Relating the Surface Properties of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) to Their Bactericidal Effect towards a Biofilm of Streptococcus mutans
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{"title"=>"Relating the Surface Properties of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) to Their Bactericidal Effect towards a Biofilm of Streptococcus mutans", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Taraneh", "last_name"=>"Javanbakht", "scopus_author_id"=>"56449175700"}, {"first_name"=>"Sophie", "last_name"=>"Laurent", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102779589"}, {"first_name"=>"Dimitri", "last_name"=>"Stanicki", "scopus_author_id"=>"36158909700"}, {"first_name"=>"Kevin J.", "last_name"=>"Wilkinson", "scopus_author_id"=>"35614080800"}], "year"=>2016, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84977519182", "sgr"=>"84977519182", "pui"=>"611092820", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"27115356", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0154445"}, "id"=>"05cd4e6e-b36c-3eb3-9f94-ceb788944343", "abstract"=>"This study was designed to determine the effects of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) on the biological activity of a bacterial biofilm (Streptococcus mutans). Our hypothesis was that the diffusion of the SPIONs into biofilms would depend on their surface properties, which in turn would largely be determined by their surface functionality. Bare, positively charged and negatively charged SPIONs, with hydrodynamic diameters of 14.6 ± 1.4 nm, 20.4 ± 1.3 nm and 21.2 ± 1.6 nm were evaluated. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and electrophoretic mobility (EPM) measurements were used to confirm that carboxylic functional groups predominated on the negatively charged SPIONS, whereas amine functional groups predominated on the positively charged particles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the morphology and sizes of SPIONs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EPM measurements indicated that the surfaces of the SPIONs were covered with biomolecules following their incubation with the biofilm. Bare SPIONs killed bacteria less than the positively charged SPIONs at the highest exposure concentrations, but the toxicity of the bare and positively charged SPIONs was the same for lower SPION concentrations. The positively charged SPIONs were more effective in killing bacteria than the negatively charged ones. Nonetheless, electrophoretic mobilities of all three SPIONs (negative, bare and positively charged) became more negative following incubation with the (negatively-charged) biofilm. Therefore, while the surface charge of SPIONS was important in determining their biological activity, the initial surface charge was not constant in the presence of the biofilm, leading eventually to SPIONS with fairly similar surface charges in situ. The study nonetheless suggests that the surface characteristics of the SPIONS is an important parameter controlling the efficiency of antimicrobial agents. The analysis of the CFU/mL values shows that the SPIONs have the same toxicity on bacteria in solution in comparison with that on the biofilm.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/relating-surface-properties-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-spions-bactericidal-effect-to", "reader_count"=>10, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Chemistry"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5026882"], "description"=>"<p><b>Particle size distributions of the a) bare, b) positively and c) negatively charged SPIONs.</b> The charged SPIONs, due to their silica shell, were slightly larger than the bare ones.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["SPION", "EPM", "Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles", "Scanning electron microscopy", "superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles", "ion mass spectrometry", "biofilm", "SPIONS", "TEM", "surface charge", "SEM", "transmission electron microscopy", "Streptococcus mutans", "CFU"], "article_id"=>3202465, "categories"=>["Physical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Microbiology", "Biotechnology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Chemical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Taraneh Javanbakht", "Sophie Laurent", "Dimitri Stanicki", "Kevin J. Wilkinson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154445.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Relating_the_Surface_Properties_of_Superparamagnetic_Iron_Oxide_Nanoparticles_SPIONs_to_Their_Bactericidal_Effect_towards_a_Biofilm_of_i_Streptococcus_mutans_i_Fig_3/3202465", "title"=>"Relating the Surface Properties of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) to Their Bactericidal Effect towards a Biofilm of <i>Streptococcus mutans</i> - Fig 3", "pos_in_sequence"=>4, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-04-26 06:46:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5026915"], "description"=>"<p>Zeta potential values of the SPIONs determined before and after incubation with the biofilm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["SPION", "EPM", "Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles", "Scanning electron microscopy", "superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles", "ion mass spectrometry", "biofilm", "SPIONS", "TEM", "surface charge", "SEM", "transmission electron microscopy", "Streptococcus mutans", "CFU"], "article_id"=>3202501, "categories"=>["Physical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Microbiology", "Biotechnology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Chemical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Taraneh Javanbakht", "Sophie Laurent", "Dimitri Stanicki", "Kevin J. Wilkinson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154445.