Association of Cancer Incidence and Duration of Residence in Geothermal Heating Area in Iceland: An Extended Follow-Up
Publication Date
May 20, 2016
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Adalbjorg Kristbjornsdottir, Thor Aspelund & Vilhjalmur Rafnsson
Volume
11
Issue
5
Pages
e0155922
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0155922
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0155922
Scopus
84991518733
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/association-cancer-incidence-duration-residence-geothermal-heating-area-iceland-extended-followup
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Association of cancer incidence and duration of residence in geothermal heating area in Iceland: An extended follow-up", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Adalbjorg", "last_name"=>"Kristbjornsdottir", "scopus_author_id"=>"55510568600"}, {"first_name"=>"Thor", "last_name"=>"Aspelund", "scopus_author_id"=>"8703984700"}, {"first_name"=>"Vilhjalmur", "last_name"=>"Rafnsson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003610655"}], "year"=>2016, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"27205903", "sgr"=>"84991518733", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0155922", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84991518733", "pui"=>"610470889", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"5836862f-cf70-3c11-aa20-29e66002ae17", "abstract"=>"Background Residents of geothermal areas have higher incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and kidney cancers than others. These populations are exposed to chronic low-level ground gas emissions and various pollutants from geothermal water. The aim was to assess whether habitation in geothermal areas and utilisation of geothermal water is associated with risk of cancer according to duration of residence. Methods The cohort obtained from the census 1981 was followed to the end of 2013. Personal identifier was used in record linkage with nation-wide emigration, death, and cancer registries. The exposed population, defined by community codes, was located on young bedrock and had utilised geothermal water supply systems since 1972. Two reference populations were located by community codes on older bedrock or had not utilised geothermal water supply systems for as long a period as had the exposed population. Adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 95% confidence intervals (CI) non-stratified and stratified on cumulative years of residence were estimated in Cox-model. Results The HR for all cancer was 1.21 (95% CI 1.12-1.30) as compared with the first reference area. The HR for pancreatic cancer was 1.93 (1.22-3.06), breast cancer, 1.48 (1.23-1.80), prostate cancer 1.47 (1.22-1.77), kidney cancer 1.46 (1.03-2.05), lymphoid and haematopoietic tissue 1.54 (1.21-1.97), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma 2.08 (1.38-3.15) and basal cell carcinoma of the skin 1.62 (1.35-1.94). Positive dose-response relationship was observed between incidence of cancers and duration of residence, and between incidence of cancer and degree of geothermal/volcanic activity in the comparison areas. Conclusions The higher cancer incidence in geothermal areas than in reference areas is consistent with previous findings. As the dose-response relationships were positive between incidence of cancers and duration of residence, it is now more urgent than before to investigate the chemical and physical content of the geothermal water and of the ambient air of the areas to detect recognized or new carcinogens.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/association-cancer-incidence-duration-residence-geothermal-heating-area-iceland-extended-followup", "reader_count"=>8, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>2, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>2}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Iceland"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5306656"], "description"=>"<p>Number of all cancers and selected cancer sites among men and women combined, hazard ratio (HR), 95% confidence intervals (CI) compared with the populations in warm reference area and cold reference area, adjusted for age, gender, education, type of housing, and smoking habits, without and with stratification into categories of cumulative years of residence in the respective areas.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["community codes", "basal cell carcinoma", "ground gas emissions", "HR", "CI", "Adjusted hazard ratio", "Geothermal Heating Area", "water supply systems", "incidence"], "article_id"=>3396850, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Marine Biology", "Cancer", "Infectious Diseases", "Computational Biology"], "users"=>["Adalbjorg Kristbjornsdottir", "Thor Aspelund", "Vilhjalmur Rafnsson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0155922.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Number_of_all_cancers_and_selected_cancer_sites_among_men_and_women_combined_hazard_ratio_HR_95_confidence_intervals_CI_compared_with_the_populations_in_warm_reference_area_and_cold_reference_area_adjusted_for_age_gender_education_type_of_housing_and_smok/3396850", "title"=>"Number of all cancers and selected cancer sites among men and women combined, hazard ratio (HR), 95% confidence intervals (CI) compared with the populations in warm reference area and cold reference area, adjusted for age, gender, education, type of housing, and smoking habits, without and with stratification into categories of cumulative years of residence in the respective areas.", "pos_in_sequence"=>5, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-05-20 05:30:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5306509", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5306518", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5306536"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Residents of geothermal areas have higher incidence of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and kidney cancers than others. These populations are exposed to chronic low-level ground gas emissions and various pollutants from geothermal water. The aim was to assess whether habitation in geothermal areas and utilisation of geothermal water is associated with risk of cancer according to duration of residence.</p><p>Methods</p><p>The cohort obtained from the census 1981 was followed to the end of 2013. Personal identifier was used in record linkage with nation-wide emigration, death, and cancer registries. The exposed population, defined by community codes, was located on young bedrock and had utilised geothermal water supply systems since 1972. Two reference populations were located by community codes on older bedrock or had not utilised geothermal water supply systems for as long a period as had the exposed population. Adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 95% confidence intervals (CI) non-stratified and stratified on cumulative years of residence were estimated in Cox-model.</p><p>Results</p><p>The HR for all cancer was 1.21 (95% CI 1.12–1.30) as compared with the first reference area. The HR for pancreatic cancer was 1.93 (1.22–3.06), breast cancer, 1.48 (1.23–1.80), prostate cancer 1.47 (1.22–1.77), kidney cancer 1.46 (1.03–2.05), lymphoid and haematopoietic tissue 1.54 (1.21–1.97), non-Hodgkin´s lymphoma 2.08 (1.38–3.15) and basal cell carcinoma of the skin 1.62 (1.35–1.94). Positive dose-response relationship was observed between incidence of cancers and duration of residence, and between incidence of cancer and degree of geothermal/volcanic activity in the comparison areas.