Biochar, Bentonite and Zeolite Supplemented Feeding of Layer Chickens Alters Intestinal Microbiota and Reduces Campylobacter Load
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{"title"=>"Biochar, Bentonite and zeolite supplemented feeding of layer chickens alters intestinal microbiota and reduces campylobacter load", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Tanka P.", "last_name"=>"Prasai", "scopus_author_id"=>"6504359388"}, {"first_name"=>"Kerry B.", "last_name"=>"Walsh", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403291431"}, {"first_name"=>"Surya P.", "last_name"=>"Bhattarai", "scopus_author_id"=>"24778107400"}, {"first_name"=>"David J.", "last_name"=>"Midmore", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003367532"}, {"first_name"=>"T. H.", "last_name"=>"Van Thi", "scopus_author_id"=>"36658085600"}, {"first_name"=>"Robert J.", "last_name"=>"Moore", "scopus_author_id"=>"24344554200"}, {"first_name"=>"Dragana", "last_name"=>"Stanley", "scopus_author_id"=>"35735158200"}], "year"=>2016, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"611092957", "pmid"=>"27116607", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0154061", "isbn"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0154061", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84977548629", "sgr"=>"84977548629"}, "id"=>"2e8bb2ab-f529-36fc-b2b3-9085befcbc49", "abstract"=>"A range of feed supplements, including antibiotics, have been commonly used in poultry production to improve health and productivity. Alternative methods are needed to suppress pathogen loads and maintain productivity. As an alternative to antibiotics use, we investigated the ability of biochar, bentonite and zeolite as separate 4% feed additives, to selectively remove pathogens without reducing microbial richness and diversity in the gut. Neither biochar, bentonite nor zeolite made any significant alterations to the overall richness and diversity of intestinal bacterial community. However, reduction of some bacterial species, including some potential pathogens was detected. The microbiota of bentonite fed animals were lacking all members of the order Campylobacterales. Specifically, the following operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were absent: an OTU 100% identical to Campylobacter jejuni; an OTU 99% identical to Helicobacter pullorum; multiple Gallibacterium anatis (>97%) related OTUs; Bacteroides dorei (99%) and Clostridium aldenense (95%) related OTUs. Biochar and zeolite treatments had similar but milder effects compared to bentonite. Zeolite amended feed was also associated with significant reduction in the phylum Proteobacteria. All three additives showed potential for the control of major poultry zoonotic pathogens.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/biochar-bentonite-zeolite-supplemented-feeding-layer-chickens-alters-intestinal-microbiota-reduces-c", "reader_count"=>27, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Engineering"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>16, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>16}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"New Zealand"=>1, "Australia"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5027566"], "description"=>"<p>Out of 65 OTUs significantly altered between the treatment groups (Fig C in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0154061#pone.0154061.s001\" target=\"_blank\">S1 File</a>), the majority could not be provisionally assigned to species or genus level using 97% or 95% similarity cut-off. Among the phylotypes with sequence similarity >95%, some candidates showed high sequence alignment (blast against 16S microbial database) to known pathogens. Panel A shows potentially pathogenic OTUs reduced in additives while panel B shows potentially pathogenic OTUs increased in additive groups. Y axes indicate % of abundance in each group. The bars represent standard error for n>12.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochar", "antibiotics use", "biochar", "taxonomic units", "richness", "Campylobacter jejuni", "Alternative methods", "bentonite", "poultry production", "feed supplements", "pathogen loads", "additive", "diversity", "zeolite treatments", "order Campylobacterales", "phylum Proteobacteria", "Zeolite Supplemented Feeding", "Campylobacter Load", "Layer Chickens Alters Intestinal Microbiota", "productivity", "Helicobacter pullorum", "poultry zoonotic pathogens", "OTU"], "article_id"=>3202960, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Microbiology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Chemical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Tanka P. Prasai", "Kerry B. Walsh", "Surya P. Bhattarai", "David J. Midmore", "Thi T. H. Van", "Robert J. Moore", "Dragana Stanley"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154061.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/OTUs_significantly_p_0_05_differed_between_the_groups_with_high_sequence_alignment_identity_95_with_known_pathogenic_strains_/3202960", "title"=>"OTUs significantly (p<0.05) differed between the groups with high sequence alignment identity (>95%) with known pathogenic strains.", "pos_in_sequence"=>6, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-04-26 06:52:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5027503"], "description"=>"<p>Although the ordination plot shows some separation of control and ZT groups and strong overlap of BC and BT, the first and second ordination axes represent only 2% of the variability in the data set and the separation of the groups was not statistically significant (<i>p</i> = 0.143, 1999 permutations).