Atheists and Agnostics Are More Reflective than Religious Believers: Four Empirical Studies and a Meta-Analysis
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{"title"=>"Atheists and agnostics are more reflective than religious believers: Four empirical studies and a meta-analysis", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Gordon", "last_name"=>"Pennycook", "scopus_author_id"=>"50061672800"}, {"first_name"=>"Robert M.", "last_name"=>"Ross", "scopus_author_id"=>"23567212800"}, {"first_name"=>"Derek J.", "last_name"=>"Koehler", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005240016"}, {"first_name"=>"Jonathan A.", "last_name"=>"Fugelsang", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603080729"}], "year"=>2016, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"27054566", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0153039", "sgr"=>"84963527468", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84963527468", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"609703226"}, "id"=>"d93a245d-8ffa-3812-bde2-6a70b52d7a66", "abstract"=>"Individual differences in the mere willingness to think analytically has been shown to predict religious disbelief. Recently, however, it has been argued that analytic thinkers are not actually less religious; rather, the putative association may be a result of religiosity typically being measured after analytic thinking (an order effect). In light of this possibility, we report four studies in which a negative correlation between religious belief and performance on analytic thinking measures is found when religious belief is measured in a separate session. We also performed a meta-analysis on all previously published studies on the topic along with our four new studies (N = 15,078, k = 31), focusing specifically on the association between performance on the Cognitive Reflection Test (the most widely used individual difference measure of analytic thinking) and religious belief. This meta-analysis revealed an overall negative correlation (r) of -.18, 95% CI [-.21, -.16]. Although this correlation is modest, self-identified atheists (N = 133) scored 18.7% higher than religiously affiliated individuals (N = 597) on a composite measure of analytic thinking administered across our four new studies (d = .72). Our results indicate that the association between analytic thinking and religious disbelief is not caused by a simple order effect. There is good evidence that atheists and agnostics are more reflective than religious believers.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/atheists-agnostics-more-reflective-religious-believers-four-empirical-studies-metaanalysis", "reader_count"=>52, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2, "Philosophy"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Psychology"=>28, "Social Sciences"=>7, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>7}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>28}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Austria"=>1, "Turkey"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Luxembourg"=>1, "Dominican Republic"=>1, "Australia"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4929883"], "description"=>"<p>Materials for Studies 1–4. CRT = Cognitive Reflection Test.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CI", "disbelief", "atheist", "performance", "order effect", "association", "Cognitive Reflection Test", "correlation"], "article_id"=>3166081, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Sociology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Mental Health", "Hematology"], "users"=>["Gordon Pennycook", "Robert M. Ross", "Derek J. Koehler", "Jonathan A. Fugelsang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153039.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Materials_for_Studies_1_4_CRT_Cognitive_Reflection_Test_/3166081", "title"=>"Materials for Studies 1–4. CRT = Cognitive Reflection Test.", "pos_in_sequence"=>7, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-04-07 05:27:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4929937"], "description"=>"<p>Correlations (<i>r</i>) among cognitive variables, collapsing across all four studies.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CI", "disbelief", "atheist", "performance", "order effect", "association", "Cognitive Reflection Test", "correlation"], "article_id"=>3166147, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Sociology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Mental Health", "Hematology"], "users"=>["Gordon Pennycook", "Robert M. Ross", "Derek J. Koehler", "Jonathan A. Fugelsang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153039.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Correlations_i_r_i_among_cognitive_variables_collapsing_across_all_four_studies_/3166147", "title"=>"Correlations (<i>r</i>) among cognitive variables, collapsing across all four studies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>9, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-04-07 05:27:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4929991"], "description"=>"<p>Summary of studies reporting a correlation (<i>r</i>) between a behavioral measure of analytic thinking and religiosity (variously measured). Significant correlations are in bold.