Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Hospital Emergency Room Visits for Respiratory Disease in Urban Areas in Beijing, China, in 2013
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{"title"=>"Fine particulate air pollution and hospital emergency room visits for respiratory disease in urban areas in Beijing, China, in 2013", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Qin", "last_name"=>"Xu", "scopus_author_id"=>"57013818800"}, {"first_name"=>"Xia", "last_name"=>"Li", "scopus_author_id"=>"55870796900"}, {"first_name"=>"Shuo", "last_name"=>"Wang", "scopus_author_id"=>"57191712969"}, {"first_name"=>"Chao", "last_name"=>"Wang", "scopus_author_id"=>"56498095300"}, {"first_name"=>"Fangfang", "last_name"=>"Huang", "scopus_author_id"=>"56844186400"}, {"first_name"=>"Qi", "last_name"=>"Gao", "scopus_author_id"=>"56571902500"}, {"first_name"=>"Lijuan", "last_name"=>"Wu", "scopus_author_id"=>"55714353800"}, {"first_name"=>"Lixin", "last_name"=>"Tao", "scopus_author_id"=>"35273485000"}, {"first_name"=>"Jin", "last_name"=>"Guo", "scopus_author_id"=>"56604437000"}, {"first_name"=>"Wei", "last_name"=>"Wang", "scopus_author_id"=>"37032157400"}, {"first_name"=>"Xiuhua", "last_name"=>"Guo", "scopus_author_id"=>"56583046900"}], "year"=>2016, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"27054582", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0153099", "sgr"=>"84963512463", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84963512463", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"609703218"}, "id"=>"8e0d0b32-8664-3ec5-93bb-8a3399ff0ffd", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Heavy fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution occurs frequently in China. However, epidemiological research on the association between short-term exposure to PM2.5 pollution and respiratory disease morbidity is still limited. This study aimed to explore the association between PM2.5 pollution and hospital emergency room visits (ERV) for total and cause-specific respiratory diseases in urban areas in Beijing. METHODS: Daily counts of respiratory ERV from Jan 1 to Dec 31, 2013, were obtained from ten general hospitals located in urban areas in Beijing. Concurrently, data on PM2.5 were collected from the Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau, including 17 ambient air quality monitoring stations. A generalized-additive model was used to explore the respiratory effects of PM2.5, after controlling for confounding variables. Subgroup analyses were also conducted by age and gender. RESULTS: A total of 92,464 respiratory emergency visits were recorded during the study period. The mean daily PM2.5 concentration was 102.1+/-73.6 mug/m3. Every 10 mug/m3 increase in PM2.5 concentration at lag0 was associated with an increase in ERV, as follows: 0.23% for total respiratory disease (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.11%-0.34%), 0.19% for upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) (95%CI: 0.04%-0.35%), 0.34% for lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) (95%CI: 0.14%-0.53%) and 1.46% for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) (95%CI: 0.13%-2.79%). The strongest association was identified between AECOPD and PM2.5 concentration at lag0-3 (3.15%, 95%CI: 1.39%-4.91%). The estimated effects were robust after adjusting for SO2, O3, CO and NO2. Females and people 60 years of age and older demonstrated a higher risk of respiratory disease after PM2.5 exposure. CONCLUSION: PM2.5 was significantly associated with respiratory ERV, particularly for URTI, LRTI and AECOPD in Beijing. The susceptibility to PM2.5 pollution varied by gender and age.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/fine-particulate-air-pollution-hospital-emergency-room-visits-respiratory-disease-urban-areas-beijin", "reader_count"=>31, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Master"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Master"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>8, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Chemistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Computer Science"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>8}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>8}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4929337"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: URTI-upper respiratory tract infection, LRTI-lower respiratory tract infection, AECOPD-acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, PM<sub>2.5</sub>- particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hospital emergency room visits", "LRTI", "tract infection", "Hospital Emergency Room Visits", "AECOPD", "Methods Daily counts", "ERV", "Fine Particulate Air Pollution", "Conclusion PM 2.5", "PM 2.5 exposure", "people 60 years", "CI", "17 ambient air quality monitoring stations", "Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau", "PM 2.5", "PM 2.5 pollution", "2013 Background Heavy", "CO", "PM 2.5 concentration", "URTI"], "article_id"=>3165664, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Neuroscience", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Mental Health", "Infectious Diseases", "Virology"], "users"=>["Qin Xu", "Xia Li", "Shuo Wang", "Chao Wang", "Fangfang Huang", "Qi Gao", "Lijuan Wu", "Lixin Tao", "Jin Guo", "Wei Wang", "Xiuhua Guo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153099.