External auditory exostoses and hearing loss in the Shanidar 1 Neandertal
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{"title"=>"External auditory exostoses and hearing loss in the Shanidar 1 Neandertal", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Erik", "last_name"=>"Trinkaus", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005369128"}, {"first_name"=>"Sébastien", "last_name"=>"Villotte", "scopus_author_id"=>"35321575000"}], "year"=>2017, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"618815685", "pmid"=>"29053746", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0186684", "issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-85031793514", "sgr"=>"85031793514", "isbn"=>"1111111111"}, "id"=>"e5f9c484-e43c-3838-8423-9c0d31ae5881", "abstract"=>"The Late Pleistocene Shanidar 1 older adult male Neandertal is known for the crushing frac-ture of his left orbit with a probable reduction in vision, the loss of his right forearm and hand, and evidence of an abnormal gait, as well as probable diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperosto-sis. He also exhibits advanced external auditory exostoses in his left auditory meatus and larger ones with complete bridging across the porus in the right meatus (both Grade 3). These growths indicate at least unilateral conductive hearing (CHL) loss, a serious sensory deprivation for a Pleistocene hunter-gatherer. This condition joins the meatal atresia of the Middle Pleistocene Atapuerca-SH Cr.4 in providing evidence of survival with conductive hearing loss (and hence serious sensory deprivation) among these Pleistocene humans. The presence of CHL in these fossils thereby reinforces the paleobiological and archeologi-cal evidence for supporting social matrices among these Pleistocene foraging peoples.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/external-auditory-exostoses-hearing-loss-shanidar-1-neandertal", "reader_count"=>23, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>4, "Librarian"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>4, "Librarian"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3, "Arts and Humanities"=>4, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>5, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>5}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>4}}, "group_count"=>1}

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