Shape-Related Toxicity of Titanium Dioxide Nanofibres
Publication Date
March 21, 2016
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Manfredi Allegri, Massimiliano G. Bianchi, Martina Chiu, Julia Varet, et al
Volume
11
Issue
3
Pages
e0151365
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151365
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0151365
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26999274
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4801404
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/26999274
Web of Science
000372694700035
Scopus
84962441565
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/shaperelated-toxicity-titanium-dioxide-nanofibres
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Shape-related toxicity of titanium dioxide nanofibres", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Manfredi", "last_name"=>"Allegri", "scopus_author_id"=>"55443971100"}, {"first_name"=>"Massimiliano G.", "last_name"=>"Bianchi", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402561569"}, {"first_name"=>"Martina", "last_name"=>"Chiu", "scopus_author_id"=>"52463426300"}, {"first_name"=>"Julia", "last_name"=>"Varet", "scopus_author_id"=>"57018990300"}, {"first_name"=>"Anna L.", "last_name"=>"Costa", "scopus_author_id"=>"56892538900"}, {"first_name"=>"Simona", "last_name"=>"Ortelli", "scopus_author_id"=>"55669382900"}, {"first_name"=>"Magda", "last_name"=>"Blosi", "scopus_author_id"=>"24400665900"}, {"first_name"=>"Ovidio", "last_name"=>"Bussolati", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004670564"}, {"first_name"=>"Craig A.", "last_name"=>"Poland", "scopus_author_id"=>"24385730400"}, {"first_name"=>"Enrico", "last_name"=>"Bergamaschi", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004555643"}], "year"=>2016, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0151365", "sgr"=>"84962441565", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"26999274", "issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84962441565", "pui"=>"609296758"}, "id"=>"f203d798-7dc8-3df7-9229-1e7df7e18334", "abstract"=>"Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanofibres are a novel fibrous nanomaterial with increasing applications in a variety of fields. While the biological effects of TiO2 nanoparticles have been extensively studied, the toxicological characterization of TiO2 nanofibres is far from being complete. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of commercially available anatase TiO2 nanofibres using TiO2 nanoparticles (NP) and crocidolite asbestos as non-fibrous or fibrous benchmark materials. The evaluated endpoints were cell viability, haemolysis, macrophage activation, trans-epithelial electrical resistance (an indicator of the epithelial barrier competence), ROS production and oxidative stress as well as the morphology of exposed cells. The results showed that TiO2 nanofibres caused a cell-specific, dose-dependent decrease of cell viability, with larger effects on alveolar epithelial cells than on macrophages. The observed effects were comparable to those of crocidolite, while TiO2 NP did not decrease cell viability. TiO2 nanofibres were also found endowed with a marked haemolytic activity, at levels significantly higher than those observed with TiO2 nanoparticles or crocidolite. Moreover, TiO2 nanofibres and crocidolite, but not TiO2 nanoparticles, caused a significant decrease of the trans-epithelial electrical resistance of airway cell monolayers. SEM images demonstrated that the interaction with nanofibres and crocidolite caused cell shape perturbation with the longest fibres incompletely or not phagocytosed. The expression of several pro-inflammatory markers, such as NO production and the induction of Nos2 and Ptgs2, was significantly increased by TiO2 nanofibres, as well as by TiO2 nanoparticles and crocidolite. This study indicates that TiO2 nanofibres had significant toxic effects and, for most endpoints with the exception of pro-inflammatory changes, are more bio-active than TiO2 nanoparticles, showing the relevance of shape in determining the toxicity of nanomaterials. Given that several toxic effects of TiO2 nanofibres appear comparable to those observed with crocidolite, the possibility that they exert length dependent toxicity in vivo seems worthy of further investigation.