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Time_series_plot_of_emergency_room_visits_for_respiratory_diseases_number_of_daily_cases_and_PM_sub_2_5_sub_concentrations_in_Beijing_China_during_study_period_/3165664", "title"=>"Time series plot of emergency room visits for respiratory diseases (number of daily cases) and PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentrations in Beijing, China during study period.", "pos_in_sequence"=>3, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-04-07 05:24:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4929460"], "description"=>"<p>Characteristics and distribution of the main health outcomes and sub-categories of the different gender and age groups.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hospital emergency room visits", "LRTI", "tract infection", "Hospital Emergency Room Visits", "AECOPD", "Methods Daily counts", "ERV", "Fine Particulate Air Pollution", "Conclusion PM 2.5", "PM 2.5 exposure", "people 60 years", "CI", "17 ambient air quality monitoring stations", "Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau", "PM 2.5", "PM 2.5 pollution", "2013 Background Heavy", "CO", "PM 2.5 concentration", "URTI"], "article_id"=>3165763, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Neuroscience", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Mental Health", "Infectious Diseases", "Virology"], "users"=>["Qin Xu", "Xia Li", "Shuo Wang", "Chao Wang", "Fangfang Huang", "Qi Gao", "Lijuan Wu", "Lixin Tao", "Jin Guo", "Wei Wang", "Xiuhua Guo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153099.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Characteristics_and_distribution_of_the_main_health_outcomes_and_sub_categories_of_the_different_gender_and_age_groups_/3165763", "title"=>"Characteristics and distribution of the main health outcomes and sub-categories of the different gender and age groups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>7, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-04-07 05:24:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4929268", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4929271", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4929274", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4929277", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4929283", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4929295"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Heavy fine particulate matter (PM<sub>2.5</sub>) air pollution occurs frequently in China. However, epidemiological research on the association between short-term exposure to PM<sub>2.5</sub> pollution and respiratory disease morbidity is still limited. This study aimed to explore the association between PM<sub>2.5</sub> pollution and hospital emergency room visits (ERV) for total and cause-specific respiratory diseases in urban areas in Beijing.</p><p>Methods</p><p>Daily counts of respiratory ERV from Jan 1 to Dec 31, 2013, were obtained from ten general hospitals located in urban areas in Beijing. Concurrently, data on PM<sub>2.5</sub> were collected from the Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau, including 17 ambient air quality monitoring stations. A generalized-additive model was used to explore the respiratory effects of PM<sub>2.5</sub>, after controlling for confounding variables. Subgroup analyses were also conducted by age and gender.</p><p>Results</p><p>A total of 92,464 respiratory emergency visits were recorded during the study period. The mean daily PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentration was 102.1±73.6 μg/m<sup>3</sup>. Every 10 μg/m<sup>3</sup> increase in PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentration at lag<sub>0</sub> was associated with an increase in ERV, as follows: 0.23% for total respiratory disease (<i>95%</i> confidence interval <i>[CI]</i>: 0.11%-0.34%), 0.19% for upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) (<i>95%CI</i>: 0.04%-0.35%), 0.34% for lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) (<i>95%CI</i>: 0.14%-0.53%) and 1.46% for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) (<i>95%CI</i>: 0.13%-2.79%). The strongest association was identified between AECOPD and PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentration at lag<sub>0-3</sub> (3.15%, <i>95%CI</i>: 1.39%-4.91%). The estimated effects were robust after adjusting for SO<sub>2</sub>, O<sub>3</sub>, CO and NO<sub>2</sub>. Females and people 60 years of age and older demonstrated a higher risk of respiratory disease after PM<sub>2.5</sub> exposure.</p><p>Conclusion</p><p>PM<sub>2.5</sub> was significantly associated with respiratory ERV, particularly for URTI, LRTI and AECOPD in Beijing. The susceptibility to PM<sub>2.5</sub> pollution varied by gender and age.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hospital emergency room visits", "LRTI", "tract infection", "Hospital Emergency Room Visits", "AECOPD", "Methods Daily counts", "ERV", "Fine Particulate Air Pollution", "Conclusion PM 2.5", "PM 2.5 exposure", "people 60 years", "CI", "17 ambient air quality monitoring stations", "Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau", "PM 2.5", "PM 2.5 pollution", "2013 Background Heavy", "CO", "PM 2.5 concentration", "URTI"], "article_id"=>3165607, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Neuroscience", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Mental Health", "Infectious Diseases", "Virology"], "users"=>["Qin Xu", "Xia Li", "Shuo Wang", "Chao Wang", "Fangfang Huang", "Qi Gao", "Lijuan Wu", "Lixin Tao", "Jin Guo", "Wei Wang", "Xiuhua Guo"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153099.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153099.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153099.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153099.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153099.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153099.