Countries with Higher Levels of Gender Equality Show Larger National Sex Differences in Mathematics Anxiety and Relatively Lower Parental Mathematics Valuation for Girls
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{"title"=>"Countries with higher levels of gender equality show larger national sex differences in mathematics anxiety and relatively lower parental mathematics valuation for girls", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Gijsbert", "last_name"=>"Stoet", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602607478"}, {"first_name"=>"Drew H.", "last_name"=>"Bailey", "scopus_author_id"=>"25936001700"}, {"first_name"=>"Alex M.", "last_name"=>"Moore", "scopus_author_id"=>"36713917800"}, {"first_name"=>"David C.", "last_name"=>"Geary", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102892794"}], "year"=>2016, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"610063650", "pmid"=>"27100631", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0153857", "sgr"=>"84964734976", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84964734976"}, "id"=>"32b9e12e-8dd7-3c9b-9149-f5f609df23bf", "abstract"=>"<p>Despite international advancements in gender equality across a variety of societal domains, the underrepresentation of girls and women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) related fields persists. In this study, we explored the possibility that the sex difference in mathematics anxiety contributes to this disparity. More specifically, we tested a number of predictions from the prominent gender stratification model, which is the leading psychological theory of cross-national patterns of sex differences in mathematics anxiety and performance. To this end, we analyzed data from 761,655 15-year old students across 68 nations who participated in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Most importantly and contra predictions, we showed that economically developed and more gender equal countries have a lower overall level of mathematics anxiety, and yet a larger national sex difference in mathematics anxiety relative to less developed countries. Further, although relatively more mothers work in STEM fields in more developed countries, these parents valued, on average, mathematical competence more in their sons than their daughters. The proportion of mothers working in STEM was unrelated to sex differences in mathematics anxiety or performance. We propose that the gender stratification model fails to account for these national patterns and that an alternative model is needed. In the discussion, we suggest how an interaction between socio-cultural values and sex-specific psychological traits can better explain these patterns. We also discuss implications for policies aiming to increase girls? STEM participation.</p>", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/countries-higher-levels-gender-equality-show-larger-national-sex-differences-mathematics-anxiety-rel", "reader_count"=>83, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Computer Science"=>6, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>3, "Engineering"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>2, "Mathematics"=>6, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Design"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Psychology"=>34, "Social Sciences"=>18}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>18}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>34}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>6}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>6}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "Luxembourg"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5000179"], "description"=>"<div><p>Despite international advancements in gender equality across a variety of societal domains, the underrepresentation of girls and women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) related fields persists. In this study, we explored the possibility that the sex difference in mathematics anxiety contributes to this disparity. More specifically, we tested a number of predictions from the prominent gender stratification model, which is the leading psychological theory of cross-national patterns of sex differences in mathematics anxiety and performance. To this end, we analyzed data from 761,655 15-year old students across 68 nations who participated in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Most importantly and contra predictions, we showed that economically developed and more gender equal countries have a lower overall level of mathematics anxiety, and yet a larger national sex difference in mathematics anxiety relative to less developed countries. Further, although relatively more mothers work in STEM fields in more developed countries, these parents valued, on average, mathematical competence more in their sons than their daughters. The proportion of mothers working in STEM was unrelated to sex differences in mathematics anxiety or performance. We propose that the gender stratification model fails to account for these national patterns and that an alternative model is needed. In the discussion, we suggest how an interaction between socio-cultural values and sex-specific psychological traits can better explain these patterns. We also discuss implications for policies aiming to increase girls’ STEM participation.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["performance", "Gender Equality Show", "National Sex Differences", "prediction", "mathematics anxiety", "pattern", "PISA", "International Student Assessment", "sex difference", "sex differences", "Parental Mathematics Valuation", "gender stratification model"], "article_id"=>3194866, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Mathematical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Science Policy", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Gijsbert Stoet", "Drew H. Bailey", "Alex M. Moore", "David C. Geary"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153857", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Countries_with_Higher_Levels_of_Gender_Equality_Show_Larger_National_Sex_Differences_in_Mathematics_Anxiety_and_Relatively_Lower_Parental_Mathematics_Valuation_for_Girls/3194866", "title"=>"Countries with Higher Levels of Gender Equality Show Larger National Sex Differences in Mathematics Anxiety and Relatively Lower Parental