Aerosols Transmit Prions to Immunocompetent and Immunodeficient Mice
Publication Date
January 13, 2011
Journal
PLOS Pathogens
Authors
Johannes Haybaeck, Mathias Heikenwalder, Britta Klevenz, Petra Schwarz, et al
Volume
7
Issue
1
Pages
e1001257
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001257
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.ppat.1001257
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21249178
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3020930
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/21249178
Web of Science
000286654100014
Scopus
79551523008
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/aerosols-transmit-prions-immunocompetent-immunodeficient-mice
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Aerosols transmit prions to immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Johannes", "last_name"=>"Haybaeck", "scopus_author_id"=>"23027287200"}, {"first_name"=>"Mathias", "last_name"=>"Heikenwalder", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602267435"}, {"first_name"=>"Britta", "last_name"=>"Klevenz", "scopus_author_id"=>"57199642327"}, {"first_name"=>"Petra", "last_name"=>"Schwarz", "scopus_author_id"=>"35771535000"}, {"first_name"=>"Ilan", "last_name"=>"Margalith", "scopus_author_id"=>"23985714100"}, {"first_name"=>"Claire", "last_name"=>"Bridel", "scopus_author_id"=>"6508071655"}, {"first_name"=>"Kirsten", "last_name"=>"Mertz", "scopus_author_id"=>"9943211500"}, {"first_name"=>"Elizabeta", "last_name"=>"Zirdum", "scopus_author_id"=>"36919670000"}, {"first_name"=>"Benjamin", "last_name"=>"Petsch", "scopus_author_id"=>"25626519700"}, {"first_name"=>"Thomas J.", "last_name"=>"Fuchs", "scopus_author_id"=>"56454885300"}, {"first_name"=>"Lothar", "last_name"=>"Stitz", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005446991"}, {"first_name"=>"Adriano", "last_name"=>"Aguzzi", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102605630"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS Pathogens", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"21249178", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.ppat.1001257", "sgr"=>"79551523008", "isbn"=>"1553-7374 (Electronic)\\r1553-7366 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79551523008", "issn"=>"15537366", "pui"=>"361204777"}, "id"=>"080b0805-0e10-33f0-a0b7-30b2d04d8cd6", "abstract"=>"Prions, the agents causing transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, colonize the brain of hosts after oral, parenteral, intralingual, or even transdermal uptake. However, prions are not generally considered to be airborne. Here we report that inbred and crossbred wild-type mice, as well as tga20 transgenic mice overexpressing PrP(C), efficiently develop scrapie upon exposure to aerosolized prions. NSE-PrP transgenic mice, which express PrP(C) selectively in neurons, were also susceptible to airborne prions. Aerogenic infection occurred also in mice lacking B- and T-lymphocytes, NK-cells, follicular dendritic cells or complement components. Brains of diseased mice contained PrP(Sc) and transmitted scrapie when inoculated into further mice. We conclude that aerogenic exposure to prions is very efficacious and can lead to direct invasion of neural pathways without an obligatory replicative phase in lymphoid organs. This previously unappreciated risk for airborne prion transmission may warrant re-thinking on prion biosafety guidelines in research and diagnostic laboratories.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/aerosols-transmit-prions-immunocompetent-immunodeficient-mice", "reader_count"=>96, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>28, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Other"=>9, "Student > Master"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Professor"=>9}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>28, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Other"=>9, "Student > Master"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Professor"=>9}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>62, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>7, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>13, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>13}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>62}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>7}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Germany"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/402842", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/402855", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/402875", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/402890", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/402899", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/402908", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/402914", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/402923"], "description"=>"<div><p>Prions, the agents causing transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, colonize the brain of hosts after oral, parenteral, intralingual, or even transdermal uptake. However, prions are not generally considered to be airborne. Here we report that inbred and crossbred wild-type mice, as well as <em>tg</em>a<em>20</em> transgenic mice overexpressing PrP<sup>C</sup>, efficiently develop scrapie upon exposure to aerosolized prions. NSE-PrP transgenic mice, which express PrP<sup>C</sup> selectively in neurons, were also susceptible to airborne prions. Aerogenic infection occurred also in mice lacking B- and T-lymphocytes, NK-cells, follicular dendritic cells or complement components. Brains of diseased mice contained PrP<sup>Sc</sup> and transmitted scrapie when inoculated into further mice. We conclude that aerogenic exposure to prions is very efficacious and can lead to direct invasion of neural pathways without an obligatory replicative phase in lymphoid organs. This previously unappreciated risk for airborne prion transmission may warrant re-thinking on prion biosafety guidelines in research and diagnostic laboratories.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["aerosols", "prions", "immunocompetent", "immunodeficient", "mice"], "article_id"=>139595, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Johannes Haybaeck", "Mathias Heikenwalder", "Britta Klevenz", "Petra Schwarz", "Ilan Margalith", "Claire Bridel", "Kirsten Mertz", "Elizabeta Zirdum", "Benjamin Petsch", "Thomas J. Fuchs", "Lothar Stitz", "Adriano Aguzzi"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001257.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001257.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001257.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001257.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001257.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001257.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001257.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001257.s008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Aerosols_Transmit_Prions_to_Immunocompetent_and_Immunodeficient_Mice/139595", "title"=>"Aerosols Transmit Prions to Immunocompetent and Immunodeficient Mice", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-01-13 02:39:55"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/807129"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) <i>tg</i>a<i>20</i> mice were exposed to aerosols generated from 0.1%, 2.5%, 5%, 10% or 20% prion-infected mouse brain homogenates (IBH) for 10 min. (<b>B</b>) Groups of <i>tg</i>a<i>20</i> and (<b>C</b>) CD1 mice were exposed for 1, 5 or 10 min to aerosols generated from a 20% IBH. Experiments were performed twice (different colors). (<b>D</b>) C57BL/6, (<b>E</b>) 129SvxC57BL/6, and <i>Prnp</i><sup>o/o</sup> mice were exposed for 10 min to aerosols generated from 20% IBH. Kaplan-Meier curves describe the percentage of survival after particular time points post exposure to prion aerosols (y-axis represents percentage of living mice; x-axis demonstrates survival time in days post inoculation). Different colors and symbols describe the various experimental groups. (<b>F</b>) Jittered scatter plot of survival time against concentration of prion aerosols generated out of IBH with added linear regression fit (p = 0.0622). (<b>G</b>) Jittered scatter plot of survival time against exposure time for <i>tg</i>a<i>20</i> mice with added linear regression fit. The negative correlation between survival time and exposure time is significant (p<0.001***). (<b>H</b>) Consecutive paraffin sections of the right hippocampus of <i>Prnp</i><sup>o/o</sup>, <i>tg</i>a<i>20</i>, CD1 and C57BL/6 mice stained with HE (for spongiosis, gliosis, neuronal cell loss), SAF84 (PrP<sup>Sc</sup> deposits), GFAP (astrogliosis) and Iba-1 (microglia). All animals had been exposed to aerosols generated from 20% IBH for 10 min. Scale bars: 100µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["neuroscience", "pathology/neuropathology"], "article_id"=>477476, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Johannes Haybaeck", "Mathias Heikenwalder", "Britta Klevenz", "Petra Schwarz", "Ilan Margalith", "Claire Bridel", "Kirsten Mertz", "Elizabeta Zirdum", "Benjamin Petsch", "Thomas J. Fuchs", "Lothar Stitz", "Adriano Aguzzi"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001257.