Metal Hyperaccumulation Armors Plants against Disease
Publication Date
September 09, 2010
Journal
PLOS Pathogens
Authors
Helen Fones, Calum A. R. Davis, Arantza Rico, Fang Fang, et al
Volume
6
Issue
9
Pages
e1001093
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001093
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.ppat.1001093
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20838462
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2936542
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/20838462
Web of Science
000282373000037
Scopus
78149302198
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/metal-hyperaccumulation-armors-plants-against-disease
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Metal hyperaccumulation armors plants against disease", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Helen", "last_name"=>"Fones", "scopus_author_id"=>"36617451100"}, {"first_name"=>"Calum A R", "last_name"=>"Davis", "scopus_author_id"=>"37033755900"}, {"first_name"=>"Arantza", "last_name"=>"Rico", "scopus_author_id"=>"7007016762"}, {"first_name"=>"Fang", "last_name"=>"Fang", "scopus_author_id"=>"55624485435"}, {"first_name"=>"J. Andrew C", "last_name"=>"Smith", "scopus_author_id"=>"35557417900"}, {"first_name"=>"Gail M.", "last_name"=>"Preston", "scopus_author_id"=>"35420703700"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS Pathogens", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"20838462", "sgr"=>"78149302198", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.ppat.1001093", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-78149302198", "pui"=>"359909831", "isbn"=>"1553-7374 (Electronic)\\r1553-7366 (Linking)", "issn"=>"15537366"}, "id"=>"b902700a-5919-3884-9733-632da721cb92", "abstract"=>"Metal hyperaccumulation, in which plants store exceptional concentrations of metals in their shoots, is an unusual trait whose evolutionary and ecological significance has prompted extensive debate. Hyperaccumulator plants are usually found on metalliferous soils, and it has been proposed that hyperaccumulation provides a defense against herbivores and pathogens, an idea termed the 'elemental defense' hypothesis. We have investigated this hypothesis using the crucifer Thlaspi caerulescens, a hyperaccumulator of zinc, nickel, and cadmium, and the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm). Using leaf inoculation assays, we have shown that hyperaccumulation of any of the three metals inhibits growth of Psm in planta. Metal concentrations in the bulk leaf and in the apoplast, through which the pathogen invades the leaf, were shown to be sufficient to account for the defensive effect by comparison with in vitro dose-response curves. Further, mutants of Psm with increased and decreased zinc tolerance created by transposon insertion had either enhanced or reduced ability, respectively, to grow in high-zinc plants, indicating that the metal affects the pathogen directly. Finally, we have shown that bacteria naturally colonizing T. caerulescens leaves at the site of a former lead-zinc mine have high zinc tolerance compared with bacteria isolated from non-accumulating plants, suggesting local adaptation to high metal. These results demonstrate that the disease resistance observed in metal-exposed T. caerulescens can be attributed to a direct effect of metal hyperaccumulation, which may thus be functionally analogous to the resistance conferred by antimicrobial metabolites in non-accumulating plants.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/metal-hyperaccumulation-armors-plants-against-disease", "reader_count"=>102, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>19, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>40, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>19, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>40, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>12, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5, "Materials Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>73, "Design"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Chemistry"=>3, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>3}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>73}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>12}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "Czech Republic"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "Slovenia"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "Ethiopia"=>1, "Spain"=>3, "India"=>2}, "group_count"=>3}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/831492"], "description"=>"<p><i>P. syringae</i> pv. maculicola M4 mutants with altered zinc tolerance.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["maculicola", "m4", "mutants", "altered", "zinc"], "article_id"=>501851, "categories"=>["Virology", "Microbiology", "Medicine", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Helen Fones", "Calum A. R. Davis", "Arantza Rico", "Fang Fang", "J. Andrew C. Smith", "Gail M. Preston"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001093.