Mathematics Valuation for Girls", "pos_in_sequence"=>1, "defined_type"=>6, "published_date"=>"2016-04-21 05:58:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5000443"], "description"=>"<p>Pearson correlations between variables listed in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0153857#pone.0153857.t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["performance", "Gender Equality Show", "National Sex Differences", "prediction", "mathematics anxiety", "pattern", "PISA", "International Student Assessment", "sex difference", "sex differences", "Parental Mathematics Valuation", "gender stratification model"], "article_id"=>3195091, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Mathematical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Science Policy", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Gijsbert Stoet", "Drew H. Bailey", "Alex M. Moore", "David C. Geary"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153857.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Pearson_correlations_between_variables_listed_in_Table_2_/3195091", "title"=>"Pearson correlations between variables listed in Table 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>8, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-04-21 05:58:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5000407"], "description"=>"<p>Pearson correlations between variables listed in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0153857#pone.0153857.t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["performance", "Gender Equality Show", "National Sex Differences", "prediction", "mathematics anxiety", "pattern", "PISA", "International Student Assessment", "sex difference", "sex differences", "Parental Mathematics Valuation", "gender stratification model"], "article_id"=>3195061, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Mathematical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Science Policy", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Gijsbert Stoet", "Drew H. Bailey", "Alex M. Moore", "David C. Geary"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153857.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Pearson_correlations_between_variables_listed_in_Table_1_/3195061", "title"=>"Pearson correlations between variables listed in Table 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>7, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-04-21 05:58:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5000218"], "description"=>"<p>Each data point represents a national average for girls (red) and boys (blue); grey lines connect the two averages of each country. A: Although average national levels of mathematics anxiety were lower in more gender equal countries, the sex differences in mathematics anxiety were larger. B: Consistent with studies of individuals, average national levels of mathematics anxiety were strongly related to average national levels of performance, with higher performing countries having lower levels of mathematics anxiety. This effect was stronger for boys than for girls.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["performance", "Gender Equality Show", "National Sex Differences", "prediction", "mathematics anxiety", "pattern", "PISA", "International Student Assessment", "sex difference", "sex differences", "Parental Mathematics Valuation", "gender stratification model"], "article_id"=>3194902, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Mathematical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Science Policy", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Gijsbert Stoet", "Drew H. Bailey", "Alex M. Moore", "David C. Geary"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153857.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Mathematics_anxiety_y_axis_as_a_function_of_gender_equality_A_and_mathematics_performance_B_for_different_countries_and_economic_regions_in_the_2012_PISA_data_set_/3194902", "title"=>"Mathematics anxiety (y-axis) as a function of gender equality (A) and mathematics performance (B) for different countries and economic regions in the 2012 PISA data set.", "pos_in_sequence"=>2, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-04-21 05:58:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5000356"], "description"=>"<p>ratio1 = the ratio of fathers to mothers with a STEM occupation; ratio2 = as ratio 1 but only for high status STEM occupations, see text for details; pod = sex difference in perceived parental valualation of mathematics in standard deviations; pid = sex difference in actual parental valualation of mathematics in standard deviations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["performance", "Gender Equality Show", "National Sex Differences", "prediction", "mathematics anxiety", "pattern", "PISA", "International Student Assessment", "sex difference", "sex differences", "Parental Mathematics Valuation", "gender stratification model"], "article_id"=>3195031, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Mathematical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Science Policy", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Gijsbert Stoet", "Drew H. Bailey", "Alex M. Moore", "David C. Geary"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153857.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Data_of_the_2012_PISA_data_analysis_Abbreviations_as_in_Table_1_and_as_follows_/3195031", "title"=>"Data of the 2012 PISA data analysis. Abbreviations as in Table 1 and as follows.", "pos_in_sequence"=>6, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-04-21 05:58:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5000293"], "description"=>"<p>The two-letter codes are country abbreviations (see SOM). A: The sex difference in reported parental valuation of mathematics was larger in more developed countries. B: A similar effect was found for gender equality, although the Nordic countries Iceland (IC), Finland (FI), Sweden (SE) and Norway (NO) appear to deviate from the international trend. Notes: AE: United Arab Emirates, AL: Albania, AR: Argentina, AT: Austria, AU: Australia, BE: Belgium, BR: Brazil, BU: Bulgaria, CA: Canada, CH: Switzerland, CL: Chile, CO: Colombia, CR: Costa Rica, CZ: Czech Republic, DE: Germany, DK: Denmark, EE: Estonia, ES: Spain, FI: Finland, FR: France, GR: Greece, HK: Hong Kong, HR: Croatia, HU: Hungary, IC: Iceland, ID: Indonesia, IL: Israel, IR: Ireland, IT: Italy, JA: Japan, JO: Jordan, KA: Kazakhstan, KR: South Korea, LA: Latvia, LI: Liechtenstein, LT: Lithuania, LU: Luxembourg, MA: Malaysia, ME: Montenegro, MO: Macao, MX: Mexico, NL: The Netherlands, NO: Norway, NZ: New Zealand, PE: Peru, PO: Poland, PT: Portugal, QA: Qatar, RO: Romania, RP: Perm (Russia), RS: Serbia, RU: Russia, SE: Sweden, SG: Singapore, SH: Shanghai, SI: Slovenia, SK: Slovak Republic, TH: Thailand, TN: Tunisia, TR: Turkey, TW: Chinese Taipei, UI: Uruguay, UC: US state Connecticut, UF: US state Florida, UK: United Kingdom, UM: US state Massachusetts, US: United States, VN: Vietnam.