Recombination between Polioviruses and Co-Circulating Coxsackie A Viruses: Role in the Emergence of Pathogenic Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses
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{"title"=>"Recombination between polioviruses and co-circulating coxsackie A viruses: Role in the emergence of pathogenic vaccine-derived polioviruses", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Sophie", "last_name"=>"Jegouic", "scopus_author_id"=>"23968510800"}, {"first_name"=>"Marie Line", "last_name"=>"Joffret", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507688247"}, {"first_name"=>"Claire", "last_name"=>"Blanchard", "scopus_author_id"=>"24722678600"}, {"first_name"=>"Franck B.", "last_name"=>"Riquet", "scopus_author_id"=>"57189645741"}, {"first_name"=>"Céline", "last_name"=>"Perret", "scopus_author_id"=>"26768080900"}, {"first_name"=>"Isabelle", "last_name"=>"Pelletier", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003457971"}, {"first_name"=>"Florence", "last_name"=>"Colbere-Garapin", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003711557"}, {"first_name"=>"Mala", "last_name"=>"Rakoto-Andrianarivelo", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602863723"}, {"first_name"=>"Francis", "last_name"=>"Delpeyroux", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003464071"}], "year"=>2009, "source"=>"PLoS Pathogens", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"15537366", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-67249119414", "pui"=>"354743755", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.ppat.1000412", "isbn"=>"1553-7374 (Electronic)\\n1553-7366 (Linking)", "sgr"=>"67249119414", "pmid"=>"19412342"}, "id"=>"b23eaf4e-172c-35f9-b7dc-119b406df5be", "abstract"=>"Ten outbreaks of poliomyelitis caused by pathogenic circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) have recently been reported in different regions of the world. Two of these outbreaks occurred in Madagascar. Most cVDPVs were recombinants of mutated poliovaccine strains and other unidentified enteroviruses of species C. We previously reported that a type 2 cVDPV isolated during an outbreak in Madagascar was co-circulating with coxsackieviruses A17 (CA17) and that sequences in the 3' half of the cVDPV and CA17 genomes were related. The goal of this study was to investigate whether these CA17 isolates can act as recombination partners of poliovirus and subsequently to evaluate the major effects of recombination events on the phenotype of the recombinants. We first cloned the infectious cDNA of a Madagascar CA17 isolate. We then generated recombinant constructs combining the genetic material of this CA17 isolate with that of the type 2 vaccine strain and that of the type 2 cVDPV. Our results showed that poliovirus/CA17 recombinants are viable. The recombinant in which the 3' half of the vaccine strain genome had been replaced by that of the CA17 genome yielded larger plaques and was less temperature sensitive than its parental strains. The virus in which the 3' portion of the cVDPV genome was replaced by the 3' half of the CA17 genome was almost as neurovirulent as the cVDPV in transgenic mice expressing the poliovirus cellular receptor gene. The co-circulation in children and genetic recombination of viruses, differing in their pathogenicity for humans and in certain other biological properties such as receptor usage, can lead to the generation of pathogenic recombinants, thus constituting an interesting model of viral evolution and emergence.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/recombination-between-polioviruses-cocirculating-coxsackie-viruses-role-emergence-pathogenic-vaccine", "reader_count"=>44, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>11, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>20, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>11}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>20}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>1, "France"=>1, "India"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1560871"], "description"=>"a<p>Most polioviruses- and enterovirus-specific primers have been previously described (see <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000412#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a> for references).</p>b<p>Numbers in brackets refer to the nucleotide positions of Sabin 2 genomic sequences.</p><p>except for CA17 specific primers whose numbers refer to CA17.67591 genomic sequences.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["rt"], "article_id"=>1080112, "categories"=>["Virology", "Infectious Diseases", "Plant Biology", "Molecular Biology", "Neuroscience", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Sophie Jegouic", "Marie-Line Joffret", "Claire Blanchard", "Franck B. Riquet", "Céline Perret", "Isabelle Pelletier", "Florence Colbere-Garapin", "Mala Rakoto-Andrianarivelo", "Francis Delpeyroux"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000412.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Oligonucleotides_used_for_RT_and_PCR_/1080112", "title"=>"Oligonucleotides used for RT and PCR.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-05-01 11:36:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1560865"], "description"=>"<p>HEp-2c cells were infected with the indicated viruses, at a multiplicity of infection of 25 TCID<sub>50</sub> per cell, and were incubated at 37.0°C (curves A and B) or 40.2°C (curves C). Viruses were harvested at various time points, and titrated. Standard errors of the mean of different samples are represented as error bars.