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/shaperelated-toxicity-titanium-dioxide-nanofibres", "reader_count"=>24, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Materials Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>3, "Chemistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>3}}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4867882"], "description"=>"<p>Haemolytic activity of the materials.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TiO 2 NP", "alveolar epithelial cells", "decrease cell viability", "TiO 2 nanoparticles", "ROS", "Titanium Dioxide Nanofibres Titanium dioxide", "SEM", "crocidolite", "airway cell monolayers", "anatase TiO 2 nanofibres", "TiO 2 nanofibres", "cell shape perturbation", "cell viability"], "article_id"=>3128992, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Neuroscience", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Chemical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Infectious Diseases", "Plant Biology", "Virology"], "users"=>["Manfredi Allegri", "Massimiliano G. Bianchi", "Martina Chiu", "Julia Varet", "Anna L. Costa", "Simona Ortelli", "Magda Blosi", "Ovidio Bussolati", "Craig A. Poland", "Enrico Bergamaschi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151365.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Haemolytic_activity_of_the_materials_/3128992", "title"=>"Haemolytic activity of the materials.", "pos_in_sequence"=>10, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-03-21 05:31:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4867792"], "description"=>"<p>Raw 264.7 macrophages were seeded on coverslides and incubated for 24h with TiO<sub>2</sub> NF (10 μg/cm<sup>2</sup>). At the end of the experiment, cells were labelled and fixed as detailed in Materials and methods. <b>(A)</b> A single horizontal section of control, untreated cells is shown along with two orthogonal projections. <b>(B, C)</b> two single horizontal sections of NF-treated cells, taken at different planes, are shown along with two orthogonal projections. In <b>(B)</b> and <b>(C)</b>, arrows point to pattern suggestive of cell fusion and arrowheads to an example of internalized material. In each panel, green lines highlight the planes where the orthogonal projections were taken. White, TiO<sub>2</sub> NF; Blue, nucleus; Red, cytoplasm. Images report representative fields. Bars, 20 μm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TiO 2 NP", "alveolar epithelial cells", "decrease cell viability", "TiO 2 nanoparticles", "ROS", "Titanium Dioxide Nanofibres Titanium dioxide", "SEM", "crocidolite", "airway cell monolayers", "anatase TiO 2 nanofibres", "TiO 2 nanofibres", "cell shape perturbation", "cell viability"], "article_id"=>3128902, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Neuroscience", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Chemical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Infectious Diseases", "Plant Biology", "Virology"], "users"=>["Manfredi Allegri", "Massimiliano G. Bianchi", "Martina Chiu", "Julia Varet", "Anna L. Costa", "Simona Ortelli", "Magda Blosi", "Ovidio Bussolati", "Craig A. Poland", "Enrico Bergamaschi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151365.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Characterization_of_the_interaction_between_macrophages_and_TiO_sub_2_sub_NF_by_confocal_microscopy_/3128902", "title"=>"Characterization of the interaction between macrophages and TiO<sub>2</sub> NF by confocal microscopy.", "pos_in_sequence"=>7, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-21 05:31:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4867720"], "description"=>"<p>Macrophages were incubated up to 72h with TiO<sub>2</sub> NF, at the indicated doses, TiO<sub>2</sub> NP and crocidolite (Cro) at 80 μg/cm<sup>2</sup>, or with 10 ng/mL of LPS as a positive control. <b>(A, B)</b> Effects of TiO<sub>2</sub> NF (dose range 10–80 μg/cm<sup>2</sup>) on NO production after 48h <b>(A)</b> or 72h <b>(B)</b>. <b>(C, D)</b> Effects of the indicated materials (all used at 80 μg/cm<sup>2</sup>) on <i>Nos2</i> <b>(C)</b> or <i>Ptgs2</i> <b>(D)</b> gene expression in Raw 264.7 cells, assessed with RT-PCR after a 24h-exposure. <b>(A, B)</b> Data are means ± SD of 9 independent determinations obtained in three experiments. <b>(C, D)</b> Data are means ± SD of 4 independent determinations obtained in two experiments. For all the panels, * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01 *** p < 0.001 <i>vs</i>. control (untreated cultures).