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochar", "antibiotics use", "biochar", "taxonomic units", "richness", "Campylobacter jejuni", "Alternative methods", "bentonite", "poultry production", "feed supplements", "pathogen loads", "additive", "diversity", "zeolite treatments", "order Campylobacterales", "phylum Proteobacteria", "Zeolite Supplemented Feeding", "Campylobacter Load", "Layer Chickens Alters Intestinal Microbiota", "productivity", "Helicobacter pullorum", "poultry zoonotic pathogens", "OTU"], "article_id"=>3202897, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Microbiology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Chemical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Tanka P. Prasai", "Kerry B. Walsh", "Surya P. Bhattarai", "David J. Midmore", "Thi T. H. Van", "Robert J. Moore", "Dragana Stanley"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154061.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/OTU_level_redundancy_analysis_RDA_plot_comparing_chicken_cloacal_samples_of_birds_fed_control_diet_CTRL_and_groups_with_feed_supplemented_with_biochar_BC_bentonite_BT_and_zeolite_ZT_/3202897", "title"=>"OTU level redundancy analysis (RDA) plot comparing chicken cloacal samples of birds fed control diet (CTRL) and groups with feed supplemented with biochar (BC), bentonite (BT) and zeolite (ZT).", "pos_in_sequence"=>2, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-04-26 06:52:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5027536"], "description"=>"<p>The families altered were members of order Actinomycetales (marked with “Act” above the bar chart) or phylum Proteobacteria’s <u>Alpha</u>proteobacteria, <u>Beta</u>proteobacteria, <u>Eps</u>ilonproteobacteria or <u>Gamma</u>proteobacteria (also <u>marked</u> above the bar chart). Families induced in BT Bradyrhizobiaceae, Phyllobacteriaceae, are plant-associated bacteria, Sphingomonadaceae is a candidate for bioremediation and Oxalobacteraceae are known as nitrogen fixing. The bars represent standard error for n>12.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochar", "antibiotics use", "biochar", "taxonomic units", "richness", "Campylobacter jejuni", "Alternative methods", "bentonite", "poultry production", "feed supplements", "pathogen loads", "additive", "diversity", "zeolite treatments", "order Campylobacterales", "phylum Proteobacteria", "Zeolite Supplemented Feeding", "Campylobacter Load", "Layer Chickens Alters Intestinal Microbiota", "productivity", "Helicobacter pullorum", "poultry zoonotic pathogens", "OTU"], "article_id"=>3202930, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Microbiology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Chemical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Tanka P. Prasai", "Kerry B. Walsh", "Surya P. Bhattarai", "David J. Midmore", "Thi T. H. Van", "Robert J. Moore", "Dragana Stanley"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154061.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Bacterial_families_significantly_i_p_i_0_05_differed_between_birds_fed_control_diet_Ctrl_and_groups_with_feed_supplemented_with_biochar_BC_bentonite_BT_and_zeolite_ZT_/3202930", "title"=>"Bacterial families significantly (<i>p</i><0.05) differed between birds fed control diet (Ctrl) and groups with feed supplemented with biochar (BC), bentonite (BT) and zeolite (ZT).", "pos_in_sequence"=>4, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-04-26 06:52:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5027557"], "description"=>"<p>Members of order Actinomycetales are marked with “Act” above the bars chart, while other marking indicates genera belonging to Betaproteobacteria (Beta), Epsilonproteobacteria (Eps) or Gammaproteobacteria (Gamma). The bars represent standard error for n>12.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochar", "antibiotics use", "biochar", "taxonomic units", "richness", "Campylobacter jejuni", "Alternative methods", "bentonite", "poultry production", "feed supplements", "pathogen loads", "additive", "diversity", "zeolite treatments", "order Campylobacterales", "phylum Proteobacteria", "Zeolite Supplemented Feeding", "Campylobacter Load", "Layer Chickens Alters Intestinal Microbiota", "productivity", "Helicobacter pullorum", "poultry zoonotic pathogens", "OTU"], "article_id"=>3202951, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Microbiology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Chemical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Tanka P. Prasai", "Kerry B. Walsh", "Surya P. Bhattarai", "David J. Midmore", "Thi T. H. Van", "Robert J. Moore", "Dragana Stanley"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154061.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Bacterial_genera_significantly_i_p_i_0_05_differed_between_birds_fed_control_diet_Ctrl_and_groups_with_feed_supplemented_with_biochar_BC_bentonite_BT_and_zeolite_ZT_/3202951", "title"=>"Bacterial genera significantly (<i>p</i><0.05) differed between birds fed control diet (Ctrl) and groups with feed supplemented with biochar (BC), bentonite (BT) and zeolite (ZT).", "pos_in_sequence"=>5, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-04-26 06:52:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5027479"], "description"=>"<div><p>A range of feed supplements, including antibiotics, have been commonly used in poultry production to improve health and productivity. Alternative methods are needed to suppress pathogen loads and maintain productivity. As an alternative to antibiotics use, we investigated the ability of biochar, bentonite and zeolite as separate 4% feed additives, to selectively remove pathogens without reducing microbial richness and diversity in the gut. Neither biochar, bentonite nor zeolite made any significant alterations to the overall richness and diversity of intestinal bacterial community. However, reduction of some bacterial species, including some potential pathogens was detected. The microbiota of bentonite fed animals were lacking all members of the order Campylobacterales. Specifically, the following operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were absent: an OTU 100% identical to <i>Campylobacter jejuni</i>; an OTU 99% identical to <i>Helicobacter pullorum</i>; multiple <i>Gallibacterium anatis</i> (>97%) related OTUs; <i>Bacteroides dorei</i> (99%) and <i>Clostridium aldenense</i> (95%) related OTUs. Biochar and zeolite treatments had similar but milder effects compared to bentonite. Zeolite amended feed was also associated with significant reduction in the phylum Proteobacteria. All three additives showed potential for the control of major poultry zoonotic pathogens.