Different cadences and resistances in sub-maximal synchronous handcycling in able-bodied men: Effects on efficiency and force application
Publication Date
August 25, 2017
Authors
Cassandra Kraaijenbrink, Riemer J. K. Vegter, Alexander H. R. Hensen, Heiko Wagner, et al
Volume
12
Issue
8
Pages
e0183502
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0183502
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0183502
Scopus
85029112289
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/different-cadences-resistances-submaximal-synchronous-handcycling-ablebodied-men-effects-efficiency
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Different cadences and resistances in submaximal synchronous handcycling in able-bodied men: Effects on efficiency and force application", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Cassandra", "last_name"=>"Kraaijenbrink", "scopus_author_id"=>"57195602585"}, {"first_name"=>"Riemer J.K.", "last_name"=>"Vegter", "scopus_author_id"=>"55345744400"}, {"first_name"=>"Alexander H.R.", "last_name"=>"Hensen", "scopus_author_id"=>"57195599650"}, {"first_name"=>"Heiko", "last_name"=>"Wagner", "scopus_author_id"=>"7404366369"}, {"first_name"=>"Lucas H.V.", "last_name"=>"Van Der Woude", "scopus_author_id"=>"35594053000"}], "year"=>2017, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "sgr"=>"85029112289", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0183502", "isbn"=>"1111111111", "pmid"=>"28841704", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-85029112289", "pui"=>"618216031"}, "id"=>"b27e3ca1-eaa3-3aa7-abe8-ef132c1fe8d0", "abstract"=>"Background: With the introduction of an add-on handcycle, a crank system that can be placed in front of a wheelchair, handcycling was made widely available for daily life. With it, people go into town more easily, e.g. to do groceries; meet up with friends, etc. They have more independency and can be socially active. Our aim is to explore some settings of the handcycle, so that it can be optimally used as a transportation device. Therefore, the effects of cadence and added resistance on gross mechanical efficiency and force application during sub-maximal synchronous handcycling were investigated. We hypothesized that a cadence of 52 rpm with a higher resistance (35 W) would lead to a higher gross mechanical efficiency and a more tangential force application than a higher cadence of 70 rpm and no extra resistance (15 W). Methods: Twelve able-bodied men rode in an instrumented add-on handcycle on a motorized level treadmill at 1.94 m/s. They performed three sessions of three four-minute blocks of steady state exercise. Gear (70, 60 and 52 rpm) was changed in-between the blocks and resistance (rolling resistance +0 W, +10 W, +20 W) was changed across sessions, both in a counterbalanced order. 3D force production, oxygen uptake and heart rate were measured continuously. Gross mechanical efficiency (ME) and fraction of effective force (FEF) were calculated as main outcomes. The effects of cadence and resistance were analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA (P < 0.05) with Bonferroni-corrected post-hoc pairwise comparisons. Results: With a decrease in cadence a slight increase in ME (70 rpm: 5.5 (0.2)%, 60 rpm: 5.7 (0.2)%, 52 rpm: 5.8 (0.2)%, P = 0.008, η 2 p = 0.38), while an increase in FEF (70 rpm: 58.0 (3.2)%, 60 rpm: 66.0 (2.8)%, 52 rpm: 71.3 (2.3)%, P < 0.001, η 2 p = 0.79) is seen simultaneously. Also with an increase in resistance an increase in ME (+0 W: 4.0 (0.2)%, +10 W: 6.0 (0.3)%, +20 W: 7.0 (0.2)%, P < 0.001, η 2 p = 0.92) and FEF (+0 W: 59.0 (2.9)%, +10 W: 66.1 (3.4)%, +20 W: 70.2 (2.4)%, P < 0.001, η 2 p = 0.56) was found. Interpretation: A cadence of 52 rpm against a higher resistance of about 35 W leads to a more optimal direction of forces and is more mechanically efficient than propelling at a higher cadence or lower resistance. Therefore, changing gears on a handcycle is important, and it is advised to keep the linear hand velocity relatively low for locomotion purposes.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/different-cadences-resistances-submaximal-synchronous-handcycling-ablebodied-men-effects-efficiency", "reader_count"=>7, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1, "Other"=>2, "Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1, "Other"=>2, "Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Engineering"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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