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Prion_transmission_through_aerosols_/477476", "title"=>"Prion transmission through aerosols.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-01-13 02:04:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/807245"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) Western blot analysis of brain homogenates (10%) from terminal or subclinical <i>tg</i>a<i>20</i> mice exposed to aerosols from 20% or 0.1% IBH for 10 min. PK+ or −: with or without proteinase K digest; kDa: Kilo Dalton. (<b>B–C</b>): Western blot analyses of brain homogenates from <i>tg</i>a<i>20</i> (<b>B</b>) or CD1 (<b>C</b>) mice exposed to prion aerosols from 20% IBH. (<b>D</b>) Histoblot analysis of brains from mice exposed to prion aerosols. Brains of <i>tg</i>a<i>20</i> mice challenged with aerosolized 10% (middle panel) or 20% (right panel) IBH showed deposits of PrP<sup>Sc</sup> in the cortex and mesencephalon. Because the brain of a <i>Prnp</i><sup>o/o</sup> mouse showed no signal (left panel), we deduce that the signal in the middle and right panels represents local prion replication. (<b>E</b>) Histopathological lesion severity score analysis of 5 brain regions depicted as radar plots <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001257#ppat.1001257-Montrasio1\" target=\"_blank\">[51]</a> (astrogliosis, spongiform change and PrP<sup>Sc</sup> deposition) derived from <i>tg</i>a<i>20</i>, CD1, C57BL/6 and 129SvxC57BL/6 mice exposed to prion aerosols. Numbers correspond to the following brain regions: (1) hippocampus, (2) cerebellum, (3) olfactory bulb, (4) frontal white matter, (5) temporal white matter. (<b>F</b>) Histopathological lesion severity score of 5 brain regions shown as radar blot (astrogliosis, spongiform change and PrP<sup>Sc</sup> deposition) of i.c. prion inoculated <i>tg</i>a<i>20</i>, CD1, C57BL/6 and 129SvxC57BL/6 mice. (1) hippocampus, (2) cerebellum, (3) olfactory bulb, (4) frontal white matter, (5) temporal white matter. (<b>G</b>) Survival curve and (<b>H</b>) lesion severity scores of <i>NSE-PrP</i> mice exposed to a 20% aerosolized IBH for 10 min. (<b>I</b>) Histological and immunohistochemical characterization of scrapie-affected hippocampi of <i>NSE-PrP</i> mice after exposure to aerosolized 20% IBH. Stain legend as in <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001257#ppat-1001257-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 1H</a>. Scale bar: 100µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["deposition", "brains", "mice", "infected", "prion", "aerosols", "profiling"], "article_id"=>477594, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Johannes Haybaeck", "Mathias Heikenwalder", "Britta Klevenz", "Petra Schwarz", "Ilan Margalith", "Claire Bridel", "Kirsten Mertz", "Elizabeta Zirdum", "Benjamin Petsch", "Thomas J. Fuchs", "Lothar Stitz", "Adriano Aguzzi"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001257.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_PrP_Sc_deposition_in_brains_of_mice_infected_with_prion_aerosols_and_profiling_of_NSE_PrP_mice_/477594", "title"=>"PrP<sup>Sc</sup> deposition in brains of mice infected with prion aerosols and profiling of <i>NSE-PrP</i> mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-01-13 02:06:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/807383"], "description"=>"<p>Survival curves, lesion severity score analysis (radar plots), and representative histopathological micrographs of mice with genetically or pharmacologically impaired components of the immune system (<i>JH</i><sup>−/−</sup>, <i>γ<sub>C</sub>Rag2</i><sup>−/−</sup><b>A</b>),129Sv mice treated with LTβR-Ig or with muIgG (<b>B</b>), <i>and LT</i>β<i>R</i><sup>−/−</sup>, and <i>CD40</i><sup>−/−</sup> mice (<b>C</b>). All mice were exposed for 10 min to aerosolized 20% IBH. Stain code: HE (spongiosis, gliosis, neuronal cell loss), SAF84 (PrP<sup>Sc</sup> deposits), GFAP (astrogliosis) and Iba-1 (microglial activation) as in <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001257#ppat-1001257-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 1H</a>. Scale bars: 100µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["aerosols", "immunocompromised"], "article_id"=>477743, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Johannes Haybaeck", "Mathias Heikenwalder", "Britta Klevenz", "Petra Schwarz", "Ilan Margalith", "Claire Bridel", "Kirsten Mertz", "Elizabeta Zirdum", "Benjamin Petsch", "Thomas J. Fuchs", "Lothar Stitz", "Adriano Aguzzi"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001257.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Prion_transmission_through_aerosols_in_immunocompromised_mice_/477743", "title"=>"Prion transmission through aerosols in immunocompromised mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-01-13 02:09:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/807528"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) <i>C3C4</i><sup>−/−</sup> mice and (<b>B</b>) newborn <i>tg</i>a<i>20</i> and CD1 mice were exposed for 10 min to a 20% aerosolized IBH. Survival curves <b>(right panels)</b> as well as histological and immunohistochemical characterization of hippocampi indicate that all prion-exposed mice developed scrapie efficiently. Scale bars: 100µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["aerosols", "complement-deficient", "newborn"], "article_id"=>477887, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Johannes Haybaeck", "Mathias Heikenwalder", "Britta Klevenz", "Petra Schwarz", "Ilan Margalith", "Claire Bridel", "Kirsten Mertz", "Elizabeta Zirdum", "Benjamin Petsch", "Thomas J. Fuchs", "Lothar Stitz", "Adriano Aguzzi"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001257.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Prion_transmission_through_aerosols_in_complement_deficient_and_newborn_mice_/477887", "title"=>"Prion transmission through aerosols in complement-deficient and newborn mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-01-13 02:11:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/807629"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) <i>Rag1</i><sup>−/−</sup> mice intranasally inoculated with RML6 0.1%, (<b>B</b>) C57BL/6 mice that have been intranasally inoculated with 3×10<sup>5</sup> LD<sub>50</sub> prions. (<b>C</b>) <i>Rag1</i><sup>−/−</sup> mice i.c. inoculated with 3×10<sup>5</sup> LD<sub>50</sub>, (<b>D</b>) <i>γ<sub>C</sub>Rag2</i><sup>−/−</sup> mice intranasally inoculated with 4×10<sup>5</sup> LD<sub>50</sub> or (<b>E</b>) Balb/c mice intranasally inoculated with 4×10<sup>5</sup> LD<sub>50</sub> scrapie prions are shown. Survival curves (<b>A–D</b>) and respective Western blots (<b>F–G</b>) are indicative of efficient prion neuroinvasion. Brain homogenates were analyzed with (+) and without (−) previous proteinase K (PK) treatment as indicated. Brain homogenates derived from a terminally scrapie-sick and a healthy C57BL/6 mouse served as positive and negative controls (s: sick; h: healthy), respectively. Molecular weights (kDa) are indicated on the left side of the blots. (<b>H and I</b>) Histopathological lesion severity score described as radar blot (astrogliosis, spongiform change and PrP<sup>Sc</sup> deposition) in 5 brain regions of both mouse lines exposed to prion aerosols. Numbers correspond to the following brain regions: (1) hippocampus, (2) cerebellum, (3) olfactory bulb, (4) frontal white matter, (5) temporal white matter.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["intranasal"], "article_id"=>477991, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Johannes Haybaeck", "Mathias Heikenwalder", "Britta Klevenz", "Petra Schwarz", "Ilan Margalith", "Claire Bridel", "Kirsten Mertz", "Elizabeta Zirdum", "Benjamin Petsch", "Thomas J. Fuchs", "Lothar Stitz", "Adriano Aguzzi"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001257.