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CI", "disbelief", "atheist", "performance", "order effect", "association", "Cognitive Reflection Test", "correlation"], "article_id"=>3166198, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Sociology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Mental Health", "Hematology"], "users"=>["Gordon Pennycook", "Robert M. Ross", "Derek J. Koehler", "Jonathan A. Fugelsang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153039.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Summary_of_studies_reporting_a_correlation_i_r_i_between_a_behavioral_measure_of_analytic_thinking_and_religiosity_variously_measured_Significant_correlations_are_in_bold_/3166198", "title"=>"Summary of studies reporting a correlation (<i>r</i>) between a behavioral measure of analytic thinking and religiosity (variously measured). Significant correlations are in bold.", "pos_in_sequence"=>11, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-04-07 05:27:34"}
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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4929802"], "description"=>"<p>Forest plot of random effect meta-analysis showing effect sizes (<i>r</i>) for the association between religious belief scales and performance on the CRT.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CI", "disbelief", "atheist", "performance", "order effect", "association", "Cognitive Reflection Test", "correlation"], "article_id"=>3166027, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Sociology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Mental Health", "Hematology"], "users"=>["Gordon Pennycook", "Robert M. Ross", "Derek J. Koehler", "Jonathan A. Fugelsang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153039.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Forest_plot_of_random_effect_meta_analysis_showing_effect_sizes_i_r_i_for_the_association_between_religious_belief_scales_and_performance_on_the_CRT_/3166027", "title"=>"Forest plot of random effect meta-analysis showing effect sizes (<i>r</i>) for the association between religious belief scales and performance on the CRT.", "pos_in_sequence"=>4, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-04-07 05:27:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4929919"], "description"=>"<p>Mean proportion correct and associated standard deviations and skewness (in brackets: SD /<sub>Skew</sub>) for cognitive variables.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CI", "disbelief", "atheist", "performance", "order effect", "association", "Cognitive Reflection Test", "correlation"], "article_id"=>3166123, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Sociology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Mental Health", "Hematology"], "users"=>["Gordon Pennycook", "Robert M. Ross", "Derek J. Koehler", "Jonathan A. Fugelsang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153039.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Mean_proportion_correct_and_associated_standard_deviations_and_skewness_in_brackets_SD_sub_Skew_sub_for_cognitive_variables_/3166123", "title"=>"Mean proportion correct and associated standard deviations and skewness (in brackets: SD /<sub>Skew</sub>) for cognitive variables.", "pos_in_sequence"=>8, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-04-07 05:27:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4929673", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4929679", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4929691", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4929715"], "description"=>"<div><p>Individual differences in the mere willingness to think analytically has been shown to predict religious disbelief. Recently, however, it has been argued that analytic thinkers are not actually less religious; rather, the putative association may be a result of religiosity typically being measured after analytic thinking (an order effect). In light of this possibility, we report four studies in which a negative correlation between religious belief and performance on analytic thinking measures is found when religious belief is measured in a separate session. We also performed a meta-analysis on all previously published studies on the topic along with our four new studies (<i>N</i> = 15,078, <i>k</i> = 31), focusing specifically on the association between performance on the Cognitive Reflection Test (the most widely used individual difference measure of analytic thinking) and religious belief. This meta-analysis revealed an overall negative correlation (<i>r</i>) of -.18, 95% CI [-.21, -.16]. Although this correlation is modest, self-identified atheists (<i>N</i> = 133) scored 18.7% higher than religiously affiliated individuals (<i>N</i> = 597) on a composite measure of analytic thinking administered across our four new studies (<i>d</i> = .72). Our results indicate that the association between analytic thinking and religious disbelief is not caused by a simple order effect. There is good evidence that atheists and agnostics are more reflective than religious believers.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CI", "disbelief", "atheist", "performance", "order effect", "association", "Cognitive Reflection Test", "correlation"], "article_id"=>3165940, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Sociology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Mental Health", "Hematology"], "users"=>["Gordon Pennycook", "Robert M. Ross", "Derek J. Koehler", "Jonathan A. Fugelsang"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153039.