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Zeta_potential_values_of_the_SPIONs_determined_before_and_after_incubation_with_the_biofilm_/3202501", "title"=>"Zeta potential values of the SPIONs determined before and after incubation with the biofilm.", "pos_in_sequence"=>9, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-04-26 06:46:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5026888"], "description"=>"<p>TEM images of (a) bare, (b) positively charged and (c) negatively charged SPIONs.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["SPION", "EPM", "Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles", "Scanning electron microscopy", "superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles", "ion mass spectrometry", "biofilm", "SPIONS", "TEM", "surface charge", "SEM", "transmission electron microscopy", "Streptococcus mutans", "CFU"], "article_id"=>3202471, "categories"=>["Physical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Microbiology", "Biotechnology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Chemical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Taraneh Javanbakht", "Sophie Laurent", "Dimitri Stanicki", "Kevin J. Wilkinson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154445.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Relating_the_Surface_Properties_of_Superparamagnetic_Iron_Oxide_Nanoparticles_SPIONs_to_Their_Bactericidal_Effect_towards_a_Biofilm_of_i_Streptococcus_mutans_i_Fig_4/3202471", "title"=>"Relating the Surface Properties of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) to Their Bactericidal Effect towards a Biofilm of <i>Streptococcus mutans</i> - Fig 4", "pos_in_sequence"=>5, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-04-26 06:46:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5026858"], "description"=>"<p>The amine and carboxyl functional groups are attached to the silica shell on the surface of the SPIONs.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["SPION", "EPM", "Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles", "Scanning electron microscopy", "superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles", "ion mass spectrometry", "biofilm", "SPIONS", "TEM", "surface charge", "SEM", "transmission electron microscopy", "Streptococcus mutans", "CFU"], "article_id"=>3202441, "categories"=>["Physical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Microbiology", "Biotechnology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Chemical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Taraneh Javanbakht", "Sophie Laurent", "Dimitri Stanicki", "Kevin J. Wilkinson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154445.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Structure_of_the_charged_SPIONs_/3202441", "title"=>"Structure of the charged SPIONs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>2, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-04-26 06:46:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5026927"], "description"=>"<p>Data were obtained after correction for the number of dead cells in the control images (stained bacteria without SPIONs), which was 10% ± 5%. N = 15.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["SPION", "EPM", "Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles", "Scanning electron microscopy", "superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles", "ion mass spectrometry", "biofilm", "SPIONS", "TEM", "surface charge", "SEM", "transmission electron microscopy", "Streptococcus mutans", "CFU"], "article_id"=>3202507, "categories"=>["Physical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Microbiology", "Biotechnology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Chemical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Taraneh Javanbakht", "Sophie Laurent", "Dimitri Stanicki", "Kevin J. Wilkinson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154445.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/The_proportion_of_dead_cells_to_total_cells_in_the_i_S_i_i_mutans_i_biofilms_following_3h_of_incubation_with_the_bare_positively_charged_and_negatively_charged_SPIONs_/3202507", "title"=>"The proportion of dead cells to total cells in the <i>S</i>. <i>mutans</i> biofilms following 3h of incubation with the bare, positively charged and negatively charged SPIONs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>10, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-04-26 06:46:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5026894"], "description"=>"<p><b>SEM images of (a,d) bare, (b,e) positively charged and (c,f) negatively charged SPIONs before and after incubation with the biofilms.</b> Following incubation with the bacterial biofilms, the SPIONs appeared to be coated with soft matter.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["SPION", "EPM", "Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles", "Scanning electron microscopy", "superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles", "ion mass spectrometry", "biofilm", "SPIONS", "TEM", "surface charge", "SEM", "transmission electron microscopy", "Streptococcus mutans", "CFU"], "article_id"=>3202477, "categories"=>["Physical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Microbiology", "Biotechnology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Chemical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Taraneh Javanbakht", "Sophie Laurent", "Dimitri Stanicki", "Kevin J. Wilkinson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154445.