Using Bluetooth proximity sensing to determine where office workers spend time at work
Publication Date
March 07, 2018
Authors
Bronwyn K. Clark, Elisabeth A. Winkler, Charlotte L. Brakenridge, Stewart G. Trost, et al
Volume
13
Issue
3
Pages
e0193971
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0193971
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0193971
Scopus
85042942976
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/using-bluetooth-proximity-sensing-determine-office-workers-spend-time-work
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Using bluetooth proximity sensing to determine where office workers spend time at work", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Bronwyn K.", "last_name"=>"Clark", "scopus_author_id"=>"18934260000"}, {"first_name"=>"Elisabeth A.", "last_name"=>"Winkler", "scopus_author_id"=>"12782383100"}, {"first_name"=>"Charlotte L.", "last_name"=>"Brakenridge", "scopus_author_id"=>"56521671400"}, {"first_name"=>"Stewart G.", "last_name"=>"Trost", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005718888"}, {"first_name"=>"Genevieve N.", "last_name"=>"Healy", "scopus_author_id"=>"8093628700"}], "year"=>2018, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"85042942976", "pui"=>"621007765", "isbn"=>"1111111111", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-85042942976", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0193971", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"950469f2-69a7-3211-a642-45c598f8e3b9", "abstract"=>"Background Most wearable devices that measure movement in workplaces cannot determine the context in which people spend time. This study examined the accuracy of Bluetooth sensing (10-second intervals) via the ActiGraph GT9X Link monitor to determine location in an office setting, using two simple, bespoke algorithms. Methods For one work day (mean±SD 6.2±1.1 hours), 30 office workers (30% men, aged 38±11 years) simultaneously wore chest-mounted cameras (video recording) and Bluetooth-enabled monitors (initialised as receivers) on the wrist and thigh. Additional monitors (initialised as beacons) were placed in the entry, kitchen, photocopy room, corridors, and the wearer’s office. Firstly, participant presence/absence at each location was predicted from the presence/absence of signals at that location (ignoring all other signals). Secondly, using the information gathered at multiple locations simultaneously, a simple heuristic model was used to predict at which location the participant was present. The Bluetooth-determined location for each algorithm was tested against the camera in terms of F-scores. Results When considering locations individually, the accuracy obtained was excellent in the office (F-score = 0.98 and 0.97 for thigh and wrist positions) but poor in other locations (F-score = 0.04 to 0.36), stemming primarily from a high false positive rate. The multi-location algorithm exhibited high accuracy for the office location (F-score = 0.97 for both wear positions). It also improved the F-scores obtained in the remaining locations, but not always to levels indicating good accuracy (e.g., F-score for photocopy room ≈0.1 in both wear positions). Conclusions The Bluetooth signalling function shows promise for determining where workers spend most of their time (i.e., their office). Placing beacons in multiple locations and using a rule-based decision model improved classification accuracy; however, for workplace locations visited infrequently or with considerable movement, accuracy was below desirable levels. Further development of algorithms is warranted.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/using-bluetooth-proximity-sensing-determine-office-workers-spend-time-work", "reader_count"=>5, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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