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153039.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153039.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153039.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Atheists_and_Agnostics_Are_More_Reflective_than_Religious_Believers_Four_Empirical_Studies_and_a_Meta_Analysis/3165940", "title"=>"Atheists and Agnostics Are More Reflective than Religious Believers: Four Empirical Studies and a Meta-Analysis", "pos_in_sequence"=>1, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2016-04-07 05:27:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4929778"], "description"=>"<p>Mean accuracy on Analytic Cognitive Style (ACS) measures as a function of religious affiliation (taken in a pre-screen survey). <i>N</i>’s = 597, 171, 142, 133 (respectively).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CI", "disbelief", "atheist", "performance", "order effect", "association", "Cognitive Reflection Test", "correlation"], "article_id"=>3166006, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Sociology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Mental Health", "Hematology"], "users"=>["Gordon Pennycook", "Robert M. Ross", "Derek J. Koehler", "Jonathan A. Fugelsang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153039.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Mean_accuracy_on_Analytic_Cognitive_Style_ACS_measures_as_a_function_of_religious_affiliation_taken_in_a_pre_screen_survey_i_N_i_s_597_171_142_133_respectively_/3166006", "title"=>"Mean accuracy on Analytic Cognitive Style (ACS) measures as a function of religious affiliation (taken in a pre-screen survey). <i>N</i>’s = 597, 171, 142, 133 (respectively).", "pos_in_sequence"=>3, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-04-07 05:27:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4929745"], "description"=>"<p>Mean accuracy on Analytic Cognitive Style (ACS) measures as a function of theism (taken in a mass testing survey). <i>N</i>’s = 570, 294, 200 (respectively).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CI", "disbelief", "atheist", "performance", "order effect", "association", "Cognitive Reflection Test", "correlation"], "article_id"=>3165976, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Sociology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Mental Health", "Hematology"], "users"=>["Gordon Pennycook", "Robert M. Ross", "Derek J. Koehler", "Jonathan A. Fugelsang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153039.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Mean_accuracy_on_Analytic_Cognitive_Style_ACS_measures_as_a_function_of_theism_taken_in_a_mass_testing_survey_i_N_i_s_570_294_200_respectively_/3165976", "title"=>"Mean accuracy on Analytic Cognitive Style (ACS) measures as a function of theism (taken in a mass testing survey). <i>N</i>’s = 570, 294, 200 (respectively).", "pos_in_sequence"=>2, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-04-07 05:27:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4929826"], "description"=>"<p>Funnel plot of standard error by Fisher’s Z.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CI", "disbelief", "atheist", "performance", "order effect", "association", "Cognitive Reflection Test", "correlation"], "article_id"=>3166045, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Sociology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Mental Health", "Hematology"], "users"=>["Gordon Pennycook", "Robert M. Ross", "Derek J. Koehler", "Jonathan A. Fugelsang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153039.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Funnel_plot_of_standard_error_by_Fisher_s_Z_/3166045", "title"=>"Funnel plot of standard error by Fisher’s Z.", "pos_in_sequence"=>5, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-04-07 05:27:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4929967"], "description"=>"<p>Correlations (<i>r</i>) between religious belief (taken in a mass-testing survey) and performance on cognitive tests.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["CI", "disbelief", "atheist", "performance", "order effect", "association", "Cognitive Reflection Test", "correlation"], "article_id"=>3166174, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Sociology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Mental Health", "Hematology"], "users"=>["Gordon Pennycook", "Robert M. Ross", "Derek J. Koehler", "Jonathan A. Fugelsang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153039.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Correlations_i_r_i_between_religious_belief_taken_in_a_mass_testing_survey_and_performance_on_cognitive_tests_/3166174", "title"=>"Correlations (<i>r</i>) between religious belief (taken in a mass-testing survey) and performance on cognitive tests.", "pos_in_sequence"=>10, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-04-07 05:27:34"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2016-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2016-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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