Escherichia coli Global Gene Expression in Urine from Women with Urinary Tract Infection
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{"title"=>"Escherichia coli global gene expression in urine from women with urinary tract infection", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Erin C.", "last_name"=>"Hagan", "scopus_author_id"=>"9236774400"}, {"first_name"=>"Amanda L.", "last_name"=>"Lloyd", "scopus_author_id"=>"56221739900"}, {"first_name"=>"David A.", "last_name"=>"Rasko", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602145541"}, {"first_name"=>"Gary J.", "last_name"=>"Faerber", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005495296"}, {"first_name"=>"Harry L T", "last_name"=>"Mobley", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006714415"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS Pathogens", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"361173004", "sgr"=>"79251526849", "issn"=>"15537366", "pmid"=>"21085611", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79251526849", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.ppat.1001187"}, "id"=>"35bdb607-64e4-38fc-a077-3a17e1ad0931", "abstract"=>"Murine models of urinary tract infection (UTI) have provided substantial data identifying uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) virulence factors and assessing their expression in vivo. However, it is unclear how gene expression in these animal models compares to UPEC gene expression during UTI in humans. To address this, we used a UPEC strain CFT073-specific microarray to measure global gene expression in eight E. coli isolates monitored directly from the urine of eight women presenting at a clinic with bacteriuria. The resulting gene expression profiles were compared to those of the same E. coli isolates cultured statically to exponential phase in pooled, sterilized human urine ex vivo. Known fitness factors, including iron acquisition and peptide transport systems, were highly expressed during human UTI and support a model in which UPEC replicates rapidly in vivo. While these findings were often consistent with previous data obtained from the murine UTI model, host-specific differences were observed. Most strikingly, expression of type 1 fimbrial genes, which are among the most highly expressed genes during murine experimental UTI and encode an essential virulence factor for this experimental model, was undetectable in six of the eight E. coli strains from women with UTI. Despite the lack of type 1 fimbrial expression in the urine samples, these E. coli isolates were generally capable of expressing type 1 fimbriae in vitro and highly upregulated fimA upon experimental murine infection. The findings presented here provide insight into the metabolic and pathogenic profile of UPEC in urine from women with UTI and represent the first transcriptome analysis for any pathogenic E. coli during a naturally occurring infection in humans.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/escherichia-coli-global-gene-expression-urine-women-urinary-tract-infection", "reader_count"=>103, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>21, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>34, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>14, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>21, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>34, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>14, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Engineering"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>18, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>47, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>15, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>3, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>4, "Chemistry"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>15}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>7}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>47}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>18}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>3}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>4}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Ireland"=>1, "Denmark"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "France"=>2, "Australia"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/819541"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Invertible element (IE) assay for type 1 fimbriae <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001187#ppat.1001187-Lim1\" target=\"_blank\">[73]</a>. IE is shown in gray; inverted repeats (IR) located within the IE; orientation of the <i>fim</i> promoter (P) indicated by arrow in phase-on (top panel) and phase-off (bottom panel) positions. Expected fragment sizes following PCR (half arrows show primer sites) and asymmetrical <i>SnaB</i>I digest are indicated by black bars. (B) IE orientation determined as described in (A) for strains cultured statically under type 1 fimbriae-enriching conditions or with aeration. Arrows indicate expected sizes for phase-on and phase-off. CFT073 strains with mutations preventing IE switching and locking the “phase-on” (L-ON) or “phase-off” (L-OFF) orientation are also included. M, molecular mass standards; sizes (in kb) are indicated. (C) Western blot using anti-FimA polyclonal antibody. Strains were cultured as in (B) and acid-treated whole cell lysate separated on 15% SDS-PAGE gels. Top panel, type 1 fimbriae-enriching static culture; bottom panel, aerated culture. Arrows indicate the ∼12 kDa FimA band. (D) Mannose-sensitive hemagglutination. Strains were cultured as