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["curves", "chimeric"], "article_id"=>1080105, "categories"=>["Virology", "Infectious Diseases", "Plant Biology", "Molecular Biology", "Neuroscience", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Sophie Jegouic", "Marie-Line Joffret", "Claire Blanchard", "Franck B. Riquet", "Céline Perret", "Isabelle Pelletier", "Florence Colbere-Garapin", "Mala Rakoto-Andrianarivelo", "Francis Delpeyroux"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000412.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Single_step_growth_curves_of_parental_and_chimeric_viruses_/1080105", "title"=>"Single-step growth curves of parental and chimeric viruses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-05-01 11:36:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1560869"], "description"=>"<p>A given viral dose (10<sup>6</sup> TCID<sub>50</sub> for neurovirulent viruses) was used to inoculate groups of PVR-Tg mice expressing the human poliovirus receptor (9 mice per virus). Animals were checked daily for paralysis and death, for 21 days post-inoculation. Healthy mice ratios following inoculation of parental or chimeric viruses or neurovirulent positive-control virus S2 4568 are shown. No symptoms were observed following the inoculation of the highest doses of cCA17 and cCA17/S2 (10<sup>5</sup> TCID<sub>50</sub> per mouse) or cS2 and cS2/CA17 (10<sup>7</sup> TCID<sub>50</sub> per mouse) – not shown for the last three viruses.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["viruses", "inoculated", "intranasally", "transgenic", "pvr-tg"], "article_id"=>1080109, "categories"=>["Virology", "Infectious Diseases", "Plant Biology", "Molecular Biology", "Neuroscience", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Sophie Jegouic", "Marie-Line Joffret", "Claire Blanchard", "Franck B. Riquet", "Céline Perret", "Isabelle Pelletier", "Florence Colbere-Garapin", "Mala Rakoto-Andrianarivelo", "Francis Delpeyroux"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000412.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>32, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Neurovirulence_of_viruses_inoculated_intranasally_IN_in_transgenic_PVR_Tg_mice_/1080109", "title"=>"Neurovirulence of viruses inoculated intranasally (IN) in transgenic PVR-Tg mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-05-01 11:36:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1560873"], "description"=>"a<p>The data are arithmetic means from two experiments; standard errors from the mean are indicated.</p>b<p>The paralytic doses affecting 50% of mice following inoculation (PD<sub>50</sub>) and standard errors are indicated.</p>c<p>n.d.: not determined.</p>d<p>No paralysis occurred following inoculation of the highest doses indicated.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pathogenicity", "chimeric", "viruses", "ic"], "article_id"=>1080113, "categories"=>["Virology", "Infectious Diseases", "Plant Biology", "Molecular Biology", "Neuroscience", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Sophie Jegouic", "Marie-Line Joffret", "Claire Blanchard", "Franck B. Riquet", "Céline Perret", "Isabelle Pelletier", "Florence Colbere-Garapin", "Mala Rakoto-Andrianarivelo", "Francis Delpeyroux"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000412.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Temperature_sensitivity_and_pathogenicity_of_parental_and_chimeric_viruses_following_IC_inoculation_/1080113", "title"=>"Temperature sensitivity and pathogenicity of parental and chimeric viruses following IC inoculation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-05-01 11:36:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1560840"], "description"=>"<p>This neighbor-joining tree was based on nucleotide sequences alignment of genomic regions P1, which encode viral capsid proteins. Branch lengths were calculated using PUZZLE and the Hasegawa, Kishino and Yano (HKY) model of substitution. The genetic distance is indicated (bar). Numbers at nodes correspond to the percentage of 10,000 puzzle steps supporting the distal cluster. Nucleotide sequences of enterovirus 70 (EV70) were used as an outgroup.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["depicting", "relationships", "nucleotide", "sequences", "cvdpvs", "hev-c"], "article_id"=>1080080, "categories"=>["Virology", "Infectious Diseases", "Plant Biology", "Molecular Biology", "Neuroscience", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Sophie Jegouic", "Marie-Line Joffret", "Claire Blanchard", "Franck B. Riquet", "Céline Perret", "Isabelle Pelletier", "Florence Colbere-Garapin", "Mala Rakoto-Andrianarivelo", "Francis Delpeyroux"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000412.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phylogenetic_tree_depicting_genetic_relationships_between_nucleotide_sequences_of_CA17_67591_cVDPVs_and_other_HEV_C_prototypes_/1080080", "title"=>"Phylogenetic tree depicting genetic relationships between nucleotide sequences of CA17.67591, cVDPVs and other HEV-C prototypes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-05-01 11:36:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1560870"], "description"=>"a<p>P1: genomic region encoding capsid proteins VP1 to VP4.</p>b<p>P2: genomic region encoding proteins 2A to 2C.</p>c<p>P3: genomic region encoding the proteins 3A to 3D<sup>pol</sup>.</p>d<p>n.a.: not applicable.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["comparative", "sabin", "mad04", "mad29"], "article_id"=>1080110, "categories"=>["Virology", "Infectious Diseases", "Plant Biology", "Molecular Biology", "Neuroscience", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Sophie Jegouic", "Marie-Line Joffret", "Claire Blanchard", "Franck B. Riquet", "Céline Perret", "Isabelle Pelletier", "Florence Colbere-Garapin", "Mala Rakoto-Andrianarivelo", "Francis Delpeyroux"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000412.