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TiO 2 NP", "alveolar epithelial cells", "decrease cell viability", "TiO 2 nanoparticles", "ROS", "Titanium Dioxide Nanofibres Titanium dioxide", "SEM", "crocidolite", "airway cell monolayers", "anatase TiO 2 nanofibres", "TiO 2 nanofibres", "cell shape perturbation", "cell viability"], "article_id"=>3128839, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Neuroscience", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Chemical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Infectious Diseases", "Plant Biology", "Virology"], "users"=>["Manfredi Allegri", "Massimiliano G. Bianchi", "Martina Chiu", "Julia Varet", "Anna L. Costa", "Simona Ortelli", "Magda Blosi", "Ovidio Bussolati", "Craig A. Poland", "Enrico Bergamaschi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151365.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Expression_of_pro_inflammatory_markers_in_macrophages_/3128839", "title"=>"Expression of pro-inflammatory markers in macrophages.", "pos_in_sequence"=>5, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-21 05:31:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4867825"], "description"=>"<p>Primers and temperatures of annealing adopted for RT-PCR experiments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TiO 2 NP", "alveolar epithelial cells", "decrease cell viability", "TiO 2 nanoparticles", "ROS", "Titanium Dioxide Nanofibres Titanium dioxide", "SEM", "crocidolite", "airway cell monolayers", "anatase TiO 2 nanofibres", "TiO 2 nanofibres", "cell shape perturbation", "cell viability"], "article_id"=>3128938, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Neuroscience", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Chemical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Infectious Diseases", "Plant Biology", "Virology"], "users"=>["Manfredi Allegri", "Massimiliano G. Bianchi", "Martina Chiu", "Julia Varet", "Anna L. Costa", "Simona Ortelli", "Magda Blosi", "Ovidio Bussolati", "Craig A. Poland", "Enrico Bergamaschi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151365.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Primers_and_temperatures_of_annealing_adopted_for_RT_PCR_experiments_/3128938", "title"=>"Primers and temperatures of annealing adopted for RT-PCR experiments.", "pos_in_sequence"=>8, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-03-21 05:31:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4867696"], "description"=>"<p>The Trans-Epithelial Electrical Resistance (TEER), as a proxy of epithelial barrier competence, and cell viability were assessed in confluent monolayers of CaLu-3 cells after incubation with TiO<sub>2</sub> NF, TiO<sub>2</sub> NP or crocidolite (Cro) all used at 80 μg/cm<sup>2</sup>. <b>(A)</b> TEER (% of control) was recorded every 3d up to 12d. <b>(B)</b> TEER (% of control) measured at 12d. <b>(C)</b> Effect of TiO<sub>2</sub> NF on cell viability, assessed by resazurin assay at the end of TEER experiments. Data are means ± SD of 8 independent determinations. *** p < 0.001 <i>vs</i>. control (untreated cultures).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TiO 2 NP", "alveolar epithelial cells", "decrease cell viability", "TiO 2 nanoparticles", "ROS", "Titanium Dioxide Nanofibres Titanium dioxide", "SEM", "crocidolite", "airway cell monolayers", "anatase TiO 2 nanofibres", "TiO 2 nanofibres", "cell shape perturbation", "cell viability"], "article_id"=>3128812, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Neuroscience", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Chemical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Infectious Diseases", "Plant Biology", "Virology"], "users"=>["Manfredi Allegri", "Massimiliano G. Bianchi", "Martina Chiu", "Julia Varet", "Anna L. Costa", "Simona Ortelli", "Magda Blosi", "Ovidio Bussolati", "Craig A. Poland", "Enrico Bergamaschi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151365.