTCT", "3 D models", "information", "data", "sense organs", "ear morphologies"], "article_id"=>3135892, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Information Systems not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ariana Paulina-Carabajal", "Yuong-Nam Lee", "Louis L. Jacobs"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150845.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Digital_reconstruction_of_the_left_inner_ear_of_i_Pawpawsaurus_campbelli_i_FWMSH93B_00026_/3135892", "title"=>"Digital reconstruction of the left inner ear of <i>Pawpawsaurus campbelli</i> (FWMSH93B.00026).", "pos_in_sequence"=>7, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-23 06:13:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4876921"], "description"=>"<p>In the images at the top the bone is rendered solid (A,D), whereas in the images below, the bone is rendered semitransparent to show the nasal cavity and the neurovascular passages (B,E). In <i>Pawpawsaurus</i>, the lateral section of the orbital margins was sectioned parasagittaly to allow the observation of the anterior wall of the orbit. Nasal cavity and neurovascular passages rendered isolate (C,F). Abbreviations: dalv, dorsal alveolar canal (for maxillary branch of trigeminal nerve, and maxillary vein and artery); dalv.f, dorsal alveolar canal foramen in the anterior wall of the orbit; lac, lacrimal; mx, maxilla; nar, external nostrils; nas, nasal cavity; nlc, nasolacrimal canal; nlc.f, nasolacrimal canal/duct foramen; orb.r, orbital rim; pt, pterygoid. Not to scale.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["endocranial morphology", "Mimics 18.0", "endocranial anatomy", "Cretaceous nodosaurid Pawpawsaurus campbelli", "North America BackgroundAnkylosaurs", "paleobiological interpretations", "Endocranial Morphology", "endocranial structures", "cranial endocast", "ankylosaur paleoneurology", "airflow system", "Primitive Nodosaurid Dinosaur Pawpawsaurus campbelli", "braincase anatomy", "ear morphology", "CT", "skull", "UTCT", "3 D models", "information", "data", "sense organs", "ear morphologies"], "article_id"=>3135928, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Information Systems not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ariana Paulina-Carabajal", "Yuong-Nam Lee", "Louis L. Jacobs"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150845.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Detail_of_the_skulls_of_i_Pawpawsaurus_campbelli_i_FWMSH93B_00026_left_and_the_extant_crocodile_i_Caiman_i_right_in_right_lateral_view_/3135928", "title"=>"Detail of the skulls of <i>Pawpawsaurus campbelli</i> (FWMSH93B.00026) (left) and the extant crocodile <i>Caiman</i> (right) in right lateral view.", "pos_in_sequence"=>9, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-23 06:13:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4876822"], "description"=>"<p>Skull in right lateral (A) posterior, (B) dorsal, (C) and lateroventral, (D) views. Abbreviations: bt, basal tuber; ch, choana; fm, foramen magnum; itf, infratemporal fenestra; met, metotic foramen (for CN IX–XI and jugular vein); mx, maxilla; nar, external nostril; oc, occipital condyle; orb, orbit; pop, paroccipital process; pt, pterygoid; q, quadrate; so, supraoccipital. Scale bar equals 5 cm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["endocranial morphology", "Mimics 18.0", "endocranial anatomy", "Cretaceous nodosaurid Pawpawsaurus campbelli", "North America BackgroundAnkylosaurs", "paleobiological interpretations", "Endocranial Morphology", "endocranial structures", "cranial endocast", "ankylosaur paleoneurology", "airflow system", "Primitive Nodosaurid Dinosaur Pawpawsaurus campbelli", "braincase anatomy", "ear morphology", "CT", "skull", "UTCT", "3 D models", "information", "data", "sense organs", "ear morphologies"], "article_id"=>3135835, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Information Systems not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ariana Paulina-Carabajal", "Yuong-Nam Lee", "Louis L. Jacobs"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150845.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Volume_rendered_CT_based_reconstruction_of_the_skull_of_the_nodosaur_dinosaur_i_Pawpawsaurus_campbelli_i_FWMSH93B_00026_/3135835", "title"=>"Volume-rendered CT-based reconstruction of the skull of the nodosaur dinosaur <i>Pawpawsaurus campbelli</i> (FWMSH93B.00026).", "pos_in_sequence"=>2, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-23 06:13:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4876855"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: bo, basioccipital; bt, basal tuber; eo, exoccipital; fm, foramen magnum; fo, fenestra ovalis; ic, internal carotid artery; jv, jugular vein; ls, laterosphenoid; met, metotic foramen (for CN IX–XI); oc, occipital condyle; ocv, orbitocerebral vein; op, opisthotic; pop, paroccipital process; pro, prootic; q, quadrate; rmcv, rostral middle cerebral vein; so, supraoccipital; sph, sphenoid artery; II–XII, cranial nerves.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["endocranial morphology", "Mimics 18.0", "endocranial anatomy", "Cretaceous nodosaurid Pawpawsaurus campbelli", "North America BackgroundAnkylosaurs", "paleobiological interpretations", "Endocranial Morphology", "endocranial structures", "cranial endocast", "ankylosaur paleoneurology", "airflow system", "Primitive Nodosaurid Dinosaur Pawpawsaurus campbelli", "braincase anatomy", "ear morphology", "CT", "skull", "UTCT", "3 D models", "information", "data", "sense organs", "ear morphologies"], "article_id"=>3135868, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Information Systems not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Inorganic Chemistry"], "users"=>["Ariana Paulina-Carabajal", "Yuong-Nam Lee", "Louis L. Jacobs"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150845.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Simplified_line_drawing_of_the_right_lateral_side_of_the_braincase_of_i_Pawpawsaurus_i_FWMSH93B_00026_showing_the_re_interpretation_of_the_cranial_nerves_/3135868", "title"=>"Simplified line drawing of the right lateral side of the braincase of <i>Pawpawsaurus</i> (FWMSH93B.00026) showing the re-interpretation of the cranial nerves.", "pos_in_sequence"=>5, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-23 06:13:23"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2016-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2016-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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