in (B) (statically, top two rows; aeration, bottom two rows) and their ability to agglutinate guinea pig erythrocytes in the presence (+) or absence (−) of alpha-methyl-mannoside (α mm) was assessed. −, no agglutination; +/−, weak agglutination; +, agglutination with undiluted or 1∶2 dilution of bacterial suspension; ++, agglutination with 1∶4 or 1∶8 dilution; +++, agglutination with 1∶16 or 1∶32 dilution; ND, not determined. Data represent median agglutination reactions of three independent experiments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fimbriae"], "article_id"=>489914, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Microbiology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Erin C. Hagan", "Amanda L. Lloyd", "David A. Rasko", "Gary J. Faerber", "Harry L. T. Mobley"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001187.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_In_vitro_expression_of_type_1_fimbriae_by_clinical_E_coli_isolates_/489914", "title"=>"<i>In vitro</i> expression of type 1 fimbriae by clinical <i>E. coli</i> isolates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-11-11 02:45:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/819753"], "description"=>"a<p>Median change in relative expression rank (genes ranked in order of expression; highest, 1; lowest, 5379) <i>in vitro</i> compared to <i>in vivo.</i></p>b<p>Number of strains for which indicated gene was among the 250 (4.6%) most upregulated genes. Gene may be expressed/upregulated by other strains, but was not among the top 4.6%.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["upregulated", "compared", "urine"], "article_id"=>490120, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Microbiology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Erin C. Hagan", "Amanda L. Lloyd", "David A. Rasko", "Gary J. Faerber", "Harry L. T. Mobley"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001187.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Genes_upregulated_in_vivo_compared_to_growth_in_human_urine_in_vitro_/490120", "title"=>"Genes upregulated <i>in vivo</i> compared to growth in human urine <i>in vitro</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-11-11 00:02:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/819830"], "description"=>"a<p>Pathogen-specific is defined as genes absent from <i>E. coli</i> K12 strain MG1655.</p>b<p>Number of patient isolates for which the indicated gene is considered expressed (microarray signal intensity is at least four-fold above background).</p><p>*Indicates genes present in 10/10 UPEC isolates and 0/3 fecal <i>E. coli</i> isolates as determined by comparative genomic hybridization <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001187#ppat.1001187-Lloyd3\" target=\"_blank\">[88]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genes", "urines", "women"], "article_id"=>490197, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Microbiology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Erin C. Hagan", "Amanda L. Lloyd", "David A. Rasko", "Gary J. Faerber", "Harry L. T. Mobley"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001187.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pathogen_specific_a_genes_expressed_in_the_majority_of_urines_from_women_with_UTI_/490197", "title"=>"Pathogen-specific<sup>a</sup> genes expressed in the majority of urines from women with UTI.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-11-11 00:03:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/819348"], "description"=>"<p>Heat maps indicate normalized microarray signal intensities for genes encoding (A) UPEC fitness factors and (B) genes in the <i>fim</i> locus in eight <i>E. coli</i> isolates in urine collected from women with cystitis. For reference, the overall most (<i>rpsK</i>, +) and least (<i>pheM</i>, −) expressed genes are shown in the bottom panels, representing average signal intensities of 15.821 and 3.881, respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["virulence", "urines", "uti"], "article_id"=>489719, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Microbiology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Erin C. Hagan", "Amanda L. Lloyd", "David A. Rasko", "Gary J. Faerber", "Harry L. T. Mobley"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001187.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_E_coli_virulence_factor_expression_in_urines_from_UTI_patients_/489719", "title"=>"<i>E. coli</i> virulence factor expression in urines from UTI patients.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-11-11 02:41:59"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/819207"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Correlation of gene expression levels obtained by microarray and qPCR. Ct values determined by qPCR are plotted for 13 genes (see text) <i>versus</i> normalized microarray signal intensity for <i>in vivo</i> (left two panels) and <i>in vitro</i> (right two panels) cDNA samples from patient isolates 371 (first and third panel) and 151 (second and last panel). Correlation coefficient (r) values are shown and <i>P</i><0.001 for all correlations. (B) Genes differentially expressed during UTI in women and culture in urine <i>ex vivo</i>. Log<sub>2</sub> fold changes <i>in vivo</i>, compared to <i>in vitro</i> expression, were measured by qPCR and are normalized to <i>gapA</i> transcript. (C) Confirmation of <i>in vivo</i> gene expression by clinical isolates as shown by PCR using genomic DNA or cDNA template.