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Relating_the_Surface_Properties_of_Superparamagnetic_Iron_Oxide_Nanoparticles_SPIONs_to_Their_Bactericidal_Effect_towards_a_Biofilm_of_i_Streptococcus_mutans_i_Fig_5/3202477", "title"=>"Relating the Surface Properties of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) to Their Bactericidal Effect towards a Biofilm of <i>Streptococcus mutans</i> - Fig 5", "pos_in_sequence"=>6, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-04-26 06:46:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5026933"], "description"=>"<p>CFU values (/mL) for <i>S</i>. <i>mutans</i> isolated from biofilms that were either exposed to bare, positively charged or negatively charged SPIONs or were incubated in the absence of SPIONs.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["SPION", "EPM", "Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles", "Scanning electron microscopy", "superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles", "ion mass spectrometry", "biofilm", "SPIONS", "TEM", "surface charge", "SEM", "transmission electron microscopy", "Streptococcus mutans", "CFU"], "article_id"=>3202513, "categories"=>["Physical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Microbiology", "Biotechnology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Chemical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Taraneh Javanbakht", "Sophie Laurent", "Dimitri Stanicki", "Kevin J. Wilkinson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154445.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/CFU_values_mL_for_i_S_i_i_mutans_i_isolated_from_biofilms_that_were_either_exposed_to_bare_positively_charged_or_negatively_charged_SPIONs_or_were_incubated_in_the_absence_of_SPIONs_/3202513", "title"=>"CFU values (/mL) for <i>S</i>. <i>mutans</i> isolated from biofilms that were either exposed to bare, positively charged or negatively charged SPIONs or were incubated in the absence of SPIONs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>11, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-04-26 06:46:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5026900"], "description"=>"<p><b>Positive TOF-SIMS spectra of (a) bare, (b) positively charged and (c) negatively charged SPIONs; negative TOF-SIMS spectra of (d) bare, (e) positively charged and (f) negatively charged SPIONs after incubation with the biofilm.</b> The intensity of each peak was different for each sample. The intensity peak ratios changed from one sample to the others.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["SPION", "EPM", "Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles", "Scanning electron microscopy", "superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles", "ion mass spectrometry", "biofilm", "SPIONS", "TEM", "surface charge", "SEM", "transmission electron microscopy", "Streptococcus mutans", "CFU"], "article_id"=>3202483, "categories"=>["Physical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Microbiology", "Biotechnology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Chemical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Taraneh Javanbakht", "Sophie Laurent", "Dimitri Stanicki", "Kevin J. Wilkinson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154445.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Relating_the_Surface_Properties_of_Superparamagnetic_Iron_Oxide_Nanoparticles_SPIONs_to_Their_Bactericidal_Effect_towards_a_Biofilm_of_i_Streptococcus_mutans_i_Fig_6/3202483", "title"=>"Relating the Surface Properties of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) to Their Bactericidal Effect towards a Biofilm of <i>Streptococcus mutans</i> - Fig 6", "pos_in_sequence"=>7, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-04-26 06:46:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5026834", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5026840", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5026846"], "description"=>"<div><p>This study was designed to determine the effects of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) on the biological activity of a bacterial biofilm (<i>Streptococcus mutans</i>). Our hypothesis was that the diffusion of the SPIONs into biofilms would depend on their surface properties, which in turn would largely be determined by their surface functionality. Bare, positively charged and negatively charged SPIONs, with hydrodynamic diameters of 14.6 ± 1.4 nm, 20.4 ± 1.3 nm and 21.2 ± 1.6 nm were evaluated. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and electrophoretic mobility (EPM) measurements were used to confirm that carboxylic functional groups predominated on the negatively charged SPIONS, whereas amine functional groups predominated on the positively charged particles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the morphology and sizes of SPIONs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EPM measurements indicated that the surfaces of the SPIONs were covered with biomolecules following their incubation with the biofilm. Bare SPIONs killed bacteria less than the positively charged SPIONs at the highest exposure concentrations, but the toxicity of the bare and positively charged SPIONs was the same for lower SPION concentrations. The positively charged SPIONs were more effective in killing bacteria than the negatively charged ones. Nonetheless, electrophoretic mobilities of all three SPIONs (negative, bare and positively charged) became more negative following incubation with the (negatively-charged) biofilm. Therefore, while the surface charge of SPIONS was important in determining their biological activity, the initial surface charge was not constant in the presence of the biofilm, leading eventually to SPIONS with fairly similar surface charges <i>in situ</i>. The study nonetheless suggests that the surface characteristics of the SPIONS is an important parameter controlling the efficiency of antimicrobial agents. The analysis of the CFU/mL values shows that the SPIONs have the same toxicity on bacteria in solution in comparison with that on the biofilm.