The Formation of Social Conventions in Real-Time Environments
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{"title"=>"The formation of social conventions in real- Time environments", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Robert X.D.", "last_name"=>"Hawkins", "scopus_author_id"=>"56946225400"}, {"first_name"=>"Robert L.", "last_name"=>"Goldstone", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005787552"}], "year"=>2016, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "sgr"=>"84962173509", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0151670", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84962173509", "pmid"=>"27002729", "pui"=>"609296242"}, "id"=>"4bb5d2c1-97d2-31bf-851e-7c6ef4e7c65f", "abstract"=>"Why are some behaviors governed by strong social conventions while others are not? We experimentally investigate two factors contributing to the formation of conventions in a game of impure coordination: the continuity of interaction within each round of play (simultaneous vs. real-time) and the stakes of the interaction (high vs. low differences between payoffs). To maximize efficiency and fairness in this game, players must coordinate on one of two equally advantageous equilibria. In agreement with other studies manipulating continuity of interaction, we find that players who were allowed to interact continuously within rounds achieved outcomes with greater efficiency and fairness than players who were forced to make simultaneous decisions. However, the stability of equilibria in the real-time condition varied systematically and dramatically with stakes: players converged on more stable patterns of behavior when stakes are high. To account for this result, we present a novel analysis of the dynamics of continuous interaction and signaling within rounds. We discuss this previously unconsidered interaction between within-trial and across-trial dynamics as a form of social canalization. When stakes are low in a real-time environment, players can satisfactorily coordinate 'on the fly', but when stakes are high there is increased pressure to establish and adhere to shared expectations that persist across rounds.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/formation-social-conventions-real-time-environments", "reader_count"=>13, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Computer Science"=>4, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Linguistics"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>4}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4878061"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Non-parametric local regression curve fitting peel-off times on each trial, broken down by ‘high’ and ‘low’ payoff conditions. Envelopes surrounding curves denote ±1 (bootstrapped) standard deviation. Note that as conventions form, we predict a decrease in peel-off times, because there is a pre-determined action for both players to take in a given round. (b) Interaction plot comparing the mean peel-off time at the beginning of the experiment against mean peel-off times at the end (with intervals indicated by the arrows in (a)). We find a crossover effect, with the ‘high’ payoff condition beginning with higher peel-off times and ending with lower peel-off times. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0151670#pone.0151670.s013\" target=\"_blank\">S2 Table</a> demonstrates the robustness of this effect to different windows.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["unconsidered interaction", "dynamic", "player", "vs", "Social Conventions", "stake", "equilibria", "novel analysis", "convention", "fairness", "continuity", "efficiency", "round"], "article_id"=>3136816, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Mathematical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Robert X. D. Hawkins", "Robert L. Goldstone"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151670.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_Formation_of_Social_Conventions_in_Real_Time_Environments_Fig_3/3136816", "title"=>"The Formation of Social Conventions in Real-Time Environments - Fig 3", "pos_in_sequence"=>4, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-22 06:29:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4878055"], "description"=>"<p>Bars reflect standard errors. Note that the results for the two dynamic conditions were the same by efficiency measures (a) and fairness measures (b), yet differed markedly in stability (c). Higher payoff differences increased stability (i.e. decreased surprisal) within the dynamic condition, but had no effect on stability in the ballistic condition. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0151670#pone.0151670.s008\" target=\"_blank\">S3 Fig</a> shows the same results using the less interpretable but more technically correct measure of “mean rank” on the y-axis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["unconsidered interaction", "dynamic", "player", "vs", "Social Conventions", "stake", "equilibria", "novel analysis", "convention", "fairness", "continuity", "efficiency", "round"], "article_id"=>3136810, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Mathematical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Robert X. D. Hawkins", "Robert L. Goldstone"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151670.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Main_results_at_Binmore_s_three_levels_of_analysis_/3136810", "title"=>"Main results at Binmore’s three levels of analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>3, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-22 06:29:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4878049"], "description"=>"<p>The colored triangles represent the players’ avatars, the white circles represent targets (labeled by their corresponding payoffs), the outer shell gives the ‘tie radius’, and the colored cross shows a player their current ‘destination’.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["unconsidered interaction", "dynamic", "player", "vs", "Social Conventions", "stake", "equilibria", "novel analysis", "convention", "fairness", "continuity", "efficiency", "round"], "article_id"=>3136804, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Mathematical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Robert X. D. Hawkins", "Robert L. Goldstone"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151670.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Screenshot_of_the_first_round_of_the_experiment_/3136804", "title"=>"Screenshot of the first round of the experiment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>2, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-22 06:29:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4877983", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4878040", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4878037", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4878034", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4878031", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4878022", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4878019", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4878016", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4878013", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4878004", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4878001", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4877992", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4878046"], "description"=>"<div><p>Why are some behaviors governed by strong social conventions while others are not? We experimentally investigate two factors contributing to the formation of conventions in a game of impure coordination: the continuity of interaction within each round of play (simultaneous vs. real-time) and the stakes of the interaction (high vs. low differences between payoffs). To maximize efficiency and fairness in this game, players must coordinate on one of two equally advantageous equilibria. In agreement with other studies manipulating continuity of interaction, we find that players who were allowed to interact continuously within rounds achieved outcomes with greater efficiency and fairness than players who were forced to make simultaneous decisions. However, the stability of equilibria in the real-time condition varied systematically and dramatically with stakes: players converged on more stable patterns of behavior when stakes are high. To account for this result, we present a novel analysis of the dynamics of continuous interaction and signaling within rounds. We discuss this previously unconsidered interaction between within-trial and across-trial dynamics as a form of social canalization. When stakes are low in a real-time environment, players can satisfactorily coordinate ‘on the fly’, but when stakes are high there is increased pressure to establish and adhere to shared expectations that persist across rounds.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["unconsidered interaction", "dynamic", "player", "vs", "Social Conventions", "stake", "equilibria", "novel analysis", "convention", "fairness", "continuity", "efficiency", "round"], "article_id"=>3136774, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Mathematical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Robert X. D. Hawkins", "Robert L. Goldstone"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151670.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151670.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151670.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151670.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151670.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151670.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151670.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151670.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151670.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151670.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151670.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151670.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151670.s013"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_Formation_of_Social_Conventions_in_Real_Time_Environments/3136774", "title"=>"The Formation of Social Conventions in Real-Time Environments", "pos_in_sequence"=>1, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2016-03-22 06:29:24"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2016-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2016-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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