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Effect_of_tested_materials_on_barrier_integrity_and_cell_viability_of_CaLu_3_cell_monolayers_/3128812", "title"=>"Effect of tested materials on barrier integrity and cell viability of CaLu-3 cell monolayers.", "pos_in_sequence"=>4, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-21 05:31:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4867600"], "description"=>"<p>Glutathione (GSH) content <b>(A)</b>, the expression of <i>Hmox1</i> <b>(B)</b> and the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) <b>(C)</b> were determined in Raw 264.7 cells after a 12-hour <b>(B)</b> or 24-hour <b>(A-C)</b> incubation with or without the indicated materials. For TiO<sub>2</sub> NF, the doses were 10, 20, 40 μg/cm<sup>2</sup> <b>(A),</b> 80 μg/cm<sup>2</sup> <b>(B)</b>, or 40 μg/cm<sup>2</sup> <b>(C)</b>; for crocidolite (Cro) and TiO<sub>2</sub> NP, the doses were 40 μg/cm<sup>2</sup> <b>(A,C)</b> or 80 μg/cm<sup>2</sup> <b>(B)</b>. Results are expressed as % of decrease <b>(A)</b> or relative expression <b>(B)</b> or fold-change <b>(C)</b> <i>vs</i>. control, untreated cultures. <b>(A,C)</b> Data are means ± SEM of 9 independent determinations. * p<0.05, ** p<0.01, *** p<0.001 <i>vs</i>. control. <b>(B)</b> Data are means ± SD of 4 values obtained in 2 separate experiments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TiO 2 NP", "alveolar epithelial cells", "decrease cell viability", "TiO 2 nanoparticles", "ROS", "Titanium Dioxide Nanofibres Titanium dioxide", "SEM", "crocidolite", "airway cell monolayers", "anatase TiO 2 nanofibres", "TiO 2 nanofibres", "cell shape perturbation", "cell viability"], "article_id"=>3128749, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Neuroscience", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Chemical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Infectious Diseases", "Plant Biology", "Virology"], "users"=>["Manfredi Allegri", "Massimiliano G. Bianchi", "Martina Chiu", "Julia Varet", "Anna L. Costa", "Simona Ortelli", "Magda Blosi", "Ovidio Bussolati", "Craig A. Poland", "Enrico Bergamaschi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151365.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Glutathione_depletion_i_Hmox1_i_induction_and_lipid_peroxidation_in_macrophages_/3128749", "title"=>"Glutathione depletion, <i>Hmox1</i> induction, and lipid peroxidation in macrophages.", "pos_in_sequence"=>2, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-21 05:31:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4867648"], "description"=>"<p>Raw 264.7 <b>(A)</b> and A549 cells <b>(B)</b> were treated up to 72h with or without pristine TiO<sub>2</sub> NF (range dose 2.5–80 μg/cm<sup>2</sup>), crocidolite (Cro; 80 μg/cm<sup>2</sup>) or TiO<sub>2</sub> NP (80 μg/cm<sup>2</sup>), and cell viability was assessed with the resazurin assay. Data are means ± SD of twelve independent determinations obtained in three experiments. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001 <i>vs</i>. control (untreated cultures).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TiO 2 NP", "alveolar epithelial cells", "decrease cell viability", "TiO 2 nanoparticles", "ROS", "Titanium Dioxide Nanofibres Titanium dioxide", "SEM", "crocidolite", "airway cell monolayers", "anatase TiO 2 nanofibres", "TiO 2 nanofibres", "cell shape perturbation", "cell viability"], "article_id"=>3128782, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Neuroscience", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Chemical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Infectious Diseases", "Plant Biology", "Virology"], "users"=>["Manfredi Allegri", "Massimiliano G. Bianchi", "Martina Chiu", "Julia Varet", "Anna L. Costa", "Simona Ortelli", "Magda Blosi", "Ovidio Bussolati", "Craig A. Poland", "Enrico Bergamaschi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151365.