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["SPION", "EPM", "Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles", "Scanning electron microscopy", "superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles", "ion mass spectrometry", "biofilm", "SPIONS", "TEM", "surface charge", "SEM", "transmission electron microscopy", "Streptococcus mutans", "CFU"], "article_id"=>3202423, "categories"=>["Physical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Microbiology", "Biotechnology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Chemical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Taraneh Javanbakht", "Sophie Laurent", "Dimitri Stanicki", "Kevin J. Wilkinson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154445.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154445.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154445.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Relating_the_Surface_Properties_of_Superparamagnetic_Iron_Oxide_Nanoparticles_SPIONs_to_Their_Bactericidal_Effect_towards_a_Biofilm_of_i_Streptococcus_mutans_i_/3202423", "title"=>"Relating the Surface Properties of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) to Their Bactericidal Effect towards a Biofilm of <i>Streptococcus mutans</i>", "pos_in_sequence"=>1, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2016-04-26 06:46:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5026873"], "description"=>"<p><b>FTIR spectra of a) bare, b) positively and c) negatively charged SPIONs.</b> In Fig 2a, the peaks at 1000 cm<sup>-1</sup>, 1100 cm<sup>-1</sup> and 1660 cm<sup>-1</sup> are indicated by black, blue and red arrows, respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["SPION", "EPM", "Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles", "Scanning electron microscopy", "superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles", "ion mass spectrometry", "biofilm", "SPIONS", "TEM", "surface charge", "SEM", "transmission electron microscopy", "Streptococcus mutans", "CFU"], "article_id"=>3202456, "categories"=>["Physical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Microbiology", "Biotechnology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Chemical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Taraneh Javanbakht", "Sophie Laurent", "Dimitri Stanicki", "Kevin J. Wilkinson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154445.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Relating_the_Surface_Properties_of_Superparamagnetic_Iron_Oxide_Nanoparticles_SPIONs_to_Their_Bactericidal_Effect_towards_a_Biofilm_of_i_Streptococcus_mutans_i_Fig_2/3202456", "title"=>"Relating the Surface Properties of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) to Their Bactericidal Effect towards a Biofilm of <i>Streptococcus mutans</i> - Fig 2", "pos_in_sequence"=>3, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-04-26 06:46:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5026909"], "description"=>"<p><b>Representative images of the bactericidal effect of (A) bare, (B) positively charged and (C) negatively charged SPIONs on the <i>S</i>. <i>mutans</i> biofilm for a SPION concentration of 2 μg mL</b><sup><b>-1</b></sup>. Images for exposures to 1 μg mL<sup>-1</sup> and 3 μg mL<sup>-1</sup> can be found in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0154445#pone.0154445.s002\" target=\"_blank\">S2</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0154445#pone.0154445.s003\" target=\"_blank\">S3</a> Figs. For each image, green coloration indicates live cells while red coloration indicates dead cells.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["SPION", "EPM", "Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles", "Scanning electron microscopy", "superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles", "ion mass spectrometry", "biofilm", "SPIONS", "TEM", "surface charge", "SEM", "transmission electron microscopy", "Streptococcus mutans", "CFU"], "article_id"=>3202492, "categories"=>["Physical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Microbiology", "Biotechnology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Chemical Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Inorganic Chemistry", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Taraneh Javanbakht", "Sophie Laurent", "Dimitri Stanicki", "Kevin J. Wilkinson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154445.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Relating_the_Surface_Properties_of_Superparamagnetic_Iron_Oxide_Nanoparticles_SPIONs_to_Their_Bactericidal_Effect_towards_a_Biofilm_of_i_Streptococcus_mutans_i_Fig_7/3202492", "title"=>"Relating the Surface Properties of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) to Their Bactericidal Effect towards a Biofilm of <i>Streptococcus mutans</i> - Fig 7", "pos_in_sequence"=>8, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-04-26 06:46:50"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2016-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2016-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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