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["voided", "urine", "cystitis", "patients"], "article_id"=>489573, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Microbiology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Erin C. Hagan", "Amanda L. Lloyd", "David A. Rasko", "Gary J. Faerber", "Harry L. T. Mobley"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001187.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_E_coli_gene_expression_in_voided_urine_from_cystitis_patients_and_culture_in_urine_ex_vivo_/489573", "title"=>"<i>E. coli</i> gene expression in voided urine from cystitis patients and culture in urine <i>ex vivo</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-11-11 02:39:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/819792"], "description"=>"a<p>All primers are listed 5′→3′.</p>b<p>Type 1 fimbrial invertible element.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["infectious diseases/bacterial infections", "infectious diseases/urological infections", "microbiology/cellular microbiology and pathogenesis"], "article_id"=>490154, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Microbiology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Erin C. Hagan", "Amanda L. Lloyd", "David A. Rasko", "Gary J. Faerber", "Harry L. T. Mobley"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001187.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Primers_used_in_this_study_/490154", "title"=>"Primers used in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-11-11 00:02:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/819428"], "description"=>"<p>Relative virulence and fitness gene expression by <i>E. coli</i> isolates in urine from human UTI plotted <i>versus</i> relative expression by <i>E. coli</i> CFT073 in urine from experimental murine UTI. Line shows the theoretical perfect correlation. Panels highlight fitness genes encoding adherence and motility factors (top left), toxins (top right), iron acquisition systems (bottom left), and metabolic and transport proteins (bottom right). Relative expression is based on normalized microarray signal intensity rank (1, gene with lowest signal; 5379, gene with highest signal). Relative human expression is the median rank of all eight isolates, except for <i>fimA</i>, <i>papA</i>, <i>papA_2</i>, <i>hlyA</i>, <i>sat</i>, <i>pic</i>, <i>tsh</i>, <i>tosA</i>, <i>chuA</i>, <i>iutA</i>, <i>iroN</i>, <i>fyuA</i>, <i>hma</i>, <i>iha</i>, and <i>sitA</i>, which are medians from isolates positive for given gene by PCR (P. Vigil and H. Mobley, in preparation). Highlighted genes are colored to indicate the expression rank difference of each gene between human and murine UTI: red, less than 10% difference in expression rank; orange, 10–30% difference; green, 30–50% difference; blue, greater than 50% difference. Spearman rank correlation coefficient for all genes is r = 0.5890 <i>(P</i><0.0001). Murine data were derived from our previously-published transcriptome study <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001187#ppat.1001187-Snyder1\" target=\"_blank\">[4]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["virulence"], "article_id"=>489797, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Microbiology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Erin C. Hagan", "Amanda L. Lloyd", "David A. Rasko", "Gary J. Faerber", "Harry L. T. Mobley"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001187.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Host_specific_virulence_gene_expression_by_E_coli_/489797", "title"=>"Host-specific virulence gene expression by <i>E. coli</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-11-11 02:43:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/819677"], "description"=>"a<p>Genes encoding ribosomal subunits were excluded and only genes expressed by ≥4 strains are listed.</p>b<p>Gene expression rank (of 5379 ORFs) when genes listed in order of microarray signal intensity.</p>c<p>Number of strains for which indicated gene is among the top 50 non-ribosomal genes expressed <i>in vivo</i>. Gene may be expressed by other isolates (but not among top 50).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["50", "non-ribosomal", "genes", "isolates"], "article_id"=>490040, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Microbiology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Erin C. Hagan", "Amanda L. Lloyd", "David A. Rasko", "Gary J. Faerber", "Harry L. T. Mobley"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001187.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Genes_among_the_top_50_non_ribosomal_genes_expressed_by_at_least_half_of_clinical_isolates_in_vivo_a_/490040", "title"=>"Genes among the top 50 non-ribosomal genes expressed by at least half of clinical isolates <i>in vivo</i><sup>a</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-11-11 00:00:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/819620"], "description"=>"<p>CBA/J mice were transurethrally inoculated with 10<sup>8</sup> CFU <i>E. coli</i> EFC4 (fecal strain), CFT073 (model pyelonephritis strain), or clinical isolates AL371 or AL151. (A) Bladder colonization at 48 hpi. Symbols represent data from individual animals and bars indicate the median. (B) <i>fimA</i> expression by isolates AL371 (gray bars) and AL151 (black bars) during murine UTI. Urine was collected from infected mice 6–48 hpi and transcript levels from expelled bacteria measured by qPCR. For each strain, urines were pooled from five mice (<i>n</i> = 10) and represent two biological replicates. Expression fold change following expulsion from the murine bladder relative to expression following expulsion from the human bladder is shown.