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_P_syringae_pv_maculicola_M4_mutants_with_altered_zinc_tolerance_/501851", "title"=>"<i>P. syringae</i> pv. maculicola M4 mutants with altered zinc tolerance.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-09-09 00:30:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/830993"], "description"=>"<p><i>T. caerulescens</i> plants were treated with a range of zinc (<b>A</b>), nickel (<b>B</b>), or cadmium (<b>C</b>) concentrations. Nine leaves of each of six plants were infiltrated with <i>P. syringae</i> pv. maculicola M4 suspended in 10 mM MgCl<sub>2</sub> at 10<sup>6</sup> cfu/ml and leaves sampled at 0, 2 and 5 days after inoculation. Six samples were taken per time point and treatment, each sample consisting of three leaves pooled from one plant. Plant zinc, nickel and cadmium treatments were significant predictors of <i>Psm</i> growth at both day 2 and day 5 (ANOVAs; <i>P</i><0.0005). Bonferroni simultaneous comparisons were carried out; means that were not significantly different are marked with the same letter. Values are means ± SE (<i>n</i> = 6). The experiment was repeated twice with similar results.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["concentrations", "inhibit", "bacterial"], "article_id"=>501356, "categories"=>["Virology", "Microbiology", "Medicine", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Helen Fones", "Calum A. R. Davis", "Arantza Rico", "Fang Fang", "J. Andrew C. Smith", "Gail M. Preston"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001093.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_High_metal_concentrations_inhibit_bacterial_growth_in_Thlaspi_caerulescens_/501356", "title"=>"High metal concentrations inhibit bacterial growth in <i>Thlaspi caerulescens</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-09 00:22:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/831535"], "description"=>"a<p>‘Growth’ indicates mean log bacterial cells/cm<sup>2</sup> leaf 5 days after inoculation (<i>in planta</i>) or increase in OD over 18 hours <i>in vitro</i> in extracted apoplast. Means found to be significantly different from the control mean (Bonferroni simultaneous comparisons) are marked with *(<i>α</i> = 5%), **(<i>α</i> = 1%), or ***(<i>α</i> = 0.1%). In the case of Ni <i>in planta</i> data, the 3 µM treatment was used as a control for statistical analysis because of the relatively high variability of the 0 µM treatment.</p>b<p>Metal concentrations of either bulked whole leaf samples or of the apoplast are shown. * indicates that concentrations were equal to or greater than the IC<sub>50</sub> values for the respective metals for <i>Psm</i> in extracted apoplast.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bacterial", "treatments", "metal-dependent", "inhibition", "maculicola"], "article_id"=>501897, "categories"=>["Virology", "Microbiology", "Medicine", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Helen Fones", "Calum A. R. Davis", "Arantza Rico", "Fang Fang", "J. Andrew C. Smith", "Gail M. Preston"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001093.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_bacterial_growth_across_treatments_in_relation_to_metal_concentration_and_metal_dependent_growth_inhibition_of_P_syringae_pv_maculicola_in_vitro_/501897", "title"=>"Summary of bacterial growth across treatments in relation to metal concentration and metal-dependent growth inhibition of <i>P. syringae</i> pv. maculicola <i>in vitro</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-09-09 00:31:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/831312"], "description"=>"<p><i>T. caerulescens</i> plants were treated with 0.04, 10, 30, or 300 µM zinc. Nine leaves of three plants were infiltrated with either <i>P. syringae</i> pv. maculicola M4 or one of four zinc-tolerance mutants (9A6, 9A3, 7C11, or 10C1) suspended in 10 mM MgCl<sub>2</sub> at 10<sup>6</sup> cfu/ml. Leaves were sampled for bacterial counts at 0 and 5 days after inoculation. Each replicate consisted of three leaves from one plant, giving a total of three replicates per time point and treatment. Values are means ± SE (<i>n</i> = 3). The experiment was performed three times with similar results, and the results shown are from one experiment representative of the three. ANOVAs were used to test for a significant effect of plant zinc treatment on the growth of each bacterial strain. No effect was detected for the high tolerance mutant 9A3 (<i>P</i> = 0.13). For the other strains, growth was found to be dependent on zinc (9A6: <i>P</i> = 0.01; wild-type, 7C11 and 10C1: <i>P</i><0.0005 in each case). Where a significant effect was found, Bonferroni simultaneous comparisons (α = 5%) were carried out. Within each strain, means marked with the same letter were not significantly different.