Autonomous Vehicles: Disengagements, Accidents and Reaction Times
Publication Date
December 20, 2016
Authors
Vinayak V. Dixit, Sai Chand & Divya J. Nair
Volume
11
Issue
12
Pages
e0168054
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168054
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0168054
Scopus
85006900493
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/autonomous-vehicles-disengagements-accidents-reaction-times
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Autonomous vehicles: Disengagements, accidents and reaction times", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Vinayak V.", "last_name"=>"Dixit", "scopus_author_id"=>"24757946400"}, {"first_name"=>"Sai", "last_name"=>"Chand", "scopus_author_id"=>"57007810100"}, {"first_name"=>"Divya J.", "last_name"=>"Nair", "scopus_author_id"=>"57191250632"}], "year"=>2016, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"85006900493", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0168054", "pui"=>"613783531", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-85006900493", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1111111111"}, "id"=>"afd3e11c-8aea-35fb-8ed1-90c7a8db6231", "abstract"=>"Autonomous vehicles are being viewed with scepticism in their ability to improve safety and the driving experience. A critical issue with automated driving at this stage of its develop- ment is that it is not yet reliable and safe. When automated driving fails, or is limited, the autonomous mode disengages and the drivers are expected to resume manual driving. For this transition to occur safely, it is imperative that drivers react in an appropriate and timely manner. Recent data released from the California trials provide compelling insights into the current factors influencing disengagements of autonomous mode. Here we show that the number of accidents observed has a significantly high correlation with the autonomous miles travelled. The reaction times to take control of the vehicle in the event of a disengage- ment was found to have a stable distribution across different companies at 0.83 seconds on average. However, there were differences observed in reaction times based on the type of disengagements, type of roadway and autonomous miles travelled. Lack of trust caused by the exposure to automated disengagements was found to increase the likelihood to take control of the vehicle manually. Further, with increased vehicle miles travelled the reaction times were found to increase, which suggests an increased level of trust with more vehicle miles travelled.Webelieve that this research would provide insurers, planners, traffic man- agement officials and engineers fundamental insights into trust and reaction times that would help them design and engineer their systems.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/autonomous-vehicles-disengagements-accidents-reaction-times", "reader_count"=>66, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Other"=>6, "Student > Master"=>14, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Other"=>6, "Student > Master"=>14, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>32, "Unspecified"=>5, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1, "Design"=>3, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>5, "Psychology"=>3, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Computer Science"=>12}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Design"=>{"Design"=>3}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>32}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>12}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>5}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Italy"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/85006900493"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/85006900493?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=85006900493&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=85006900493&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/85006900493", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:85006900493", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-85006900493", "dc:title"=>"Autonomous vehicles: Disengagements, accidents and reaction times", "dc:creator"=>"Dixit V.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS ONE", "prism:eIssn"=>"19326203", "prism:volume"=>"11", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"12", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2016-12-01", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"December 2016", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0168054", "citedby-count"=>"26", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"University of New South Wales (UNSW) Australia", "affiliation-city"=>"Sydney", "affiliation-country"=>"Australia"}], "pubmed-id"=>"27997566", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"0168054", "source-id"=>"10600153309", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Counter

  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"35", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"158"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"63", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"289"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"52", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"428"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"129", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"702"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"179", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"871"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"113", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"919"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"85", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"573"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"82", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"496"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"77", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"508"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"133", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"646"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"142", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"702"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"119", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"705"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"42", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"458"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"59", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"294"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"76", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"396"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"101", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"470"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"140", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"514"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"90", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"330"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"88", "xml_views"=>"5", "html_views"=>"252"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"77", "xml_views"=>"9", "html_views"=>"258"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"75", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"215"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"84", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"345"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"83", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"370"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"116", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"449"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"65", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"219"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"101", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"262"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"164", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"321"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"130", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"431"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"138", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"521"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"72", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"202"}

PMC Usage Stats

  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"39", "full-text"=>"41", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"59", "full-text"=>"65", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"16", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"66", "full-text"=>"82", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"14", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"66", "full-text"=>"85", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"44", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"42", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"75", "full-text"=>"85", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"20", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"77", "full-text"=>"88", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"61", "full-text"=>"67", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"81", "full-text"=>"95", "pdf"=>"14", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"56", "full-text"=>"89", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"21", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"49", "full-text"=>"49", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"150", "full-text"=>"152", "pdf"=>"25", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"25", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"63", "full-text"=>"88", "pdf"=>"20", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"65", "full-text"=>"88", "pdf"=>"15", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"59", "full-text"=>"61", "pdf"=>"19", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"114", "full-text"=>"138", "pdf"=>"18", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"78", "full-text"=>"85", "pdf"=>"14", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"60", "full-text"=>"59", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"80", "full-text"=>"103", "pdf"=>"11", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"60", "full-text"=>"62", "pdf"=>"11", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"74", "full-text"=>"86", "pdf"=>"12", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"49", "full-text"=>"45", "pdf"=>"11", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"45", "full-text"=>"41", "pdf"=>"15", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"72", "full-text"=>"67", "pdf"=>"25", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"83", "full-text"=>"81", "pdf"=>"36", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts