Behavioral Characterization of the Effects of Cannabis Smoke and Anandamide in Rats
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{"title"=>"Behavioral characterization of the effects of cannabis smoke and anandamide in rats", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Adriaan W.", "last_name"=>"Bruijnzeel", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603010580"}, {"first_name"=>"Xiaoli", "last_name"=>"Qi", "scopus_author_id"=>"55463143900"}, {"first_name"=>"Lidia V.", "last_name"=>"Guzhva", "scopus_author_id"=>"56971546800"}, {"first_name"=>"Shannon", "last_name"=>"Wall", "scopus_author_id"=>"57188838090"}, {"first_name"=>"Jie V.", "last_name"=>"Deng", "scopus_author_id"=>"57188836940"}, {"first_name"=>"Mark S.", "last_name"=>"Gold", "scopus_author_id"=>"36040359700"}, {"first_name"=>"Marcelo", "last_name"=>"Febo", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603467781"}, {"first_name"=>"Barry", "last_name"=>"Setlow", "scopus_author_id"=>"35565625400"}], "year"=>2016, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84963783636", "sgr"=>"84963783636", "pui"=>"609727172", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"27065006", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0153327"}, "id"=>"68bd01ae-f85a-3833-9aaf-3e7883772a2c", "abstract"=>"Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) is the main psychoactive component of cannabis and its effects have been well-studied. However, cannabis contains many other cannabinoids that affect brain function. Therefore, these studies investigated the effect of cannabis smoke exposure on locomotor activity, rearing, anxiety-like behavior, and the development of dependence in rats. It was also investigated if cannabis smoke exposure leads to tolerance to the locomotor-suppressant effects of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide. Cannabis smoke was generated by burning 5.7% Δ9-THC cannabis cigarettes in a smoking machine. The effect of cannabis smoke on the behavior of rats in a small and large open field and an elevated plus maze was evaluated. Cannabis smoke exposure induced a brief increase in locomotor activity followed by a prolonged decrease in locomotor activity and rearing in the 30-min small open field test. The cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) receptor antagonist rimonabant increased locomotor activity and prevented the smoke-induced decrease in rearing. Smoke exposure also increased locomotor activity in the 5-min large open field test and the elevated plus maze test. The smoke exposed rats spent more time in the center zone of the large open field, which is indicative of a decrease in anxiety-like behavior. A high dose of anandamide decreased locomotor activity and rearing in the small open field and this was not prevented by rimonabant or pre-exposure to cannabis smoke. Serum Δ9-THC levels were 225 ng/ml after smoke exposure, which is similar to levels in humans after smoking cannabis. Exposure to cannabis smoke led to dependence as indicated by more rimonabant-precipitated somatic withdrawal signs in the cannabis smoke exposed rats than in the air-control rats. In conclusion, chronic cannabis smoke exposure in rats leads to clinically relevant Δ9-THC levels, dependence, and has a biphasic effect on locomotor activity.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/behavioral-characterization-effects-cannabis-smoke-anandamide-rats", "reader_count"=>40, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>6, "Neuroscience"=>4, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>3, "Psychology"=>7, "Social Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>6}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>4}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>7}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>8}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>3}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4936198"], "description"=>"<p>The rats were tested in the small open field immediately after cannabis smoke exposure and horizontal (A) and vertical beam breaks (B) were assessed. Asterisks (* p<0.05, ** p<0.01) indicate a significant difference from the air group. N = 10 per group. Abbreviation: Air, air-control group. Data expressed as means ± SEM.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["THC", "smoke exposure", "locomotor activity", "Cannabis smoke exposure", "cannabinoid receptor type 1", "cannabis smoke", "CB", "cannabis smoke exposure", "receptor antagonist rimonabant", "field test"], "article_id"=>3170722, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Neuroscience", "Pharmacology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Science Policy", "Science Policy", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Adriaan W. Bruijnzeel", "Xiaoli Qi", "Lidia V. Guzhva", "Shannon Wall", "Jie V. Deng", "Mark S. Gold", "Marcelo Febo", "Barry Setlow"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153327.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Cannabis_smoke_exposure_decreases_locomotor_activity_and_rearing_in_the_small_open_field_/3170722", "title"=>"Cannabis smoke exposure decreases locomotor activity and rearing in the small open field.", "pos_in_sequence"=>3, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-04-11 07:52:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4936330"], "description"=>"<p>The effect of cannabis smoke on the number of open arm entries, % open arm entries, % time in the open arms in the elevated plus maze (A) and distance traveled in the large open field (B) was investigated 48 h (test 1) and immediately after smoke exposure (test 2). B: Asterisks (** p<0.01) indicate an increase in the distance traveled compared to the air group during the second test, and the plus sign (+ p<0.05) indicates a decrease in the distance traveled compared to the same group during the first test. N = 10 per group. Abbreviation: Air, air-control group. Data expressed as means ± SEM.