Invasive Asian Earthworms Negatively Impact Keystone Terrestrial Salamanders
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{"title"=>"Invasive Asian Earthworms Negatively Impact Keystone Terrestrial Salamanders", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Julie L.", "last_name"=>"Ziemba", "scopus_author_id"=>"56884467300"}, {"first_name"=>"Cari Ann M", "last_name"=>"Hickerson", "scopus_author_id"=>"9037087700"}, {"first_name"=>"Carl D.", "last_name"=>"Anthony", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103171592"}], "year"=>2016, "source"=>"PloS one", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-85016925466", "pui"=>"615252996", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0151591", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "sgr"=>"85016925466", "pmid"=>"27144403"}, "id"=>"c694e2cb-0aab-3250-a416-c47c5c5202ee", "abstract"=>"Asian pheretimoid earthworms (e.g. Amynthas and Metaphire spp.) are invading North American forests and consuming the vital detrital layer that forest floor biota [including the keystone species Plethodon cinereus (Eastern Red-backed Salamander)], rely on for protection, food, and habitat. Plethodon cinereus population declines have been associated with leaf litter loss following the invasion of several exotic earthworm species, but there have been few studies on the specific interactions between pheretimoid earthworms and P. cinereus. Since some species of large and active pheretimoids spatially overlap with salamanders beneath natural cover objects and in detritus, they may distinctively compound the negative consequences of earthworm-mediated resource degradation by physically disturbing important salamander activities (foraging, mating, and egg brooding). We predicted that earthworms would exclude salamanders from high quality microhabitat, reduce foraging efficiency, and negatively affect salamander fitness. In laboratory trials, salamanders used lower quality microhabitat and consumed fewer flies in the presence of earthworms. In a natural field experiment, conducted on salamander populations from \"non-invaded\" and \"pheretimoid invaded\" sites in Ohio, salamanders and earthworms shared cover objects ~60% less than expected. Earthworm abundance was negatively associated with juvenile and male salamander abundance, but had no relationship with female salamander abundance. There was no effect of pheretimoid invasion on salamander body condition. Juvenile and non-resident male salamanders do not hold stable territories centered beneath cover objects such as rocks or logs, which results in reduced access to prey, greater risk of desiccation, and dispersal pressure. Habitat degradation and physical exclusion of salamanders from cover objects may hinder juvenile and male salamander performance, ultimately reducing recruitment and salamander abundance following Asian earthworm invasion.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/invasive-asian-earthworms-negatively-impact-keystone-terrestrial-salamanders", "reader_count"=>26, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Environmental Science"=>10, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>14, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>14}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>10}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5083879", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5083885", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5083891"], "description"=>"<div><p>Asian pheretimoid earthworms (e.g. <i>Amyntha</i>s and <i>Metaphire</i> spp.) are invading North American forests and consuming the vital detrital layer that forest floor biota [including the keystone species <i>Plethodon cinereus</i> (Eastern Red-backed Salamander)], rely on for protection, food, and habitat. <i>Plethodon cinereus</i> population declines have been associated with leaf litter loss following the invasion of several exotic earthworm species, but there have been few studies on the specific interactions between pheretimoid earthworms and <i>P</i>. <i>cinereus</i>. Since some species of large and active pheretimoids spatially overlap with salamanders beneath natural cover objects and in detritus, they may distinctively compound the negative consequences of earthworm-mediated resource degradation by physically disturbing important salamander activities (foraging, mating, and egg brooding). We predicted that earthworms would exclude salamanders from high quality microhabitat, reduce foraging efficiency, and negatively affect salamander fitness. In laboratory trials, salamanders used lower quality microhabitat and consumed fewer flies in the presence of earthworms. In a natural field experiment, conducted on salamander populations from “non-invaded” and “pheretimoid invaded” sites in Ohio, salamanders and earthworms shared cover objects ~60% less than expected. Earthworm abundance was negatively associated with juvenile and male salamander abundance, but had no relationship with female salamander abundance. There was no effect of pheretimoid invasion on salamander body condition. Juvenile and non-resident male salamanders do not hold stable territories centered beneath cover objects such as rocks or logs, which results in reduced access to prey, greater risk of desiccation, and dispersal pressure. Habitat degradation and physical exclusion of salamanders from cover objects may hinder juvenile and male salamander performance, ultimately reducing recruitment and salamander abundance following Asian earthworm invasion.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["quality microhabitat", "North American forests", "forest floor biota", "salamander abundance", "keystone species Plethodon cinereus", "Plethodon cinereus population declines", "Asian earthworm invasion", "leaf litter loss", "pheretimoid earthworms", "Earthworms Negatively Impact Keystone Terrestrial Salamanders", "salamander body condition"], "article_id"=>3249091, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified"], "users"=>["Julie L. Ziemba", "Cari-Ann M. Hickerson", "Carl D. Anthony"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151591.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151591.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151591.