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Effect_of_tested_particles_on_cell_viability_/3128782", "title"=>"Effect of tested particles on cell viability.", "pos_in_sequence"=>3, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-21 05:31:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4867555"], "description"=>"<p><b>(A)</b> The sample of TiO<sub>2</sub> NF consists of discrete units of primary nano-particles, evident in the inset at higher magnification. <b>(B)</b> The XRD pattern of the material. <b>(C)</b> FE-SEM image of crocidolite. <b>(D)</b> FE-SEM image of TiO<sub>2</sub> NP. For <b>(A)</b>, <b>(C)</b> and <b>(D)</b>. Bars, 10 μm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TiO 2 NP", "alveolar epithelial cells", "decrease cell viability", "TiO 2 nanoparticles", "ROS", "Titanium Dioxide Nanofibres Titanium dioxide", "SEM", "crocidolite", "airway cell monolayers", "anatase TiO 2 nanofibres", "TiO 2 nanofibres", "cell shape perturbation", "cell viability"], "article_id"=>3128719, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Neuroscience", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Chemical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Infectious Diseases", "Plant Biology", "Virology"], "users"=>["Manfredi Allegri", "Massimiliano G. Bianchi", "Martina Chiu", "Julia Varet", "Anna L. Costa", "Simona Ortelli", "Magda Blosi", "Ovidio Bussolati", "Craig A. Poland", "Enrico Bergamaschi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151365.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/FE_SEM_image_and_XRD_pattern_of_TiO_sub_2_sub_nanofibres_/3128719", "title"=>"FE-SEM image and XRD pattern of TiO<sub>2</sub> nanofibres.", "pos_in_sequence"=>1, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-21 05:31:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4867849"], "description"=>"<p>Properties of TiO<sub>2</sub> NF and benchmark materials.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TiO 2 NP", "alveolar epithelial cells", "decrease cell viability", "TiO 2 nanoparticles", "ROS", "Titanium Dioxide Nanofibres Titanium dioxide", "SEM", "crocidolite", "airway cell monolayers", "anatase TiO 2 nanofibres", "TiO 2 nanofibres", "cell shape perturbation", "cell viability"], "article_id"=>3128959, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Neuroscience", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Chemical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Infectious Diseases", "Plant Biology", "Virology"], "users"=>["Manfredi Allegri", "Massimiliano G. Bianchi", "Martina Chiu", "Julia Varet", "Anna L. Costa", "Simona Ortelli", "Magda Blosi", "Ovidio Bussolati", "Craig A. Poland", "Enrico Bergamaschi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151365.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Properties_of_TiO_sub_2_sub_NF_and_benchmark_materials_/3128959", "title"=>"Properties of TiO<sub>2</sub> NF and benchmark materials.", "pos_in_sequence"=>9, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-03-21 05:31:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4867747"], "description"=>"<p>Raw 264.7 cells were seeded on coverslips and incubated for 24h in the absence <b>(A)</b> or in the presence of TiO<sub>2</sub> NF <b>(B)</b>, TiO<sub>2</sub> NP <b>(C)</b> or crocidolite asbestos <b>(D)</b> at a dose of 10 μg/cm<sup>2</sup>. Cells were then labelled, fixed, mounted for SEM analysis as described in Materials and methods. Bars, 20 μm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TiO 2 NP", "alveolar epithelial cells", "decrease cell viability", "TiO 2 nanoparticles", "ROS", "Titanium Dioxide Nanofibres Titanium dioxide", "SEM", "crocidolite", "airway cell monolayers", "anatase TiO 2 nanofibres", "TiO 2 nanofibres", "cell shape perturbation", "cell viability"], "article_id"=>3128863, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Neuroscience", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Chemical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Infectious Diseases", "Plant Biology", "Virology"], "users"=>["Manfredi Allegri", "Massimiliano G. Bianchi", "Martina Chiu", "Julia Varet", "Anna L. Costa", "Simona Ortelli", "Magda Blosi", "Ovidio Bussolati", "Craig A. Poland", "Enrico Bergamaschi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151365.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Characterization_of_the_interaction_between_macrophages_and_materials_by_scanning_electron_microscopy_/3128863", "title"=>"Characterization of the interaction between macrophages and materials by scanning electron microscopy.", "pos_in_sequence"=>6, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-21 05:31:59"}

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{"start_date"=>"2016-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2016-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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