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["THC", "smoke exposure", "locomotor activity", "Cannabis smoke exposure", "cannabinoid receptor type 1", "cannabis smoke", "CB", "cannabis smoke exposure", "receptor antagonist rimonabant", "field test"], "article_id"=>3170791, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Neuroscience", "Pharmacology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Science Policy", "Science Policy", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Adriaan W. Bruijnzeel", "Xiaoli Qi", "Lidia V. Guzhva", "Shannon Wall", "Jie V. Deng", "Mark S. Gold", "Marcelo Febo", "Barry Setlow"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153327.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Behavior_in_the_elevated_plus_maze_and_large_open_field_after_cannabis_smoke_exposure_/3170791", "title"=>"Behavior in the elevated plus maze and large open field after cannabis smoke exposure.", "pos_in_sequence"=>6, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-04-11 07:52:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4936417"], "description"=>"<p>Rats were treated with rimonabant (5 mg/kg, ip) and anandamide (10 mg/kg, ip) and horizontal (A) and vertical beam breaks (B) were assessed in the small open field. Plus signs (++ p<0.01, rimonabant-anandamide group) and asterisks (* p<0.05, ** p<0.01, vehicle-anandamide group) indicate a decrease in horizontal and vertical beam breaks compared to the vehicle-vehicle group. N = 10–16 per group. Abbreviations: Anand, anandamide; Rim, rimonabant. Data expressed as means ± SEM.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["THC", "smoke exposure", "locomotor activity", "Cannabis smoke exposure", "cannabinoid receptor type 1", "cannabis smoke", "CB", "cannabis smoke exposure", "receptor antagonist rimonabant", "field test"], "article_id"=>3170857, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Neuroscience", "Pharmacology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Science Policy", "Science Policy", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Adriaan W. Bruijnzeel", "Xiaoli Qi", "Lidia V. Guzhva", "Shannon Wall", "Jie V. Deng", "Mark S. Gold", "Marcelo Febo", "Barry Setlow"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153327.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Blockade_of_CB_sub_1_sub_receptors_does_not_prevent_the_anandamide_induced_decrease_in_locomotor_activity_and_rearing_/3170857", "title"=>"Blockade of CB<sub>1</sub> receptors does not prevent the anandamide-induced decrease in locomotor activity and rearing.", "pos_in_sequence"=>9, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-04-11 07:52:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4936291"], "description"=>"<p>The effect of rimonabant and cannabis smoke on horizontal (A) and vertical beam breaks (B) was investigated 4 h after smoke exposure. A: Plus signs (+ p<0.05, cannabis-rimonabant group) and asterisks (** p<0.01, air-rimonabant group) indicate an increase in horizontal beam breaks compared to the air-vehicle group. B: Asterisks (* p<0.05) indicate a decrease in vertical beam breaks compared to the air-vehicle group. N = 10 per group. Abbreviations: Air, air-control group; Rim, rimonabant. Data expressed as means ± SEM.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["THC", "smoke exposure", "locomotor activity", "Cannabis smoke exposure", "cannabinoid receptor type 1", "cannabis smoke", "CB", "cannabis smoke exposure", "receptor antagonist rimonabant", "field test"], "article_id"=>3170764, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Neuroscience", "Pharmacology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Science Policy", "Science Policy", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Adriaan W. Bruijnzeel", "Xiaoli Qi", "Lidia V. Guzhva", "Shannon Wall", "Jie V. Deng", "Mark S. Gold", "Marcelo Febo", "Barry Setlow"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153327.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Blockade_of_CB_sub_1_sub_receptors_increases_locomotor_activity_and_prevents_the_cannabis_smoke_induced_decrease_in_rearing_/3170764", "title"=>"Blockade of CB<sub>1</sub> receptors increases locomotor activity and prevents the cannabis smoke-induced decrease in rearing.", "pos_in_sequence"=>5, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-04-11 07:52:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4936384"], "description"=>"<p>Immediately after the rats received anandamide they were placed in the large open field and the total distance traveled (A), center distance (B), and center latency (C) were assessed. Asterisks (** p<0.01) indicate a decrease in the distance traveled or increase in the latency compared to the vehicle group. N = 10 per group. Abbreviation: Anand, anandamide. Data expressed as means ± SEM.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["THC", "smoke exposure", "locomotor activity", "Cannabis smoke exposure", "cannabinoid receptor type 1", "cannabis smoke", "CB", "cannabis smoke exposure", "receptor antagonist rimonabant", "field test"], "article_id"=>3170830, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Neuroscience", "Pharmacology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Science Policy", "Science Policy", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Adriaan W. Bruijnzeel", "Xiaoli Qi", "Lidia V. Guzhva", "Shannon Wall", "Jie V. Deng", "Mark S. Gold", "Marcelo Febo", "Barry Setlow"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153327.