Emissions and Char Quality of Flame-Curtain "Kon Tiki" Kilns for Farmer-Scale Charcoal/Biochar Production
Publication Date
May 18, 2016
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Gerard Cornelissen, Naba Raj Pandit, Paul Taylor, Bishnu Hari Pandit, et al
Volume
11
Issue
5
Pages
e0154617
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154617
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0154617
Scopus
84971246382
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/emissions-char-quality-flamecurtain-kon-tiki-kilns-farmerscale-charcoalbiochar-production
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Emissions and char quality of flame-curtain \"Kon Tiki\" kilns for farmer-scale charcoal/biochar production", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Gerard", "last_name"=>"Cornelissen", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102053573"}, {"first_name"=>"Naba Raj", "last_name"=>"Pandit", "scopus_author_id"=>"57189464496"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul", "last_name"=>"Taylor", "scopus_author_id"=>"57189460418"}, {"first_name"=>"Bishnu Hari", "last_name"=>"Pandit", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003285154"}, {"first_name"=>"Magnus", "last_name"=>"Sparrevik", "scopus_author_id"=>"7801558014"}, {"first_name"=>"Hans Peter", "last_name"=>"Schmidt", "scopus_author_id"=>"56393196100"}], "year"=>2016, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84971246382", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0154617", "pui"=>"610472304", "pmid"=>"27191397", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84971246382", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"ac8a317e-b33f-39c3-9930-98a5035b2799", "abstract"=>"Flame Curtain Biochar Kilns Pyrolysis of organic waste or woody materials yields charcoal, a stable carbonaceous product that can be used for cooking or mixed into soil, in the latter case often termed \"biochar\". Traditional kiln technologies for charcoal production are slow and without treatment of the pyrolysis gases, resulting in emissions of gases (mainly methane and carbon monoxide) and aerosols that are both toxic and contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. In retort kilns pyrolysis gases are led back to a combustion chamber. This can reduce emissions substantially, but is costly and consumes a considerable amount of valuable ignition material such as wood during start-up. To overcome these problems, a novel type of technology, the KonTiki flame curtain pyrolysis, is proposed. This technology combines the simplicity of the traditional kiln with the combustion of pyrolysis gases in the flame curtain (similar to retort kilns), also avoiding use of external fuel for start-up. Biochar Characteristics A field study in Nepal using various feedstocks showed char yields of 22 ± 5% on a dry weight basis and 40 ± 11% on a C basis. Biochars with high C contents (76 ± 9%; n = 57), average surface areas (11 to 215 m2 g-1), low EPA16—PAHs (2.3 to 6.6 mg kg-1) and high CECs (43 to 217 cmolc/kg)(average for all feedstocks, mainly woody shrubs) were obtained, in compliance with the European Biochar Certificate (EBC). Gas Emission Factors Mean emission factors for the flame curtain kilns were (g kg-1 biochar for all feedstocks); CO2 = 4300 ± 1700, CO = 54 ± 35, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) = 6 ± 3, CH4 = 30 ± 60, aerosols (PM10) = 11 ± 15, total products of incomplete combustion (PIC) = 100 ± 83 and NOx = 0.4 ± 0.3. The flame curtain kilns emitted statistically significantly (p<0.05) lower amounts of CO, PIC and NOx than retort and traditional kilns, and higher amounts of CO2. Implications With benefits such as high quality biochar, low emission, no need for start-up fuel, fast pyrolysis time and, importantly, easy and cheap construction and operation the flame curtain technology represent a promising possibility for sustainable rural biochar production.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/emissions-char-quality-flamecurtain-kon-tiki-kilns-farmerscale-charcoalbiochar-production", "reader_count"=>51, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>13, "Unspecified"=>5, "Environmental Science"=>14, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>11, "Design"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Chemical Engineering"=>2, "Chemistry"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>13}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>11}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>14}, "Chemical Engineering"=>{"Chemical Engineering"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Malaysia"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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