Placebo can enhance creativity
Publication Date
September 11, 2017
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Liron Rozenkrantz, Avraham E. Mayo, Tomer Ilan, Yuval Hart, et al
Volume
12
Issue
9
Pages
e0182466
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0182466
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0182466
Scopus
85029422805
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/placebo-enhance-creativity
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Placebo can enhance creativity", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Liron", "last_name"=>"Rozenkrantz", "scopus_author_id"=>"36716979600"}, {"first_name"=>"Avraham E.", "last_name"=>"Mayo", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004426436"}, {"first_name"=>"Tomer", "last_name"=>"Ilan", "scopus_author_id"=>"57195641444"}, {"first_name"=>"Yuval", "last_name"=>"Hart", "scopus_author_id"=>"36542491600"}, {"first_name"=>"Lior", "last_name"=>"Noy", "scopus_author_id"=>"25028435400"}, {"first_name"=>"Uri", "last_name"=>"Alon", "scopus_author_id"=>"35239724400"}], "year"=>2017, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"isbn"=>"1111111111", "pmid"=>"28892513", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0182466", "pui"=>"618254115", "issn"=>"19326203", "sgr"=>"85029422805", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-85029422805"}, "id"=>"c63c0bc9-eeb1-3823-8c2d-c34ef66a2524", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND The placebo effect is usually studied in clinical settings for decreasing negative symptoms such as pain, depression and anxiety. There is interest in exploring the placebo effect also outside the clinic, for enhancing positive aspects of performance or cognition. Several studies indicate that placebo can enhance cognitive abilities including memory, implicit learning and general knowledge. Here, we ask whether placebo can enhance creativity, an important aspect of human cognition. METHODS Subjects were randomly assigned to a control group who smelled and rated an odorant (n = 45), and a placebo group who were treated identically but were also told that the odorant increases creativity and reduces inhibitions (n = 45). Subjects completed a recently developed automated test for creativity, the creative foraging game (CFG), and a randomly chosen subset (n = 57) also completed two manual standardized creativity tests, the alternate uses test (AUT) and the Torrance test (TTCT). In all three tests, participants were asked to create as many original solutions and were scored for originality, flexibility and fluency. RESULTS The placebo group showed higher originality than the control group both in the CFG (p<0.04, effect size = 0.5) and in the AUT (p<0.05, effect size = 0.4), but not in the Torrance test. The placebo group also found more shapes outside of the standard categories found by a set of 100 CFG players in a previous study, a feature termed out-of-the-boxness (p<0.01, effect size = 0.6). CONCLUSIONS The findings indicate that placebo can enhance the originality aspect of creativity. This strengthens the view that placebo can be used not only to reduce negative clinical symptoms, but also to enhance positive aspects of cognition. Furthermore, we find that the impact of placebo on creativity can be tested by CFG, which can quantify multiple aspects of creative search without need for manual coding. This approach opens the way to explore the behavioral and neural mechanisms by which placebo might amplify creativity.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/placebo-enhance-creativity", "reader_count"=>20, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Neuroscience"=>3, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Psychology"=>4, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Computer Science"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>3}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>4}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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