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Prion_transmission_by_intranasal_instillation_/477991", "title"=>"Prion transmission by intranasal instillation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-01-13 02:13:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/807714"], "description"=>"<p>All mice were intranasally inoculated with 3×10<sup>5</sup> LD<sub>50</sub> prions. (<b>A</b>) <i>C1q</i>a<sup>−/−</sup> mice intranasally inoculated and (<b>B</b>) <i>CD21</i><sup>−/−</sup> mice intranasally inoculated are shown. Survival curves illustrate survival after intranasal prion challenge. Respective Western blots of <i>C1qa</i><sup>−/−</sup> mice intranasally inoculated (<b>C, left panel</b>) and of <i>CD21</i><sup>−/−</sup> mice intranasally inoculated (<b>C, right panel</b>) are shown. Survival curves of <i>CXCR5</i><sup>−/−</sup> mice intranasally inoculated are shown (<b>D</b>). Respective Western blots of <i>CXCR5</i><sup>−/−</sup> mice intranasally inoculated. Brain homogenates were analyzed with (+) and without (−) previous proteinase K (PK) treatment as indicated. Controls and legends are as in <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001257#ppat-1001257-g005\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 5</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["prion", "immnunodeficient"], "article_id"=>478069, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Johannes Haybaeck", "Mathias Heikenwalder", "Britta Klevenz", "Petra Schwarz", "Ilan Margalith", "Claire Bridel", "Kirsten Mertz", "Elizabeta Zirdum", "Benjamin Petsch", "Thomas J. Fuchs", "Lothar Stitz", "Adriano Aguzzi"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001257.g006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Intranasal_prion_transmission_in_immnunodeficient_mice_/478069", "title"=>"Intranasal prion transmission in immnunodeficient mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-01-13 02:14:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/807863"], "description"=>"<p>C57BL/6 mice treated with LTβR-Ig (<b>A</b>) or control muIgG (<b>B</b>), and mice lacking various components of the LT/TNF system (<b>D–F</b>, as indicated) were intranasally inoculated with 4×10<sup>5</sup> LD<sub>50</sub> scrapie prions. Survival curves (<b>A, B, D, E</b> and <b>G</b>) and respective Western blots (<b>C, F</b> and <b>H</b>) indicate efficient prion infection and neuroinvasion. One animal that died early after intranasal inoculation (40 dpi) is reported as intercurrent death (i.d.) for reasons other than scrapie. Brain homogenates were analyzed with (+) and without (−) previous proteinase K (PK) treatment as indicated. Controls and legends used are as in <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001257#ppat-1001257-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 1H</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["prion", "lymphotoxin"], "article_id"=>478221, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Johannes Haybaeck", "Mathias Heikenwalder", "Britta Klevenz", "Petra Schwarz", "Ilan Margalith", "Claire Bridel", "Kirsten Mertz", "Elizabeta Zirdum", "Benjamin Petsch", "Thomas J. Fuchs", "Lothar Stitz", "Adriano Aguzzi"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001257.g007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Intranasal_prion_transmission_is_independent_of_lymphotoxin_signaling_/478221", "title"=>"Intranasal prion transmission is independent of lymphotoxin signaling.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-01-13 02:17:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/807955"], "description"=>"<p><b>(left)</b> Prion aerosols entering the nasal cavity (1) may directly migrate through the nasal epithelium towards olfactory nerve terminals (2). Subsequently, prions reach olfactory bulb neurons and colonize the limbic system and other regions of the brain (3). Prions may be taken up by the eyes from where they could be transported via the visual system (e.g. optic nerves) to the CNS. O: olfactory system; V: visual system. Alternatively <b>(right)</b> prions may be taken up by immune cells residing in (1) the nasal cavity, the lung, or (2) the gastrointestinal tract, from where they may be transferred to lymphoreticular system (LRS) components such as bronchial lymph nodes (BALT), nasal associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), gastrointestinal lymphoid tissue (GALT), mesenteric lymph nodes, or spleen for further amplification. Subsequently, prions traffic towards peripheral nerve terminals (PNS), from where they invade the central nervous system (CNS). SC: spinal cord. Arrows indicate possible migration directions of prions once they have invaded the spinal cord.