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["maculicola", "m4", "mutants", "altered", "zinc", "differential"], "article_id"=>501671, "categories"=>["Virology", "Microbiology", "Medicine", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Helen Fones", "Calum A. R. Davis", "Arantza Rico", "Fang Fang", "J. Andrew C. Smith", "Gail M. Preston"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001093.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_P_syringae_pv_maculicola_M4_mutants_with_altered_zinc_tolerance_show_differential_growth_in_Thlaspi_caerulescens_/501671", "title"=>"<i>P. syringae</i> pv. maculicola M4 mutants with altered zinc tolerance show differential growth in <i>Thlaspi caerulescens.</i>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-09 00:27:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/413839", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/413864", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/413890", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/413923", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/413945", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/413979"], "description"=>"<div><p>Metal hyperaccumulation, in which plants store exceptional concentrations of metals in their shoots, is an unusual trait whose evolutionary and ecological significance has prompted extensive debate. Hyperaccumulator plants are usually found on metalliferous soils, and it has been proposed that hyperaccumulation provides a defense against herbivores and pathogens, an idea termed the ‘elemental defense’ hypothesis. We have investigated this hypothesis using the crucifer <em>Thlaspi caerulescens</em>, a hyperaccumulator of zinc, nickel, and cadmium, and the bacterial pathogen <em>Pseudomonas syringae</em> pv. maculicola (<em>Psm</em>). Using leaf inoculation assays, we have shown that hyperaccumulation of any of the three metals inhibits growth of <em>Psm in planta</em>. Metal concentrations in the bulk leaf and in the apoplast, through which the pathogen invades the leaf, were shown to be sufficient to account for the defensive effect by comparison with <em>in vitro</em> dose–response curves. Further, mutants of <em>Psm</em> with increased and decreased zinc tolerance created by transposon insertion had either enhanced or reduced ability, respectively, to grow in high-zinc plants, indicating that the metal affects the pathogen directly. Finally, we have shown that bacteria naturally colonizing <em>T. caerulescens</em> leaves at the site of a former lead–zinc mine have high zinc tolerance compared with bacteria isolated from non-accumulating plants, suggesting local adaptation to high metal. These results demonstrate that the disease resistance observed in metal-exposed <em>T. caerulescens</em> can be attributed to a direct effect of metal hyperaccumulation, which may thus be functionally analogous to the resistance conferred by antimicrobial metabolites in non-accumulating plants.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hyperaccumulation", "armors", "plants"], "article_id"=>141748, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Microbiology", "Medicine", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Helen Fones", "Calum A. R. Davis", "Arantza Rico", "Fang Fang", "J. Andrew C. Smith", "Gail M. Preston"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001093.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001093.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001093.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001093.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001093.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001093.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>29, "page_views"=>31, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Metal_Hyperaccumulation_Armors_Plants_against_Disease/141748", "title"=>"Metal Hyperaccumulation Armors Plants against Disease", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-09-09 00:29:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/830790"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>. <i>T. caerulescens</i> plants growing on 10 µM zinc during an outbreak of mildew (<i>Erysiphe</i> sp.) in the glasshouse. <b>B</b>. <i>T. caerulescens</i> plants growing on 300 µM zinc during the same outbreak of mildew in the glasshouse. <b>C</b>. <i>T. caerulescens</i> plants were grown for 10 weeks on nutrient solution containing 0.04, 10, 30, or 300 µM ZnSO<sub>4</sub>. Leaves were infiltrated with <i>P. syringae</i> pv. maculicola M4 suspended in 10 mM MgCl<sub>2</sub> at 10<sup>8</sup> cfu/ml and photographed 96 hours after inoculation. Scale bars represent 10 mm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["zinc", "concentrations", "suppress", "symptoms"], "article_id"=>501153, "categories"=>["Virology", "Microbiology", "Medicine", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Helen Fones", "Calum A. R. Davis", "Arantza Rico", "Fang Fang", "J. Andrew C. Smith", "Gail M. Preston"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001093.