A Zebrafish Larval Model to Assess Virulence of Porcine Streptococcus suis Strains
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{"title"=>"A zebrafish larval model to assess virulence of porcine streptococcus suis strains", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Edoardo", "last_name"=>"Zaccaria", "scopus_author_id"=>"56233342100"}, {"first_name"=>"Rui", "last_name"=>"Cao", "scopus_author_id"=>"57188661718"}, {"first_name"=>"Jerry M.", "last_name"=>"Wells", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403356868"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter", "last_name"=>"Van Baarlen", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602874031"}], "year"=>2016, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"609296716", "pmid"=>"26999052", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0151623", "issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84962159202", "sgr"=>"84962159202"}, "id"=>"c3556520-ae36-3bf1-a6fc-034a4b5d6240", "abstract"=>"Streptococcus suis is an encapsulated Gram-positive bacterium, and the leading cause of sepsis and meningitis in young pigs resulting in considerable economic losses in the porcine industry. It is also considered an emerging zoonotic agent. In the environment, both avirulent and virulent strains occur in pigs, and virulent strains appear to cause disease in both humans and pigs. There is a need for a convenient, reliable and standardized animal model to assess S. suis virulence. A zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae infection model has several advantages, including transparency of larvae, low cost, ease of use and exemption from ethical legislation up to 6 days post fertilization, but has not been previously established as a model for S. suis. Microinjection of different porcine strains of S. suis in zebrafish larvae resulted in highly reproducible dose- and strain-dependent larval death, strongly correlating with presence of the S. suis capsule and to the original virulence of the strain in pigs. Additionally we compared the virulence of the two-component system mutant of ciaRH, which is attenuated for virulence in both mice and pigs in vivo. Infection of larvae with the ΔciaRH strain resulted in significantly higher survival rate compared to infection with the S10 wild-type strain. Our data demonstrate that zebrafish larvae are a rapid and reliable model to assess the virulence of clinical porcine S. suis isolates.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/zebrafish-larval-model-assess-virulence-porcine-streptococcus-suis-strains", "reader_count"=>7, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Design"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4866175"], "description"=>"<p>Zebrafish larvae were injected with 1000 colony forming units in the yolk sac and in the Duct of Couvier (DoC) and observed under a Leica M205 FA fluorescent stereo-microscope. a) Localization of fluorescent <i>S</i>. <i>suis</i> S10 injected in the yolk sac, 1 hpi, b) Localization of fluorescent <i>S</i>. <i>suis</i> S10 injected in the DoC, 1 hpi.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["6 days post fertilization", "porcine", "Δ ciaRH strain", "Porcine Streptococcus suis Strains Streptococcus suis", "Zebrafish Larval Model", "zebrafish larvae", "virulence", "larvae infection model"], "article_id"=>3127591, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Medicine", "Microbiology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Virology"], "users"=>["Edoardo Zaccaria", "Rui Cao", "Jerry M. Wells", "Peter van Baarlen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151623.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Fluorescent_i_S_i_i_suis_i_in_injected_zebrafish_larvae_/3127591", "title"=>"Fluorescent <i>S</i>. <i>suis</i> in injected zebrafish larvae.", "pos_in_sequence"=>2, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-21 05:23:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4866334"], "description"=>"<p>Survival rate of injected larvae with four different <i>S</i>. <i>suis</i> strains in two different infection sites, the yolk sac and the Ducts of Cuvier, no significant difference between the two infection sites was found (<i>p</i> = 0.0536). The surviving larvae were counted at 24 and 48 hpi. * P-value < 0.01 compared with J28, S735 and PVP control group. Results were obtained in 3 independent experiments, and 25 larvae were injected per group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["6 days post fertilization", "porcine", "Δ ciaRH strain", "Porcine Streptococcus suis Strains Streptococcus suis", "Zebrafish Larval Model", "zebrafish larvae", "virulence", "larvae infection model"], "article_id"=>3127723, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Medicine", "Microbiology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Virology"], "users"=>["Edoardo Zaccaria", "Rui Cao", "Jerry M. Wells", "Peter van Baarlen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151623.