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Anandamide_decreases_exploratory_behavior_in_the_large_open_field_/3170830", "title"=>"Anandamide decreases exploratory behavior in the large open field.", "pos_in_sequence"=>8, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-04-11 07:52:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4936162"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviation: W, week.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["THC", "smoke exposure", "locomotor activity", "Cannabis smoke exposure", "cannabinoid receptor type 1", "cannabis smoke", "CB", "cannabis smoke exposure", "receptor antagonist rimonabant", "field test"], "article_id"=>3170704, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Neuroscience", "Pharmacology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Science Policy", "Science Policy", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Adriaan W. Bruijnzeel", "Xiaoli Qi", "Lidia V. Guzhva", "Shannon Wall", "Jie V. Deng", "Mark S. Gold", "Marcelo Febo", "Barry Setlow"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153327.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Timeline_of_experimental_procedures_in_experiment_1_/3170704", "title"=>"Timeline of experimental procedures in experiment 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>2, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-04-11 07:52:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4935988", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4936117", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4936102", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4936096", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4936081", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4936072", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4936066", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4936063", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4936045", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4936027", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4936009", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4935991", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4936123"], "description"=>"<div><p>Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) is the main psychoactive component of cannabis and its effects have been well-studied. However, cannabis contains many other cannabinoids that affect brain function. Therefore, these studies investigated the effect of cannabis smoke exposure on locomotor activity, rearing, anxiety-like behavior, and the development of dependence in rats. It was also investigated if cannabis smoke exposure leads to tolerance to the locomotor-suppressant effects of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide. Cannabis smoke was generated by burning 5.7% Δ9-THC cannabis cigarettes in a smoking machine. The effect of cannabis smoke on the behavior of rats in a small and large open field and an elevated plus maze was evaluated. Cannabis smoke exposure induced a brief increase in locomotor activity followed by a prolonged decrease in locomotor activity and rearing in the 30-min small open field test. The cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB<sub>1</sub>) receptor antagonist rimonabant increased locomotor activity and prevented the smoke-induced decrease in rearing. Smoke exposure also increased locomotor activity in the 5-min large open field test and the elevated plus maze test. The smoke exposed rats spent more time in the center zone of the large open field, which is indicative of a decrease in anxiety-like behavior. A high dose of anandamide decreased locomotor activity and rearing in the small open field and this was not prevented by rimonabant or pre-exposure to cannabis smoke. Serum Δ9-THC levels were 225 ng/ml after smoke exposure, which is similar to levels in humans after smoking cannabis. Exposure to cannabis smoke led to dependence as indicated by more rimonabant-precipitated somatic withdrawal signs in the cannabis smoke exposed rats than in the air-control rats. In conclusion, chronic cannabis smoke exposure in rats leads to clinically relevant Δ9-THC levels, dependence, and has a biphasic effect on locomotor activity.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["THC", "smoke exposure", "locomotor activity", "Cannabis smoke exposure", "cannabinoid receptor type 1", "cannabis smoke", "CB", "cannabis smoke exposure", "receptor antagonist rimonabant", "field test"], "article_id"=>3170611, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Neuroscience", "Pharmacology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Science Policy", "Science Policy", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Adriaan W. Bruijnzeel", "Xiaoli Qi", "Lidia V. Guzhva", "Shannon Wall", "Jie V. Deng", "Mark S. Gold", "Marcelo Febo", "Barry Setlow"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153327.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153327.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153327.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153327.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153327.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153327.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153327.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153327.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153327.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153327.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153327.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153327.