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_High_zinc_concentrations_suppress_disease_symptoms_in_Thlaspi_caerulescens_/501153", "title"=>"High zinc concentrations suppress disease symptoms in <i>Thlaspi caerulescens</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-09 00:19:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/831381"], "description"=>"<p>To determine IC<sub>50</sub> values for zinc, 5 µl of bacterial suspension at an OD<sub>600</sub> of 0.2 were inoculated into 200 µl of KB broth supplemented with zinc at 0 to 20 mM. OD<sub>600</sub> was measured after incubation, with continuous shaking, at 28°C for 48 hours, and IC<sub>50</sub> values were calculated from the resulting dose–response curves. Values are means ± SE (<i>n</i> = 3). Diamonds  =  Hafna mine endophytes; triangles  =  plant pathogenic bacteria isolated from non-metal-accumulating crop plants; squares  =  mutants of <i>P. syringae</i> pv. maculicola generated in the present work. Abbreviations: DC3000, <i>Pseudomonas syringae</i> pv. tomato DC3000; <i>X.c.c.</i>, <i>Xanthomonas campestris</i> pv. campestris 8004; <i>P. cic</i> 3109, <i>Pseudomonas cichorii</i> NCPPB3109; <i>P. cic</i> 907, <i>P. cichorii</i> NCPPB907; <i>P. cic</i> 943, <i>P. cichorii</i> NCPPB943; Ea286, <i>Erwinia amylovora</i> Ea286; B728a, <i>P. syringae</i> pv. syringae B728a.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["endophytes", "zinc"], "article_id"=>501744, "categories"=>["Virology", "Microbiology", "Medicine", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Helen Fones", "Calum A. R. Davis", "Arantza Rico", "Fang Fang", "J. Andrew C. Smith", "Gail M. Preston"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001093.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bacterial_endophytes_isolated_from_a_natural_population_of_Thlaspi_caerulescens_exhibit_high_zinc_tolerance_/501744", "title"=>"Bacterial endophytes isolated from a natural population of <i>Thlaspi caerulescens</i> exhibit high zinc tolerance.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-09 00:29:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/830897"], "description"=>"<p><i>P. syringae</i> pv. maculicola M4 (<i>Psm</i> M4), <i>P. syringae</i> pv. maculicola ES4326 (<i>Psm</i> 4326) and two T3SS mutants of <i>Psm</i> (<i>hrpS<sup>−</sup></i> and <i>hrcN<sup>−</sup></i>) were inoculated into fully expanded leaves of <i>T. caerulescens</i> at 10<sup>6</sup> cfu/ml. Three samples were taken for each strain, zinc treatment and time point, each consisting of three leaf discs pooled together. Values are means±SE (<i>n</i> = 3). The mean growth of the four strains at each zinc treatment over 5 days post-inoculation was compared in ANOVAs; growth of the four strains was found to differ significantly in all treatments except in the 300 µM zinc treatment, where no strain was able to grow (<i>P</i><0.0005 for 0.04 and 10 µM Zn; <i>P</i> = 0.001 for 30 µM Zn; <i>P</i> = 0.169 for 300 µM Zn). Within each zinc treatment, Bonferroni simultaneous comparisons were used to determine which means differed significantly at 5 days post-inoculation, and these are marked with different letters. The inset shows symptoms observed in leaves from <i>T. caerulescens</i> plants grown on 0.04 µM zinc 72 hours after inoculation with wild-type <i>Psm</i> ES4326 and the <i>Psm hrcN<sup>−</sup></i> mutant at 10<sup>6</sup> cfu/ml compared with uninoculated control leaves.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mutants", "maculicola", "colonise"], "article_id"=>501260, "categories"=>["Virology", "Microbiology", "Medicine", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Helen Fones", "Calum A. R. Davis", "Arantza Rico", "Fang Fang", "J. Andrew C. Smith", "Gail M. Preston"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001093.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_T3SS_mutants_of_Pseudomonas_syringae_pv_maculicola_are_unable_to_colonise_Thlaspi_caerulescens_/501260", "title"=>"T3SS mutants of <i>Pseudomonas syringae</i> pv. maculicola are unable to colonise <i>Thlaspi caerulescens</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-09 00:21:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/831447"], "description"=>"a<p>GenBank accession numbers for <i>Arabidopsis thaliana</i> gene sequences used for primer design (<a href=\"http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov\" target=\"_blank\">www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology/environmental microbiology", "ecology/plant-environment interactions", "microbiology/environmental microbiology", "microbiology/microbial physiology and metabolism", "plant biology/plant-biotic interactions", "plant biology/plant-environment interactions"], "article_id"=>501806, "categories"=>["Virology", "Microbiology", "Medicine", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Helen Fones", "Calum A. R. Davis", "Arantza Rico", "Fang Fang", "J. Andrew C. Smith", "Gail M. Preston"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001093.