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["performance", "Gender Equality Show", "National Sex Differences", "prediction", "mathematics anxiety", "pattern", "PISA", "International Student Assessment", "sex difference", "sex differences", "Parental Mathematics Valuation", "gender stratification model"], "article_id"=>3194968, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Mathematical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Science Policy", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Gijsbert Stoet", "Drew H. Bailey", "Alex M. Moore", "David C. Geary"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153857.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Sex_differences_in_parental_opinion_as_reported_by_the_15_year_olds_about_the_importance_of_mathematics_are_related_to_human_development_HDI_and_gender_equality_GGI_/3194968", "title"=>"Sex differences in parental opinion (as reported by the 15-year olds) about the importance of mathematics are related to human development (HDI) and gender equality (GGI).", "pos_in_sequence"=>4, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-04-21 05:58:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5000257"], "description"=>"<p>A: The larger the difference in boys’ and girls’ view of parental valuation of mathematics for boys and girls, the larger the sex differences in mathematics anxiety. B: The larger the difference in parental valuation of mathematics for boys and girls, the larger the sex differences in mathematics performance. For abbreviations, see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0153857#sec005\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a>. Notes: AE: United Arab Emirates, AL: Albania, AR: Argentina, AT: Austria, AU: Australia, BE: Belgium, BR: Brazil, BU: Bulgaria, CA: Canada, CH: Switzerland, CL: Chile, CO: Colombia, CR: Costa Rica, CZ: Czech Republic, DE: Germany, DK: Denmark, EE: Estonia, ES: Spain, FI: Finland, FR: France, GR: Greece, HK: Hong Kong, HR: Croatia, HU: Hungary, IC: Iceland, ID: Indonesia, IL: Israel, IR: Ireland, IT: Italy, JA: Japan, JO: Jordan, KA: Kazakhstan, KR: South Korea, LA: Latvia, LI: Liechtenstein, LT: Lithuania, LU: Luxembourg, MA: Malaysia, ME: Montenegro, MO: Macao, MX: Mexico, NL: The Netherlands, NO: Norway, NZ: New Zealand, PE: Peru, PO: Poland, PT: Portugal, QA: Qatar, RO: Romania, RP: Perm (Russia), RS: Serbia, RU: Russia, SE: Sweden, SG: Singapore, SH: Shanghai, SI: Slovenia, SK: Slovak Republic, TH: Thailand, TN: Tunisia, TR: Turkey, TW: Chinese Taipei, UI: Uruguay, UC: US state Connecticut, UF: US state Florida, UK: United Kingdom, UM: US state Massachusetts, US: United States, VN: Vietnam.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["performance", "Gender Equality Show", "National Sex Differences", "prediction", "mathematics anxiety", "pattern", "PISA", "International Student Assessment", "sex difference", "sex differences", "Parental Mathematics Valuation", "gender stratification model"], "article_id"=>3194938, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Mathematical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Science Policy", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Gijsbert Stoet", "Drew H. Bailey", "Alex M. Moore", "David C. Geary"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153857.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Sex_differences_in_parental_opinion_as_reported_by_the_students_about_the_importance_of_mathematics_are_related_to_sex_differences_in_mathematics_anxiety_and_performance_/3194938", "title"=>"Sex differences in parental opinion (as reported by the students) about the importance of mathematics are related to sex differences in mathematics anxiety and performance.", "pos_in_sequence"=>3, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-04-21 05:58:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5000329"], "description"=>"<p>n = Sample size; GGI = Global Gender Gap; HDI = Human Development Index; PD = Power Distance; math = National mathematics score; mathD = Sex difference in national mathematics score (boys-girls) in standard deviations; anx = National average of mathematics anxiety; anxD = Sex difference in national mathematics score (girls-boys) in standard deviations; EanxD = Sex difference in performance-adjusted national mathematics score (girls-boys) in standard deviations. For the columns mathD, anxD, and EanxD, numbers in bold indicate statistically significant differences.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["performance", "Gender Equality Show", "National Sex Differences", "prediction", "mathematics anxiety", "pattern", "PISA", "International Student Assessment", "sex difference", "sex differences", "Parental Mathematics Valuation", "gender stratification model"], "article_id"=>3195007, "categories"=>["Evolutionary Biology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Mathematical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Science Policy", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Gijsbert Stoet", "Drew H. Bailey", "Alex M. Moore", "David C. Geary"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153857.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/For_each_country_the_following_information_is_listed_used_in_the_analysis_of_the_2003_PISA_dataset_/3195007", "title"=>"For each country, the following information is listed used in the analysis of the 2003 PISA dataset.", "pos_in_sequence"=>5, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-04-21 05:58:42"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2016-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2016-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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