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Microinjection_in_the_yolk_sac_or_the_ducts_of_Cuvier_leads_to_similar_mortality_rates_/3127723", "title"=>"Microinjection in the yolk sac or the ducts of Cuvier leads to similar mortality rates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>5, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-21 05:23:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4866373"], "description"=>"<p>Survival curve of injected larvae with <i>S</i>. <i>suis</i> S10, its unencapsulated mutant strain J28 and PVP control. Larval viability was checked every 8h for the first 40h, then every 2h. (1) <i>p</i> < 0.001 compared with J28 and PVP control curves. (2) <i>p</i> < 0.01 compared with S10 and PVP control curves. Results were obtained in 3 independent experiments, and 25 larvae were injected per group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["6 days post fertilization", "porcine", "Δ ciaRH strain", "Porcine Streptococcus suis Strains Streptococcus suis", "Zebrafish Larval Model", "zebrafish larvae", "virulence", "larvae infection model"], "article_id"=>3127756, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Medicine", "Microbiology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Virology"], "users"=>["Edoardo Zaccaria", "Rui Cao", "Jerry M. Wells", "Peter van Baarlen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151623.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Relevance_of_the_capsular_polysaccharide_during_infection_of_zebrafish_larvae_/3127756", "title"=>"Relevance of the capsular polysaccharide during infection of zebrafish larvae.", "pos_in_sequence"=>6, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-21 05:23:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4866412"], "description"=>"<p>Survival curve of injected larvae with S. suis S10, its mutant strain ΔciaRH and control. Larval viability was checked every 8h for the first 40h, then every 2h. (1) <i>p</i> < 0.01 compared with ΔciaRH and PVP control curves. (2) <i>p</i> < 0.01 compared with S10 and PVP control curves. Results were obtained in 3 independent experiments, and 25 larvae were injected per group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["6 days post fertilization", "porcine", "Δ ciaRH strain", "Porcine Streptococcus suis Strains Streptococcus suis", "Zebrafish Larval Model", "zebrafish larvae", "virulence", "larvae infection model"], "article_id"=>3127789, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Medicine", "Microbiology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Virology"], "users"=>["Edoardo Zaccaria", "Rui Cao", "Jerry M. Wells", "Peter van Baarlen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151623.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Increased_survival_rate_of_zebrafish_larvae_injected_with_S10_ciaRH_compared_with_the_wild_type_strain_/3127789", "title"=>"Increased survival rate of zebrafish larvae injected with S10 ΔciaRH compared with the wild-type strain.", "pos_in_sequence"=>7, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-21 05:23:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4866229"], "description"=>"<p>Zebrafish larvae were injected with 100, 500, 1000, 2500 and 5000 colony forming units. a. Survival rate of infected larvae at 24 hpi. b. Survival rate of infected larvae at 48 hpi. At both time points, results were obtained in 3 independent experiments, and 25 larvae were injected per group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["6 days post fertilization", "porcine", "Δ ciaRH strain", "Porcine Streptococcus suis Strains Streptococcus suis", "Zebrafish Larval Model", "zebrafish larvae", "virulence", "larvae infection model"], "article_id"=>3127630, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Medicine", "Microbiology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Virology"], "users"=>["Edoardo Zaccaria", "Rui Cao", "Jerry M. Wells", "Peter van Baarlen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151623.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/LD_sub_50_sub_determination_/3127630", "title"=>"LD<sub>50</sub> determination.", "pos_in_sequence"=>3, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-21 05:23:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4866127"], "description"=>"<p>1 ml of culture was sampled and absorbance (or optical density) at 600 nm (OD<sub>600</sub>) was measured every 2 hours; the difference between the two growth curves was weakly significant (<i>p</i> = 0.0172).