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Primers_used_in_qRT_PCR_/501806", "title"=>"Primers used in qRT-PCR.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-09-09 00:30:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/831143"], "description"=>"<p>Data represent average values from three independent sets of plants. Metal content was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. <b>A, C, E</b>: Apoplastic concentrations of zinc, nickel and cadmium, respectively. <b>B, D, F</b>: Bulk-leaf concentrations of zinc, nickel and cadmium, respectively, expressed both as molar concentration calculated on the basis of leaf fresh biomass, and as mass concentration relative to leaf dry biomass. Values are means ± SE (<i>n</i> = 6). Horizontal bars in <b>A</b>, <b>C</b> and <b>F</b> indicate metal concentrations representing the respective IC<sub>50</sub> values for <i>P. syringae</i> pv. maculicola M4 determined experimentally in extracted apoplast (i.e. Zn = 0.12 mM; Ni = 0.025 mM; Cd = 0.01 mM); IC<sub>50</sub> values measured in LB were higher (Zn = 0.63 mM; Ni = 0.78 mM; Cd = 0.22 mM).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["concentrations", "nickel-", "cadmium-treated"], "article_id"=>501509, "categories"=>["Virology", "Microbiology", "Medicine", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Helen Fones", "Calum A. R. Davis", "Arantza Rico", "Fang Fang", "J. Andrew C. Smith", "Gail M. Preston"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001093.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Metal_concentrations_in_zinc_nickel_and_cadmium_treated_plants_/501509", "title"=>"Metal concentrations in zinc-, nickel- and cadmium-treated plants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-09 00:25:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/831239"], "description"=>"<p>Five µl of bacterial suspension at an OD<sub>600</sub> of 0.2 were inoculated into 200 µl of KB broth supplemented with zinc at 0 to 20 mM. The graph shows the percentage increase in OD<sub>600</sub> 48 hours after inoculation, relative to the increase in OD<sub>600</sub> over 48 hours observed for the same strain in the absence of zinc. At least four samples were analysed for each treatment. Values are means ± SE (<i>n</i> = 8).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["maculicola", "m4"], "article_id"=>501601, "categories"=>["Virology", "Microbiology", "Medicine", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Helen Fones", "Calum A. R. Davis", "Arantza Rico", "Fang Fang", "J. Andrew C. Smith", "Gail M. Preston"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001093.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Zinc_tolerance_of_P_syringae_pv_maculicola_M4_and_four_mutants_/501601", "title"=>"Zinc tolerance of <i>P. syringae</i> pv. maculicola M4 and four mutants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-09 00:26:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/831063"], "description"=>"<p>Apoplast extracts obtained from <i>T. caerulescens</i> plants treated with the same zinc (<b>A</b>), nickel (<b>B</b>), or cadmium (<b>C</b>) concentrations used in the bacterial colonization assays shown in <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001093#ppat-1001093-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 3</a> were used as a growth medium for <i>P. syringae</i> pv. maculicola M4. Six samples of 100 µl of apoplast were used for each treatment. Values are means ± SE (<i>n</i>  = 6). The experiment was performed three times with similar results, and the results shown are from one experiment representative of the three. Concentrations of all three metals were significant predictors of growth at 18 and 24 hours (ANOVAs: <i>P</i><0.0005 in all cases except <i>P</i> = 0.015 for cadmium at 24 h). Bonferroni simultaneous comparisons (α = 1%) show that all zinc and nickel treatments resulted in significantly less growth than the control at 18 h and 24 h, as did all cadmium treatments up to 18 h.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["extracts", "plants", "grown", "concentrations", "inhibit", "bacterial"], "article_id"=>501426, "categories"=>["Virology", "Microbiology", "Medicine", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Helen Fones", "Calum A. R. Davis", "Arantza Rico", "Fang Fang", "J. Andrew C. Smith", "Gail M. Preston"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001093.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Apoplast_extracts_from_Thlaspi_caerulescens_plants_grown_in_high_metal_concentrations_inhibit_bacterial_growth_/501426", "title"=>"Apoplast extracts from <i>Thlaspi caerulescens</i> plants grown in high metal concentrations inhibit bacterial growth.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-09-09 00:23:46"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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