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochar", "antibiotics use", "biochar", "taxonomic units", "richness", "Campylobacter jejuni", "Alternative methods", "bentonite", "poultry production", "feed supplements", "pathogen loads", "additive", "diversity", "zeolite treatments", "order Campylobacterales", "phylum Proteobacteria", "Zeolite Supplemented Feeding", "Campylobacter Load", "Layer Chickens Alters Intestinal Microbiota", "productivity", "Helicobacter pullorum", "poultry zoonotic pathogens", "OTU"], "article_id"=>3202873, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Microbiology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Chemical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Tanka P. Prasai", "Kerry B. Walsh", "Surya P. Bhattarai", "David J. Midmore", "Thi T. H. Van", "Robert J. Moore", "Dragana Stanley"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154061", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Biochar_Bentonite_and_Zeolite_Supplemented_Feeding_of_Layer_Chickens_Alters_Intestinal_Microbiota_and_Reduces_i_Campylobacter_i_Load/3202873", "title"=>"Biochar, Bentonite and Zeolite Supplemented Feeding of Layer Chickens Alters Intestinal Microbiota and Reduces <i>Campylobacter</i> Load", "pos_in_sequence"=>1, "defined_type"=>6, "published_date"=>"2016-04-26 06:52:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5027515"], "description"=>"<p>Phylum Proteobacteria was significantly different between the three additives and control. The reduction of Proteobacteria in additive groups was due to significant alterations in two of its classes: Epsilonproteobacteria (<i>p</i> = 0.0179) and Gammaproteobacteria (<i>p</i> = 0.0191) (top right panel). The Epsilonproteobacteria was comprised of only two genera—<i>Campylobacter</i> and <i>Helicobacter</i> (bottom row), each represented with only one species. <i>Campylobacter</i> OTU269490 was 100% identical to <i>Campylobacter jejuni</i> subsp. <i>jejuni</i> NCTC 11168 = ATCC 700819 strain, while <i>Helicobacter</i> OTU574168, (not significantly altered, <i>p</i> = 0.4758), was identified as 99% identical <i>H</i>. <i>pullorum</i>. <i>Campylobacter jejuni</i> was reduced from mean of relative abundance 0.0013, equalling 1.3%, in control diet fed birds to mean of 0.02% in BC, completely absent in BT and down to 0.016% in ZT. The bars represent standard error for n>12.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Biochar", "antibiotics use", "biochar", "taxonomic units", "richness", "Campylobacter jejuni", "Alternative methods", "bentonite", "poultry production", "feed supplements", "pathogen loads", "additive", "diversity", "zeolite treatments", "order Campylobacterales", "phylum Proteobacteria", "Zeolite Supplemented Feeding", "Campylobacter Load", "Layer Chickens Alters Intestinal Microbiota", "productivity", "Helicobacter pullorum", "poultry zoonotic pathogens", "OTU"], "article_id"=>3202909, "categories"=>["Space Science", "Microbiology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Chemical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Tanka P. Prasai", "Kerry B. Walsh", "Surya P. Bhattarai", "David J. Midmore", "Thi T. H. Van", "Robert J. Moore", "Dragana Stanley"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154061.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Influence_of_biochar_BC_bentonite_BT_and_zeolite_ZT_feed_supplementation_on_abundance_of_phylum_Proteobacteria_in_chicken_cloaca_/3202909", "title"=>"Influence of biochar (BC), bentonite (BT) and zeolite (ZT) feed supplementation on abundance of phylum Proteobacteria in chicken cloaca.", "pos_in_sequence"=>3, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-04-26 06:52:05"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"44", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"45", "full-text"=>"59", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"43", "full-text"=>"46", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"52", "full-text"=>"58", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"50", "full-text"=>"46", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"42", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"47", "full-text"=>"50", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"50", "full-text"=>"59", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"43", "full-text"=>"45", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"49", "full-text"=>"53", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"43", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"50", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"45", "full-text"=>"49", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"55", "full-text"=>"62", "pdf"=>"12", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"44", "full-text"=>"50", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"44", "full-text"=>"45", "pdf"=>"12", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"54", "full-text"=>"57", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"44", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"47", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"39", "full-text"=>"43", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2016-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2016-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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