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["pathways", "aerogenic", "prion"], "article_id"=>478308, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Johannes Haybaeck", "Mathias Heikenwalder", "Britta Klevenz", "Petra Schwarz", "Ilan Margalith", "Claire Bridel", "Kirsten Mertz", "Elizabeta Zirdum", "Benjamin Petsch", "Thomas J. Fuchs", "Lothar Stitz", "Adriano Aguzzi"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001257.g008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Model_of_the_possible_pathways_of_aerogenic_prion_transmission_/478308", "title"=>"Model of the possible pathways of aerogenic prion transmission.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-01-13 02:18:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/808119"], "description"=>"<p>Upper panel: survival times of <i>tg</i>a<i>20</i> mice after 10-min exposure to aerosols generated from various concentrations of IBH. Lower panel: survival times of various mouse strains after exposure for 1, 5, or 10 min to infectious aerosols. Selected inoculations were repeated sequentially (asterisks) in order to estimate the reproducibility of these results.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["times", "strains", "exposed", "prion", "aerosols"], "article_id"=>478466, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Johannes Haybaeck", "Mathias Heikenwalder", "Britta Klevenz", "Petra Schwarz", "Ilan Margalith", "Claire Bridel", "Kirsten Mertz", "Elizabeta Zirdum", "Benjamin Petsch", "Thomas J. Fuchs", "Lothar Stitz", "Adriano Aguzzi"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001257.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Survival_times_of_different_mouse_strains_exposed_to_prion_aerosols_for_various_periods_/478466", "title"=>"Survival times of different mouse strains exposed to prion aerosols for various periods.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-01-13 02:21:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/808165"], "description"=>"<p>PrP<sup>Sc</sup> was assessed on Western blots and histoblots of spleens of <i>Prnp</i><sup>o/o</sup>, newborn CD1, adult CD1, 129SvxC57BL/6, newborn <i>tg</i>a<i>20</i>, adult <i>tg</i>a<i>20</i>, JH<sup>−/−</sup>, γ<sub>C</sub>Rag2<sup>−/−</sup>, C57BL/6 mice treated with LTβR-Ig or muIgG and LTβR<sup>−/−</sup> mice. +: PrP<sup>Sc</sup> detectable in spleen; −: PrP<sup>Sc</sup> undetectable; Nd: not determined; exp.: exposure time (minutes).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["deposition", "spleens", "mice", "challenged", "aerosolized", "prion", "concentrations"], "article_id"=>478517, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Johannes Haybaeck", "Mathias Heikenwalder", "Britta Klevenz", "Petra Schwarz", "Ilan Margalith", "Claire Bridel", "Kirsten Mertz", "Elizabeta Zirdum", "Benjamin Petsch", "Thomas J. Fuchs", "Lothar Stitz", "Adriano Aguzzi"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001257.t003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_PrP_Sc_deposition_in_spleens_of_mice_challenged_with_a_range_of_aerosolized_prion_concentrations_and_exposure_times_/478517", "title"=>"PrP<sup>Sc</sup> deposition in spleens of mice challenged with a range of aerosolized prion concentrations and exposure times.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-01-13 02:21:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/808215"], "description"=>"<p>Survival of mouse strains exposed to prion aerosols (upper panel) or intranasal administered prions (lower panel).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["strains", "exposed", "prion", "aerosols", "intranasal", "administered", "prions"], "article_id"=>478572, "categories"=>["Neuroscience", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Johannes Haybaeck", "Mathias Heikenwalder", "Britta Klevenz", "Petra Schwarz", "Ilan Margalith", "Claire Bridel", "Kirsten Mertz", "Elizabeta Zirdum", "Benjamin Petsch", "Thomas J. Fuchs", "Lothar Stitz", "Adriano Aguzzi"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001257.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Survival_of_mouse_strains_exposed_to_prion_aerosols_upper_panel_or_intranasal_administered_prions_lower_panel_/478572", "title"=>"Survival of mouse strains exposed to prion aerosols (upper panel) or intranasal administered prions (lower panel).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-01-13 02:22:52"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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