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["colonization", "fimbriae"], "article_id"=>489989, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Microbiology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Erin C. Hagan", "Amanda L. Lloyd", "David A. Rasko", "Gary J. Faerber", "Harry L. T. Mobley"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001187.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Murine_colonization_and_type_1_fimbriae_expression_by_clinical_isolates_/489989", "title"=>"Murine colonization and type 1 fimbriae expression by clinical isolates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-11-11 02:46:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/408487", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/408532", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/408568", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/408594", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/408629", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/408647", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/408662", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/408679"], "description"=>"<div><p>Murine models of urinary tract infection (UTI) have provided substantial data identifying uropathogenic <em>E. coli</em> (UPEC) virulence factors and assessing their expression <em>in vivo</em>. However, it is unclear how gene expression in these animal models compares to UPEC gene expression during UTI in humans. To address this, we used a UPEC strain CFT073-specific microarray to measure global gene expression in eight <em>E. coli</em> isolates monitored directly from the urine of eight women presenting at a clinic with bacteriuria. The resulting gene expression profiles were compared to those of the same <em>E. coli</em> isolates cultured statically to exponential phase in pooled, sterilized human urine <em>ex vivo</em>. Known fitness factors, including iron acquisition and peptide transport systems, were highly expressed during human UTI and support a model in which UPEC replicates rapidly <em>in vivo</em>. While these findings were often consistent with previous data obtained from the murine UTI model, host-specific differences were observed. Most strikingly, expression of type 1 fimbrial genes, which are among the most highly expressed genes during murine experimental UTI and encode an essential virulence factor for this experimental model, was undetectable in six of the eight <em>E. coli</em> strains from women with UTI. Despite the lack of type 1 fimbrial expression in the urine samples, these <em>E. coli</em> isolates were generally capable of expressing type 1 fimbriae <em>in vitro</em> and highly upregulated <em>fimA</em> upon experimental murine infection. The findings presented here provide insight into the metabolic and pathogenic profile of UPEC in urine from women with UTI and represent the first transcriptome analysis for any pathogenic <em>E. coli</em> during a naturally occurring infection in humans.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["urine", "women", "urinary", "tract"], "article_id"=>140694, "categories"=>["Cancer", "Microbiology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Erin C. Hagan", "Amanda L. Lloyd", "David A. Rasko", "Gary J. Faerber", "Harry L. T. Mobley"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001187.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001187.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001187.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001187.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001187.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001187.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001187.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001187.s008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>22, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Escherichia_coli_Global_Gene_Expression_in_Urine_from_Women_with_Urinary_Tract_Infection/140694", "title"=>"<em>Escherichia coli</em> Global Gene Expression in Urine from Women with Urinary Tract Infection", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-11-11 00:11:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/819718"], "description"=>"a<p>Genes with annotated functions are shown. Downregulated hypothetical genes are shown in <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001187#ppat.1001187.s004\" target=\"_blank\">Table S4</a>.</p>b<p>Median change in relative expression rank (genes ranked in order of expression; highest, 1; lowest, 5379) <i>in vitro</i> compared to <i>in vivo</i>.</p>c<p>Number of strains for which indicated gene was among the 250 (4.6%) most downregulated genes. Gene may be downregulated by other strains, but was not among the top 4.6%.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["downregulated", "compared", "urine"], "article_id"=>490084, "categories"=>["Infectious Diseases", "Microbiology", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Erin C. Hagan", "Amanda L. Lloyd", "David A. Rasko", "Gary J. Faerber", "Harry L. T. Mobley"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001187.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Genes_downregulated_in_vivo_compared_to_growth_in_human_urine_in_vitro_/490084", "title"=>"Genes downregulated <i>in vivo</i> compared to growth in human urine <i>in vitro</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-11-11 00:01:24"}

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Relative Metric

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