Effect of national wealth on BMI: An analysis of 206,266 individuals in 70 low-, middle- and high-income countries
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{"title"=>"Effect of national wealth on BMI: An analysis of 206,266 individuals in 70 low-, middle-and high-income countries", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Mohd", "last_name"=>"Masood", "scopus_author_id"=>"36463994800"}, {"first_name"=>"Daniel D.", "last_name"=>"Reidpath", "scopus_author_id"=>"36004414800"}], "year"=>2017, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"617004451", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0178928", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-85021664694", "pmid"=>"28662041", "sgr"=>"85021664694", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1111111111"}, "id"=>"0c36da18-606e-3ec9-ae86-8e67318aaebc", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND This study explores the relationship between BMI and national-wealth and the cross-level interaction effect of national-wealth and individual household-wealth using multilevel analysis. METHODS Data from the World Health Survey conducted in 2002-2004, across 70 low-, middle- and high-income countries was used. Participants aged 18 years and over were selected using multistage, stratified cluster sampling. BMI was used as outcome variable. The potential determinants of individual-level BMI were participants' sex, age, marital-status, education, occupation, household-wealth and location(rural/urban) at the individual-level. The country-level factors used were average national income (GNI-PPP) and income inequality (Gini-index). A two-level random-intercepts and fixed-slopes model structure with individuals nested within countries was fitted, treating BMI as a continuous outcome. RESULTS The weighted mean BMI and standard-error of the 206,266 people from 70-countries was 23.90 (4.84). All the low-income countries were below the 25.0 mean BMI level and most of the high-income countries were above. All wealthier quintiles of household-wealth had higher scores in BMI than lowest quintile. Each USD10000 increase in GNI-PPP was associated with a 0.4 unit increase in BMI. The Gini-index was not associated with BMI. All these variables explained 28.1% of country-level, 4.9% of individual-level and 7.7% of total variance in BMI. The cross-level interaction effect between GNI-PPP and household-wealth was significant. BMI increased as the GNI-PPP increased in first four quintiles of household-wealth. However, the BMI of the wealthiest people decreased as the GNI-PPP increased. CONCLUSION Both individual-level and country-level factors made an independent contribution to the BMI of the people. Household-wealth and national-income had significant interaction effects.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/effect-national-wealth-bmi-analysis-206266-individuals-70-low-middleand-highincome-countries", "reader_count"=>10, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>1, "Other"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>1, "Other"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}}, "group_count"=>1}

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