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Fine_Particulate_Air_Pollution_and_Hospital_Emergency_Room_Visits_for_Respiratory_Disease_in_Urban_Areas_in_Beijing_China_in_2013/3165607", "title"=>"Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Hospital Emergency Room Visits for Respiratory Disease in Urban Areas in Beijing, China, in 2013", "pos_in_sequence"=>1, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2016-04-07 05:24:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4929316"], "description"=>"<p>Note: ArcGIS (ArcMap, version 10.0, ESRI Inc. Redlands, CA, USA) was used to create the map.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hospital emergency room visits", "LRTI", "tract infection", "Hospital Emergency Room Visits", "AECOPD", "Methods Daily counts", "ERV", "Fine Particulate Air Pollution", "Conclusion PM 2.5", "PM 2.5 exposure", "people 60 years", "CI", "17 ambient air quality monitoring stations", "Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau", "PM 2.5", "PM 2.5 pollution", "2013 Background Heavy", "CO", "PM 2.5 concentration", "URTI"], "article_id"=>3165643, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Neuroscience", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Mental Health", "Infectious Diseases", "Virology"], "users"=>["Qin Xu", "Xia Li", "Shuo Wang", "Chao Wang", "Fangfang Huang", "Qi Gao", "Lijuan Wu", "Lixin Tao", "Jin Guo", "Wei Wang", "Xiuhua Guo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153099.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_distribution_of_17_monitoring_stations_for_air_pollutants_and_10_hospitals_located_in_urban_areas_in_Beijing_China_/3165643", "title"=>"The distribution of 17 monitoring stations for air pollutants and 10 hospitals located in urban areas in Beijing, China.", "pos_in_sequence"=>2, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-04-07 05:24:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4929505"], "description"=>"<p>Percentage changes with 95% CI in cause-specific respiratory ERV associated with a 10 μg/m<sup>3</sup> increase in PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentrations for different lag structures.<sup><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0153099#t003fn001\" target=\"_blank\">*</a></sup></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hospital emergency room visits", "LRTI", "tract infection", "Hospital Emergency Room Visits", "AECOPD", "Methods Daily counts", "ERV", "Fine Particulate Air Pollution", "Conclusion PM 2.5", "PM 2.5 exposure", "people 60 years", "CI", "17 ambient air quality monitoring stations", "Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau", "PM 2.5", "PM 2.5 pollution", "2013 Background Heavy", "CO", "PM 2.5 concentration", "URTI"], "article_id"=>3165805, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Neuroscience", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Mental Health", "Infectious Diseases", "Virology"], "users"=>["Qin Xu", "Xia Li", "Shuo Wang", "Chao Wang", "Fangfang Huang", "Qi Gao", "Lijuan Wu", "Lixin Tao", "Jin Guo", "Wei Wang", "Xiuhua Guo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153099.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Percentage_changes_with_95_CI_in_cause_specific_respiratory_ERV_associated_with_a_10_g_m_sup_3_sup_increase_in_PM_sub_2_5_sub_concentrations_for_different_lag_structures_sup_sup_/3165805", "title"=>"Percentage changes with 95% CI in cause-specific respiratory ERV associated with a 10 μg/m<sup>3</sup> increase in PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentrations for different lag structures.<sup>*</sup>", "pos_in_sequence"=>9, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-04-07 05:24:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4929433"], "description"=>"<p>Note: The <i>P</i> Value obtained from the Z-test for the difference between the two relative risks derived from the subgroup analysis. <i>P</i><sub><i>1</i></sub>: 60 years of age and older vs the age group younger than 15 years; <i>P</i><sub><i>2</i></sub>: 60 years of age and older vs the age group 15 years of age and older and younger than 35 years; <i>P</i><sub><i>3</i></sub>: age 60 years of age and older vs the age group 35 years of age and older and younger than 60 years.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hospital emergency room visits", "LRTI", "tract infection", "Hospital Emergency Room Visits", "AECOPD", "Methods Daily counts", "ERV", "Fine Particulate Air Pollution", "Conclusion PM 2.5", "PM 2.5 exposure", "people 60 years", "CI", "17 ambient air quality monitoring stations", "Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau", "PM 2.5", "PM 2.5 pollution", "2013 Background Heavy", "CO", "PM 2.5 concentration", "URTI"], "article_id"=>3165751, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Neuroscience", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Mental Health", "Infectious Diseases", "Virology"], "users"=>["Qin Xu", "Xia Li", "Shuo Wang", "Chao Wang", "Fangfang Huang", "Qi Gao", "Lijuan Wu", "Lixin Tao", "Jin Guo", "Wei Wang", "Xiuhua Guo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153099.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Percentage_change_with_95_CI_in_total_respiratory_ERV_associated_with_a_10_g_m_sup_3_sup_increase_in_PM_sub_2_5_sub_concentrations_by_gender_and_age_/3165751", "title"=>"Percentage change with 95%CI in total respiratory ERV associated with a 10 μg/m<sup>3</sup> increase in PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentrations by gender and age.", "pos_in_sequence"=>6, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-04-07 05:24:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4929484"], "description"=>"<p>Summary of the environmental and meteorological variables in urban areas in Beijing during the study period.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hospital emergency room visits", "LRTI", "tract infection", "Hospital Emergency Room Visits", "AECOPD", "Methods Daily counts", "ERV", "Fine Particulate Air Pollution", "Conclusion PM 2.5", "PM 2.5 exposure", "people 60 years", "CI", "17 ambient air quality monitoring stations", "Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau", "PM 2.5", "PM 2.5 pollution", "2013 Background Heavy", "CO", "PM 2.5 concentration", "URTI"], "article_id"=>3165787, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Neuroscience", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Mental Health", "Infectious Diseases", "Virology"], "users"=>["Qin Xu", "Xia Li", "Shuo Wang", "Chao Wang", "Fangfang Huang", "Qi Gao", "Lijuan Wu", "Lixin Tao", "Jin Guo", "Wei Wang", "Xiuhua Guo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153099.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Summary_of_the_environmental_and_meteorological_variables_in_urban_areas_in_Beijing_during_the_study_period_/3165787", "title"=>"Summary of the environmental and meteorological variables in urban areas in Beijing during the study period.", "pos_in_sequence"=>8, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-04-07 05:24:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4929391"], "description"=>"<p>Percentage increase of total respiratory ERV associated with a 10 μg/m<sup>3</sup> increase in PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentrations using the single- and two-pollutant models.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hospital emergency room visits", "LRTI", "tract infection", "Hospital Emergency Room Visits", "AECOPD", "Methods Daily counts", "ERV", "Fine Particulate Air Pollution", "Conclusion PM 2.5", "PM 2.5 exposure", "people 60 years", "CI", "17 ambient air quality monitoring stations", "Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau", "PM 2.5", "PM 2.5 pollution", "2013 Background Heavy", "CO", "PM 2.5 concentration", "URTI"], "article_id"=>3165724, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Neuroscience", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Mental Health", "Infectious Diseases", "Virology"], "users"=>["Qin Xu", "Xia Li", "Shuo Wang", "Chao Wang", "Fangfang Huang", "Qi Gao", "Lijuan Wu", "Lixin Tao", "Jin Guo", "Wei Wang", "Xiuhua Guo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153099.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Percentage_increase_of_total_respiratory_ERV_associated_with_a_10_g_m_sup_3_sup_increase_in_PM_sub_2_5_sub_concentrations_using_the_single_and_two_pollutant_models_/3165724", "title"=>"Percentage increase of total respiratory ERV associated with a 10 μg/m<sup>3</sup> increase in PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentrations using the single- and two-pollutant models.", "pos_in_sequence"=>5, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-04-07 05:24:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4929367"], "description"=>"<p>Note: The X-axis shows the moving averages of PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentrations at lag<sub>0-1</sub> (μg/m<sup>3</sup>). The Y-axis is the predicted log relative risk (<i>RR</i>). The pink line represents central estimates, and the blue shaded area represents the <i>95%</i> CI.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hospital emergency room visits", "LRTI", "tract infection", "Hospital Emergency Room Visits", "AECOPD", "Methods Daily counts", "ERV", "Fine Particulate Air Pollution", "Conclusion PM 2.5", "PM 2.5 exposure", "people 60 years", "CI", "17 ambient air quality monitoring stations", "Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau", "PM 2.5", "PM 2.5 pollution", "2013 Background Heavy", "CO", "PM 2.5 concentration", "URTI"], "article_id"=>3165694, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Molecular Biology", "Neuroscience", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Developmental Biology", "Cancer", "Mental Health", "Infectious Diseases", "Virology"], "users"=>["Qin Xu", "Xia Li", "Shuo Wang", "Chao Wang", "Fangfang Huang", "Qi Gao", "Lijuan Wu", "Lixin Tao", "Jin Guo", "Wei Wang", "Xiuhua Guo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153099.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_smoothed_exposure_response_curves_of_daily_average_PM_sub_2_5_sub_concentrations_at_lag_sub_0_1_sub_against_the_risk_of_total_respiratory_ERV_in_different_subgroups_/3165694", "title"=>"The smoothed exposure-response curves of daily average PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentrations at lag<sub>0-1</sub> against the risk of total respiratory ERV in different subgroups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>4, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-04-07 05:24:57"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"14", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"11", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"13", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"44", "full-text"=>"52", "pdf"=>"22", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"46", "full-text"=>"80", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"52", "full-text"=>"58", "pdf"=>"20", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"38", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"12"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2016-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2016-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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