Floral Assemblages and Patterns of Insect Herbivory during the Permian to Triassic of Northeastern Italy
Publication Date
November 09, 2016
Authors
Conrad C. Labandeira, Evelyn Kustatscher & Torsten Wappler
Volume
11
Issue
11
Pages
e0165205
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0165205
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0165205
Scopus
84994777640
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/floral-assemblages-patterns-insect-herbivory-during-permian-triassic-northeastern-italy
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Floral assemblages and patterns of insect herbivory during the permian to triassic of northeastern Italy", "type"=>"generic", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Conrad C.", "last_name"=>"Labandeira", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701788435"}, {"first_name"=>"Evelyn", "last_name"=>"Kustatscher", "scopus_author_id"=>"21743354900"}, {"first_name"=>"Torsten", "last_name"=>"Wappler", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602301549"}], "year"=>2016, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84994777640", "sgr"=>"84994777640", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0165205", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"613146244"}, "id"=>"18db954c-d3cc-37d7-9f07-b69e79830b79", "abstract"=>"To discern the effect of the end-Permian (P-Tr) ecological crisis on land, interactions between plants and their insect herbivores were examined for four time intervals containing ten major floras from the Dolomites of northeastern Italy during a Permian–Triassic interval. These floras are: (i) the Kungurian Tregiovo Flora; (ii) the Wuchiapingian Bletterbach Flora; (iii) three Anisian floras; and (iv) five Ladinian floras. Derived plant–insect interactional data is based on 4242 plant specimens (1995 Permian, 2247 Triassic) allocated to 86 fossil taxa (32 Permian, 56 Triassic), representing lycophytes, sphenophytes, pteridophytes, pterido-sperms, ginkgophytes, cycadophytes and coniferophytes from 37 million-year interval (23 m.yr. Permian, 14 m.yr. Triassic). Major Kungurian herbivorized plants were unaffiliated taxa and pteridosperms; later during the Wuchiapingian cycadophytes were predominantly consumed. For the Anisian, pteridosperms and cycadophytes were preferentially con-sumed, and subordinately pteridophytes, lycophytes and conifers. Ladinian herbivores overwhelming targeted pteridosperms and subordinately cycadophytes and conifers. Throughout the interval the percentage of insect-damaged leaves in bulk floras, as a pro-portion of total leaves examined, varied from 3.6% for the Kungurian (N = 464 leaves), 1.95% for the Wuchiapingian (N = 1531), 11.65% for the pooled Anisian (N = 1324), to 10.72% for the pooled Ladinian (N = 923), documenting an overall herbivory rise. The per-centage of generalized consumption, equivalent to external foliage feeding, consistently exceeded the level of specialized consumption from internal feeding. Generalized damage ranged from 73.6% (Kungurian) of all feeding damage, to 79% (Wuchiapingian), 65.5% (pooled Anisian) and 73.2% (pooled Ladinian). Generalized-to-specialized ratios show min-imal change through the interval, although herbivore component community structure (her-bivore species feeding on a single plant-host species) increasingly was partitioned from Wuchiapingian to Ladinian. The Paleozoic plant with the richest herbivore component com-munity, the coniferophyte Pseudovoltzia liebeana, harbored four damage types (DTs), Province of Bolzano-South Tyrol and by the \" The whereas its Triassic parallel, the pteridosperm Scytophyllum bergeri housed 11 DTs, almost four times that of P. liebeana. Although generalized DTs of P. liebeana were similar to S. bergeri, there was expansion of Triassic specialized feeding types, including leaf min-ing. Permian–Triassic generalized herbivory remained relatively constant, but specialized herbivores more finely partitioned plant-host tissues via new feeding modes, especially in the Anisian. Insect-damaged leaf percentages for Dolomites Kungurian and Wuchiapingian floras were similar to those of lower Permian, north-central Texas, but only one-third that of southeastern Brazil. Global herbivore patterns for Early Triassic plant–insect interactions remain unknown.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/floral-assemblages-patterns-insect-herbivory-during-permian-triassic-northeastern-italy", "reader_count"=>16, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>7}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"China"=>1, "Italy"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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