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["6 days post fertilization", "porcine", "Δ ciaRH strain", "Porcine Streptococcus suis Strains Streptococcus suis", "Zebrafish Larval Model", "zebrafish larvae", "virulence", "larvae infection model"], "article_id"=>3127537, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Medicine", "Microbiology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Virology"], "users"=>["Edoardo Zaccaria", "Rui Cao", "Jerry M. Wells", "Peter van Baarlen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151623.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_i_S_i_i_suis_g_i_rowth_curves_at_28_C_and_at_37_C_/3127537", "title"=>"<i>S</i>. <i>suis g</i>rowth curves at 28°C and at 37°C.", "pos_in_sequence"=>1, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-21 05:23:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4866442"], "description"=>"<p>V, virulent; WV, weakly virulent; AV, avirulent.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["6 days post fertilization", "porcine", "Δ ciaRH strain", "Porcine Streptococcus suis Strains Streptococcus suis", "Zebrafish Larval Model", "zebrafish larvae", "virulence", "larvae infection model"], "article_id"=>3127828, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Medicine", "Microbiology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Virology"], "users"=>["Edoardo Zaccaria", "Rui Cao", "Jerry M. Wells", "Peter van Baarlen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151623.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_i_S_i_i_suis_i_strains_used_in_this_study_and_their_virulence_/3127828", "title"=>"<i>S</i>. <i>suis</i> strains used in this study and their virulence.", "pos_in_sequence"=>8, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-03-21 05:23:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4866484"], "description"=>"<p><i>S</i>. <i>suis</i> isolates and their relative virulence in zebrafish larvae and in pig infection studies.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["6 days post fertilization", "porcine", "Δ ciaRH strain", "Porcine Streptococcus suis Strains Streptococcus suis", "Zebrafish Larval Model", "zebrafish larvae", "virulence", "larvae infection model"], "article_id"=>3127861, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Medicine", "Microbiology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Virology"], "users"=>["Edoardo Zaccaria", "Rui Cao", "Jerry M. Wells", "Peter van Baarlen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151623.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_i_S_i_i_suis_i_isolates_and_their_relative_virulence_in_zebrafish_larvae_and_in_pig_infection_studies_/3127861", "title"=>"<i>S</i>. <i>suis</i> isolates and their relative virulence in zebrafish larvae and in pig infection studies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>9, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-03-21 05:23:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4866280"], "description"=>"<p>a. Survival curve of yolk-injected larvae with three different <i>S</i>. <i>suis</i> serotype 2 strains. Larval viability was checked every 8h for the first 40h, then every 2h. (1) <i>p</i> < 0.001 compared with S735 and PVP control curves. (2) <i>p</i> < 0.01 compared with S10, P1/7 and PVP control group. b. Survival rate of yolk-injected larvae with different <i>S</i>. <i>suis</i> strains; larval survival was determined at 48 hpi. * <i>p</i> < 0.001 compared with SS1 6555, SS9 5218, SS9 8067 and PVP control group. Results were obtained in 3 independent experiments, and 25 larvae were injected per group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["6 days post fertilization", "porcine", "Δ ciaRH strain", "Porcine Streptococcus suis Strains Streptococcus suis", "Zebrafish Larval Model", "zebrafish larvae", "virulence", "larvae infection model"], "article_id"=>3127675, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Medicine", "Microbiology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Infectious Diseases", "Virology"], "users"=>["Edoardo Zaccaria", "Rui Cao", "Jerry M. Wells", "Peter van Baarlen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151623.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Zebrafish_larval_mortality_correlates_with_virulence_of_the_injected_i_S_i_i_suis_i_strain_in_pigs_/3127675", "title"=>"Zebrafish larval mortality correlates with virulence of the injected <i>S</i>. <i>suis</i> strain in pigs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>4, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-21 05:23:56"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2016-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2016-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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