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Invasive_Asian_Earthworms_Negatively_Impact_Keystone_Terrestrial_Salamanders/3249091", "title"=>"Invasive Asian Earthworms Negatively Impact Keystone Terrestrial Salamanders", "pos_in_sequence"=>1, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2016-05-04 09:43:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5083924"], "description"=>"<p>A comparison of large pheretimoid earthworm population characteristics [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0151591#pone.0151591.ref033\" target=\"_blank\">33</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0151591#pone.0151591.ref034\" target=\"_blank\">34</a>] at the soil surface and <i>Plethodon cinereus</i> microhabitat occupancy [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0151591#pone.0151591.ref035\" target=\"_blank\">35</a>] throughout the year in Ohio, USA.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["quality microhabitat", "North American forests", "forest floor biota", "salamander abundance", "keystone species Plethodon cinereus", "Plethodon cinereus population declines", "Asian earthworm invasion", "leaf litter loss", "pheretimoid earthworms", "Earthworms Negatively Impact Keystone Terrestrial Salamanders", "salamander body condition"], "article_id"=>3249115, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified"], "users"=>["Julie L. Ziemba", "Cari-Ann M. Hickerson", "Carl D. Anthony"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151591.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/A_comparison_of_large_pheretimoid_earthworm_population_characteristics_33_34_at_the_soil_surface_and_i_Plethodon_cinereus_i_microhabitat_occupancy_35_throughout_the_year_in_Ohio_USA_/3249115", "title"=>"A comparison of large pheretimoid earthworm population characteristics [33, 34] at the soil surface and <i>Plethodon cinereus</i> microhabitat occupancy [35] throughout the year in Ohio, USA.", "pos_in_sequence"=>5, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-05-04 09:43:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5083918"], "description"=>"<p>Juveniles were significantly associated with earthworm abundance (A) and LL score (D). There was a negative relationship between earthworm and male salamander abundance (B) but no relationship between male salamanders and LL score (E). Female salamanders were neither associated with worm abundance (C) or LL score (F). Asterisks indicate statistically significant results.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["quality microhabitat", "North American forests", "forest floor biota", "salamander abundance", "keystone species Plethodon cinereus", "Plethodon cinereus population declines", "Asian earthworm invasion", "leaf litter loss", "pheretimoid earthworms", "Earthworms Negatively Impact Keystone Terrestrial Salamanders", "salamander body condition"], "article_id"=>3249109, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified"], "users"=>["Julie L. Ziemba", "Cari-Ann M. Hickerson", "Carl D. Anthony"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151591.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_relationship_between_pheretimoid_earthworm_and_i_P_i_i_cinereus_i_as_measured_by_earthworm_abundance_and_LL_score_/3249109", "title"=>"The relationship between pheretimoid earthworm and <i>P</i>. <i>cinereus</i> as measured by earthworm abundance and LL score.", "pos_in_sequence"=>4, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-05-04 09:43:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5083903"], "description"=>"<p>The diagonal line indicates no difference in a salamander’s HQ zone use when they were alone vs. paired with an earthworm. Points above the line represent salamanders that used the HQ zone more often when alone, while points below the line represent salamanders that used the HQ zone more often when paired with an earthworm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["quality microhabitat", "North American forests", "forest floor biota", "salamander abundance", "keystone species Plethodon cinereus", "Plethodon cinereus population declines", "Asian earthworm invasion", "leaf litter loss", "pheretimoid earthworms", "Earthworms Negatively Impact Keystone Terrestrial Salamanders", "salamander body condition"], "article_id"=>3249094, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified"], "users"=>["Julie L. Ziemba", "Cari-Ann M. Hickerson", "Carl D. Anthony"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151591.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Equal_probability_plot_for_high_quality_HQ_microhabitat_use_when_salamanders_i_Plethodon_cinereus_i_were_alone_or_paired_with_pheretimoid_earthworms_/3249094", "title"=>"Equal probability plot for high quality (HQ) microhabitat use when salamanders (<i>Plethodon cinereus</i>) were alone or paired with pheretimoid earthworms.", "pos_in_sequence"=>2, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-05-04 09:43:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5083912"], "description"=>"<p>Salamanders consumed fewer flies in the presence of earthworms than when alone (<i>F</i><sub>1,109</sub> = 4.187, P = 0.043). The bars represent standard error.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["quality microhabitat", "North American forests", "forest floor biota", "salamander abundance", "keystone species Plethodon cinereus", "Plethodon cinereus population declines", "Asian earthworm invasion", "leaf litter loss", "pheretimoid earthworms", "Earthworms Negatively Impact Keystone Terrestrial Salamanders", "salamander body condition"], "article_id"=>3249103, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified"], "users"=>["Julie L. Ziemba", "Cari-Ann M. Hickerson", "Carl D. Anthony"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151591.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_effect_of_pheretimoid_earthworm_presence_on_the_number_of_flies_consumed_in_salamander_i_Plethodon_cinereus_i_foraging_efficiency_trials_/3249103", "title"=>"The effect of pheretimoid earthworm presence on the number of flies consumed in salamander (<i>Plethodon cinereus</i>) foraging efficiency trials.", "pos_in_sequence"=>3, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-05-04 09:43:58"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2016-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2016-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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