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sequences_comparative_analysis_CA17_67591_versus_CA17_G12_Sabin_2_MAD04_and_MAD29_strains_/1080110", "title"=>"Sequences comparative analysis: CA17.67591 versus CA17-G12, Sabin 2, MAD04 and MAD29 strains.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-05-01 11:36:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1560849"], "description"=>"<p>A) Similarity between the genomic sequences of CA17.67591 and other strains: prototype strains CA17-G12 and CA13-Flores, Madagascar cVDPVs MAD04 and MAD29, vaccine strain Sabin 2. The genetic organization of the PV genome is shown. B) Bootscanning plot of MAD04, MAD29, Sabin 2 and CA17 sequences versus CA17.67591 sequences (query sequence). Similarity and bootscanning analysis were performed with a sliding window of 400 nt, with a step of 20 nt (Simplot software version 3.5.1).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genomic", "sequences", "cvdpvs", "hev-c", "prototype"], "article_id"=>1080089, "categories"=>["Virology", "Infectious Diseases", "Plant Biology", "Molecular Biology", "Neuroscience", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Sophie Jegouic", "Marie-Line Joffret", "Claire Blanchard", "Franck B. Riquet", "Céline Perret", "Isabelle Pelletier", "Florence Colbere-Garapin", "Mala Rakoto-Andrianarivelo", "Francis Delpeyroux"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000412.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparative_analysis_of_the_genomic_sequences_of_CA17_67591_cVDPVs_and_HEV_C_prototype_strains_/1080089", "title"=>"Comparative analysis of the genomic sequences of CA17.67591, cVDPVs and HEV-C prototype strains.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-05-01 11:36:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1560866"], "description"=>"<p>Plaque assays were performed on HEp-2c cell monolayers infected with serially diluted viral stocks and incubated at 37°C for 72 h with semi-solid medium. Relative diameters were calculated, taking the average value of cMAD04 plaque diameters to be 100%. Relative plaque sizes (with standard deviations) of two experiments are indicated for viruses in series A and series B. The original Sabin 2 strain (S2) and the corresponding cDNA-derived virus (cS2) were used in series A.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["chimeric"], "article_id"=>1080106, "categories"=>["Virology", "Infectious Diseases", "Plant Biology", "Molecular Biology", "Neuroscience", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Sophie Jegouic", "Marie-Line Joffret", "Claire Blanchard", "Franck B. Riquet", "Céline Perret", "Isabelle Pelletier", "Florence Colbere-Garapin", "Mala Rakoto-Andrianarivelo", "Francis Delpeyroux"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000412.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plaque_size_of_chimeric_and_parental_viruses_/1080106", "title"=>"Plaque size of chimeric and parental viruses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-05-01 11:36:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1560857"], "description"=>"<p>The genetic organization of the PV genome is shown (at the top). Closed triangles indicate natural or <i>in vitro</i> recombination sites.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["chimeric", "viruses", "generated"], "article_id"=>1080097, "categories"=>["Virology", "Infectious Diseases", "Plant Biology", "Molecular Biology", "Neuroscience", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Sophie Jegouic", "Marie-Line Joffret", "Claire Blanchard", "Franck B. Riquet", "Céline Perret", "Isabelle Pelletier", "Florence Colbere-Garapin", "Mala Rakoto-Andrianarivelo", "Francis Delpeyroux"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000412.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Genomic_structure_of_parental_and_chimeric_viruses_generated_in_vitro_/1080097", "title"=>"Genomic structure of parental and chimeric viruses generated <i>in vitro</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2009-05-01 11:36:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1560874"], "description"=>"a<p>All initial plasmids except pBR-CA17/S2 have been previously described by Riquet et al. <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000412#ppat.1000412-Arita1\" target=\"_blank\">[51]</a>.</p>b<p>Numbering refers to the nucleotide sequences of the viral cDNA in the initial plasmid. The nucleotide sequence of the restriction sites used for constructing plasmid are underlined.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["sites", "constructing", "viral", "infectious"], "article_id"=>1080114, "categories"=>["Virology", "Infectious Diseases", "Plant Biology", "Molecular Biology", "Neuroscience", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Sophie Jegouic", "Marie-Line Joffret", "Claire Blanchard", "Franck B. Riquet", "Céline Perret", "Isabelle Pelletier", "Florence Colbere-Garapin", "Mala Rakoto-Andrianarivelo", "Francis Delpeyroux"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000412.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Initial_plasmids_oligonucleotides_and_restriction_sites_used_for_constructing_viral_infectious_cDNAs_/1080114", "title"=>"Initial plasmids, oligonucleotides, and restriction sites used for constructing viral infectious cDNAs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2009-05-01 11:36:55"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
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Relative Metric

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