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153327.s013"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Behavioral_Characterization_of_the_Effects_of_Cannabis_Smoke_and_Anandamide_in_Rats/3170611", "title"=>"Behavioral Characterization of the Effects of Cannabis Smoke and Anandamide in Rats", "pos_in_sequence"=>1, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2016-04-11 07:52:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4936246"], "description"=>"<p>The CB<sub>1</sub> receptor antagonist rimonabant induces more somatic withdrawal signs in the cannabis rats than the air exposed rats. Asterisks (** p<0.01) indicate increased somatic withdrawal signs compared to the corresponding vehicle group. Plus signs (++ p<0.01) indicate increased somatic withdrawal signs compared to the air-rimonabant group. N = 10 per group. Data expressed as means ± SEM.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["THC", "smoke exposure", "locomotor activity", "Cannabis smoke exposure", "cannabinoid receptor type 1", "cannabis smoke", "CB", "cannabis smoke exposure", "receptor antagonist rimonabant", "field test"], "article_id"=>3170743, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Neuroscience", "Pharmacology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Science Policy", "Science Policy", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Adriaan W. Bruijnzeel", "Xiaoli Qi", "Lidia V. Guzhva", "Shannon Wall", "Jie V. Deng", "Mark S. Gold", "Marcelo Febo", "Barry Setlow"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153327.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Increase_in_somatic_withdrawal_signs_in_rats_exposed_to_cannabis_smoke_/3170743", "title"=>"Increase in somatic withdrawal signs in rats exposed to cannabis smoke.", "pos_in_sequence"=>4, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-04-11 07:52:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4936480"], "description"=>"<p>Rats were exposed to cannabis smoke for 2 weeks and 24 h after the last smoke exposure session it was investigated if pre-exposure to smoke affected anandamide (10 mg/kg, ip) induced changes in horizontal (A) and vertical beam breaks (B) in the small open field. A, B: Plus signs (++ p<0.01, cannabis-anandamide group) and asterisks (** p<0.01, air-anandamide group) indicate a decrease in horizontal and vertical beam breaks compared to the air-vehicle group. A: Pound sign (# p<0.05, cannabis-vehicle group) indicates a decrease in horizontal beam breaks compared to the air-vehicle group. N = 10–16 per group. Abbreviations: Air, air-control group; Anand, anandamide. Data expressed as means ± SEM.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["THC", "smoke exposure", "locomotor activity", "Cannabis smoke exposure", "cannabinoid receptor type 1", "cannabis smoke", "CB", "cannabis smoke exposure", "receptor antagonist rimonabant", "field test"], "article_id"=>3170905, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Neuroscience", "Pharmacology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Science Policy", "Science Policy", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Adriaan W. Bruijnzeel", "Xiaoli Qi", "Lidia V. Guzhva", "Shannon Wall", "Jie V. Deng", "Mark S. Gold", "Marcelo Febo", "Barry Setlow"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153327.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Chronic_exposure_to_cannabis_smoke_does_not_prevent_the_anandamide_induced_decrease_in_locomotor_activity_and_rearing_/3170905", "title"=>"Chronic exposure to cannabis smoke does not prevent the anandamide-induced decrease in locomotor activity and rearing.", "pos_in_sequence"=>10, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-04-11 07:52:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4936357"], "description"=>"<p>Immediately after the rats received anandamide they were placed in the small open field and horizontal (A) and vertical beam breaks (B) were assessed. Pound sign (0.1 mg, # p<0.05), plus signs (1 mg, + p<0.05, ++ p<0.01), and asterisks (10 mg, * p<0.05, ** p<0.01) indicate an increase or decrease in horizontal or vertical beam breaks compared to the vehicle group. N = 10 per group. Abbreviation: Anand, anandamide. Data expressed as means ± SEM.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["THC", "smoke exposure", "locomotor activity", "Cannabis smoke exposure", "cannabinoid receptor type 1", "cannabis smoke", "CB", "cannabis smoke exposure", "receptor antagonist rimonabant", "field test"], "article_id"=>3170815, "categories"=>["Cell Biology", "Genetics", "Neuroscience", "Pharmacology", "Biotechnology", "Evolutionary Biology", "Science Policy", "Science Policy", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Adriaan W. Bruijnzeel", "Xiaoli Qi", "Lidia V. Guzhva", "Shannon Wall", "Jie V. Deng", "Mark S. Gold", "Marcelo Febo", "Barry Setlow"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153327.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Anandamide_decreases_locomotor_activity_and_rearing_in_small_open_field_/3170815", "title"=>"Anandamide decreases locomotor activity and rearing in small open field.", "pos_in_sequence"=>7, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-04-11 07:52:33"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"50", "full-text"=>"52", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"13", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"41", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"17", "supp-data"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"44", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2016-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2016-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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