Getting to the Bottom of Face Processing. Species-Specific Inversion Effects for Faces and Behinds in Humans and Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes)
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{"title"=>"Getting to the bottom of face processing. species-specific inversion effects for faces and behinds in humans and chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes)", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Mariska E.", "last_name"=>"Kret", "scopus_author_id"=>"35768113700"}, {"first_name"=>"Masaki", "last_name"=>"Tomonaga", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201794637"}], "year"=>2016, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"85000962094", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-85000962094", "pmid"=>"27902685", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"613465266", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0165357"}, "id"=>"299bc08f-a3cf-384d-9801-32bebdc12a58", "abstract"=>"For social species such as primates, the recognition of conspecifics is crucial for their sur-vival. As demonstrated by the 'face inversion effect', humans are experts in recognizing faces and unlike objects, recognize their identity by processing it configurally. The human face, with its distinct features such as eye-whites, eyebrows, red lips and cheeks signals emotions, intentions, health and sexual attraction and, as we will show here, shares impor-tant features with the primate behind. Chimpanzee females show a swelling and reddening of the anogenital region around the time of ovulation. This provides an important socio-sex-ual signal for group members, who can identify individuals by their behinds. We hypothe-sized that chimpanzees process behinds configurally in a way humans process faces. In four different delayed matching-to-sample tasks with upright and inverted body parts, we show that humans demonstrate a face, but not a behind inversion effect and that chimpan-zees show a behind, but no clear face inversion effect. The findings suggest an evolutionary shift in socio-sexual signalling function from behinds to faces, two hairless, symmetrical and attractive body parts, which might have attuned the human brain to process faces, and the human face to become more behind-like.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/getting-bottom-face-processing-speciesspecific-inversion-effects-faces-behinds-humans-chimpanzees-pa", "reader_count"=>40, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>5, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>5, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>6, "Psychology"=>14, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>6}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>14}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "United States"=>3, "Luxembourg"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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