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>The higher cancer incidence in geothermal areas than in reference areas is consistent with previous findings. As the dose-response relationships were positive between incidence of cancers and duration of residence, it is now more urgent than before to investigate the chemical and physical content of the geothermal water and of the ambient air of the areas to detect recognized or new carcinogens.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["community codes", "basal cell carcinoma", "ground gas emissions", "HR", "CI", "Adjusted hazard ratio", "Geothermal Heating Area", "water supply systems", "incidence"], "article_id"=>3396724, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Marine Biology", "Cancer", "Infectious Diseases", "Computational Biology"], "users"=>["Adalbjorg Kristbjornsdottir", "Thor Aspelund", "Vilhjalmur Rafnsson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0155922.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0155922.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0155922.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Association_of_Cancer_Incidence_and_Duration_of_Residence_in_Geothermal_Heating_Area_in_Iceland_An_Extended_Follow-Up/3396724", "title"=>"Association of Cancer Incidence and Duration of Residence in Geothermal Heating Area in Iceland: An Extended Follow-Up", "pos_in_sequence"=>1, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2016-05-20 05:30:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5306593"], "description"=>"<p>Dashed line indicates population in geothermal heating area, and black line population in the cold reference area.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["community codes", "basal cell carcinoma", "ground gas emissions", "HR", "CI", "Adjusted hazard ratio", "Geothermal Heating Area", "water supply systems", "incidence"], "article_id"=>3396805, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Marine Biology", "Cancer", "Infectious Diseases", "Computational Biology"], "users"=>["Adalbjorg Kristbjornsdottir", "Thor Aspelund", "Vilhjalmur Rafnsson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0155922.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Kaplan-Meier_estimates_of_event_free_proportion_for_breast_cancer_prostate_cancer_pancreas_cancer_and_non-Hodgkin_s_lymphoma_NHL_since_the_census_1981_/3396805", "title"=>"Kaplan-Meier estimates of event free proportion for breast cancer, prostate cancer, pancreas cancer and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) since the census 1981.", "pos_in_sequence"=>3, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-05-20 05:30:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5306566"], "description"=>"<p>Kaplan-Meier estimates of event free proportion for all cancers since the census 1981, dashed line indicate population in geothermal heating area, and black line population in the cold reference area.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["community codes", "basal cell carcinoma", "ground gas emissions", "HR", "CI", "Adjusted hazard ratio", "Geothermal Heating Area", "water supply systems", "incidence"], "article_id"=>3396775, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Marine Biology", "Cancer", "Infectious Diseases", "Computational Biology"], "users"=>["Adalbjorg Kristbjornsdottir", "Thor Aspelund", "Vilhjalmur Rafnsson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0155922.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Kaplan-Meier_estimates_of_event_free_proportion_for_all_cancers_since_the_census_1981_dashed_line_indicate_population_in_geothermal_heating_area_and_black_line_population_in_the_cold_reference_area_/3396775", "title"=>"Kaplan-Meier estimates of event free proportion for all cancers since the census 1981, dashed line indicate population in geothermal heating area, and black line population in the cold reference area.", "pos_in_sequence"=>2, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-05-20 05:30:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5306629"], "description"=>"<p>Baseline characteristics in the geothermal heating area and the two reference areas, categories of cumulative years of residence in the respective areas, number of individual, and age at census.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["community codes", "basal cell carcinoma", "ground gas emissions", "HR", "CI", "Adjusted hazard ratio", "Geothermal Heating Area", "water supply systems", "incidence"], "article_id"=>3396829, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Marine Biology", "Cancer", "Infectious Diseases", "Computational Biology"], "users"=>["Adalbjorg Kristbjornsdottir", "Thor Aspelund", "Vilhjalmur Rafnsson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0155922.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Baseline_characteristics_in_the_geothermal_heating_area_and_the_two_reference_areas_categories_of_cumulative_years_of_residence_in_the_respective_areas_number_of_individual_and_age_at_census_/3396829", "title"=>"Baseline characteristics in the geothermal heating area and the two reference areas, categories of cumulative years of residence in the respective areas, number of individual, and age at census.", "pos_in_sequence"=>4, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-05-20 05:30:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/5306671"], "description"=>"<p>Number of all cancers and selected cancer sites among men and women combined, hazard ratio (HR), 95% confidence intervals (CI) compared with the populations in warm reference area and cold reference area applying five years latency time, adjusted for age, gender, education, type of housing, and smoking habits, without and with stratification into categories of cumulative years of residence in the respective areas.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["community codes", "basal cell carcinoma", "ground gas emissions", "HR", "CI", "Adjusted hazard ratio", "Geothermal Heating Area", "water supply systems", "incidence"], "article_id"=>3396862, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Biotechnology", "Environmental Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Ecology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Marine Biology", "Cancer", "Infectious Diseases", "Computational Biology"], "users"=>["Adalbjorg Kristbjornsdottir", "Thor Aspelund", "Vilhjalmur Rafnsson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0155922.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Number_of_all_cancers_and_selected_cancer_sites_among_men_and_women_combined_hazard_ratio_HR_95_confidence_intervals_CI_compared_with_the_populations_in_warm_reference_area_and_cold_reference_area_applying_five_years_latency_time_adjusted_for_age_gender_e/3396862", "title"=>"Number of all cancers and selected cancer sites among men and women combined, hazard ratio (HR), 95% confidence intervals (CI) compared with the populations in warm reference area and cold reference area applying five years latency time, adjusted for age, gender, education, type of housing, and smoking habits, without and with stratification into categories of cumulative years of residence in the respective areas.", "pos_in_sequence"=>6, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-05-20 05:30:17"}

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