Candida albicans Interactions with Bacteria in the Context of Human Health and Disease
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{"title"=>"Candida albicans Interactions with Bacteria in the Context of Human Health and Disease", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Diana K.", "last_name"=>"Morales"}, {"first_name"=>"Deborah A.", "last_name"=>"Hogan"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS Pathogens", "identifiers"=>{"doi"=>"10.1371/journal.ppat.1000886", "sgr"=>"77954053983", "issn"=>"1553-7374", "pui"=>"359087066", "isbn"=>"1553-7374 (Electronic)\\r1553-7366 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"20442787", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-77954053983"}, "id"=>"a0962396-b6d6-3a16-9d6c-849493e9f528", "abstract"=>"Humans are colonized by diverse populations of bacteria and fungi when in a healthy state and in the settings of disease, and the interactions between these microbial populations can be beneficial or detrimental to the host [1]. Among these microbial populations, Candida albicans is the fungus most commonly detected in association with humans [2], and numerous studies have described C. albicans interactions with its bacterial neighbors [1]. Here, with a focus on C. albicans, we provide examples of how bacterial-fungal interactions can influence human health. In addition, we highlight studies that give insight into the molecular mechanisms that govern the physical associations, interspecies communication, and changes in microbial behavior and survival that occur when bacteria and fungi occupy the same sites.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/candida-albicans-interactions-bacteria-context-human-health-disease", "reader_count"=>68, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>12, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>12, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Engineering"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>43, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>8, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>8}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>43}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Belgium"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Poland"=>2, "Malaysia"=>1, "France"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/852040"], "description"=>"<p>(A) <i>S. gordonii</i>, a normal colonizer of the oral cavity, enhances <i>C. albicans</i> survival and persistence, thus contributing to the development of <i>C. albicans</i> infections. In this environment, <i>S. gordonii</i> adhere to cells by expressing a complex repertoire of cell surface polypeptides (AgI/II) (a) that recognize a range of host tissue proteins and cellular receptors <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000886#ppat.1000886-Bamford1\" target=\"_blank\">[7]</a>. After bacterial attachment, <i>C. albicans</i> can selectively attach to surface-bound bacteria by means of protein-protein interactions <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000886#ppat.1000886-Klotz1\" target=\"_blank\">[10]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000886#ppat.1000886-Holmes1\" target=\"_blank\">[12]</a> or by direct recognition of salivary proteins (basic proline-rich proteins, bPRPs) previously adsorbed by <i>S. gordonii</i> cells <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000886#ppat.1000886-OSullivan1\" target=\"_blank\">[11]</a> (b). Coaggregation of the bacterium and <i>C. albicans</i> contributes to biofilm formation and results in closer proximity for cell-cell communication. Through a diffusible signal (DS) molecule (c), <i>S. gordonii</i> suppresses farnesol-mediated inhibition of hypha formation, thereby enhancing the potential for <i>C. albicans</i> to form biofilms and thus its ability to invade tissue <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000886#ppat.1000886-Bamford1\" target=\"_blank\">[7]</a>. In addition, <i>Streptococcus</i> promotes (d) fungal growth by secreting metabolic products that can be used as a carbon source by <i>C. albicans </i><a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000886#ppat.1000886-Shirtliff1\" target=\"_blank\">[1]</a>. Likewise, <i>C. albicans</i> enhances the survival and colonization of <i>S. gordonii</i> by reducing the oxygen tension to levels preferred by streptococci and by providing bacterial growth stimulatory factors as a result of nutrient metabolism <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000886#ppat.1000886-Shirtliff1\" target=\"_blank\">[1]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000886#ppat.1000886-OSullivan1\" target=\"_blank\">[11]</a>. These favorable conditions promote the formation of mature fungal-bacterial biofilms surrounded by an extracellular matrix, to which (e) other bacterial or fungal species can bind. These interactions may make oral infections more persistent and harder to treat. (B) <i>Lactobacillus</i> sp., which normally inhabits the female reproductive tract, defends the host against colonization of pathogens such as <i>C. albicans</i>. Evidence suggests that the bacterium reduces the adhesion of <i>C. albicans</i> to epithelial cells either by (a) outcompeting fungal cells for adhesion sites, such as cellular receptors to which <i>Lactobacillus</i> has higher affinity, or (b) by secreting biosurfactants such as surlactin that physically decrease fungal binding. Most <i>Lactobacillus</i> strains release (c) hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>) and (d) lactic acid or other fatty acids that inhibit <i>C. albicans</i> proliferation and invasive hypha formation. Bacteriocin-like substances (e) produced by <i>Lactobacillus</i> suppress the fungal growth to directly decrease its load <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000886#ppat.1000886-Boris1\" target=\"_blank\">[8]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["overview", "interactions", "gram-positive", "members", "flora"], "article_id"=>522502, "categories"=>["Microbiology"], "users"=>["Diana K. Morales", "Deborah A. Hogan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000886.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_An_overview_of_how_interactions_between_C_albicans_and_Gram_positive_members_of_the_human_flora_may_influence_disease_/522502", "title"=>"An overview of how interactions between <i>C. albicans</i> and Gram-positive members of the human flora may influence disease.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-21 01:37:24"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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