Transcription and Translation Products of the Cytolysin Gene psm-mec on the Mobile Genetic Element SCCmec Regulate Staphylococcus aureus Virulence
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{"title"=>"Transcription and translation products of the cytolysin gene psm-mec on the mobile genetic element SCCmec regulate Staphylococcus aureus virulence", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Chikara", "last_name"=>"Kaito", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006971446"}, {"first_name"=>"Yuki", "last_name"=>"Saito", "scopus_author_id"=>"55466467600"}, {"first_name"=>"Gentaro", "last_name"=>"Nagano", "scopus_author_id"=>"37054544800"}, {"first_name"=>"Mariko", "last_name"=>"Ikuo", "scopus_author_id"=>"36559440300"}, {"first_name"=>"Yosuke", "last_name"=>"Omae", "scopus_author_id"=>"25926521500"}, {"first_name"=>"Yuichi", "last_name"=>"Hanada", "scopus_author_id"=>"37053892000"}, {"first_name"=>"Xiao", "last_name"=>"Han", "scopus_author_id"=>"55450941200"}, {"first_name"=>"Kyoko", "last_name"=>"Kuwahara-Arai", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602310562"}, {"first_name"=>"Tomomi", "last_name"=>"Hishinuma", "scopus_author_id"=>"36782324700"}, {"first_name"=>"Tadashi", "last_name"=>"Baba", "scopus_author_id"=>"36168022100"}, {"first_name"=>"Teruyo", "last_name"=>"Ito", "scopus_author_id"=>"7410330681"}, {"first_name"=>"Keiichi", "last_name"=>"Hiramatsu", "scopus_author_id"=>"55545178500"}, {"first_name"=>"Kazuhisa", "last_name"=>"Sekimizu", "scopus_author_id"=>"55412186400"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS Pathogens", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79952210598", "pmid"=>"21304931", "sgr"=>"79952210598", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.ppat.1001267", "isbn"=>"1553-7374 (Electronic)\\r1553-7366 (Linking)", "issn"=>"15537366", "pui"=>"361364803", "arxiv"=>"NIHMS150003"}, "id"=>"cedc2590-2cd3-398c-8e6a-80d5408b60a8", "abstract"=>"The F region downstream of the mecI gene in the SCCmec element in hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) contains two bidirectionally overlapping open reading frames (ORFs), the fudoh ORF and the psm-mec ORF. The psm-mec ORF encodes a cytolysin, phenol-soluble modulin (PSM)-mec. Transformation of the F region into the Newman strain, which is a methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) strain, or into the MW2 (USA400) and FRP3757 (USA300) strains, which are community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) strains that lack the F region, attenuated their virulence in a mouse systemic infection model. Introducing the F region to these strains suppressed colony-spreading activity and PSMα production, and promoted biofilm formation. By producing mutations into the psm-mec ORF, we revealed that (i) both the transcription and translation products of the psm-mec ORF suppressed colony-spreading activity and promoted biofilm formation; and (ii) the transcription product of the psm-mec ORF, but not its translation product, decreased PSMα production. These findings suggest that both the psm-mec transcript, acting as a regulatory RNA, and the PSM-mec protein encoded by the gene on the mobile genetic element SCCmec regulate the virulence of Staphylococcus aureus.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/transcription-translation-products-cytolysin-gene-psmmec-mobile-genetic-element-sccmec-regulate-stap", "reader_count"=>82, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Engineering"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>48, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>14, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>14}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>6}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>48}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Belgium"=>1, "United States"=>3, "South Africa"=>1, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/801936"], "description"=>"<p>(A) The transcript of the <i>psm-mec</i> ORF inhibits the expression of <i>psmα</i>, contributing to the decreased colony spreading and decreased cytotoxicity. The translation product of the <i>psm-mec</i> ORF inhibits colony spreading, whereas it promotes biofilm formation. These altered phenotypes have decreased <i>S. aureus</i> virulence, which leads to invasive and acute infections, whereas increased <i>S. aureus</i> virulence leads to chronic infection, including catheter-related infections. (B) In CA-MRSA strains, absence of the <i>psm-mec</i> ORF leads to increased virulence, causing invasive infections, whereas decreased virulence causes catheter-related infections.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["alteration", "virulence", "phenotype", "exerted", "mrna", "psm-mec"], "article_id"=>472288, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Chikara Kaito", "Yuki Saito", "Gentaro Nagano", "Mariko Ikuo", "Yosuke Omae", "Yuichi Hanada", "Xiao Han", "Kyoko Kuwahara-Arai", "Tomomi Hishinuma", "Tadashi Baba", "Teruyo Ito", "Keiichi Hiramatsu", "Kazuhisa Sekimizu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001267.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Model_of_the_alteration_of_S_aureus_virulence_phenotype_exerted_by_psm_mec_mRNA_and_PSM_mec_protein_/472288", "title"=>"Model of the alteration of <i>S. aureus</i> virulence phenotype exerted by <i>psm-mec</i> mRNA and PSM-mec protein.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-02-03 00:38:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/400415", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/400435", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/400464", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/400489", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/400522", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/400553", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/400575"], "description"=>"<div><p>The F region downstream of the <em>mecI</em> gene in the SCC<em>mec</em> element in hospital-associated methicillin-resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (HA-MRSA) contains two bidirectionally overlapping open reading frames (ORFs), the <em>fudoh</em> ORF and the <em>psm-mec</em> ORF. The <em>psm-mec</em> ORF encodes a cytolysin, phenol-soluble modulin (PSM)-mec. Transformation of the F region into the Newman strain, which is a methicillin-sensitive <em>S. aureus</em> (MSSA) strain, or into the MW2 (USA400) and FRP3757 (USA300) strains, which are community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) strains that lack the F region, attenuated their virulence in a mouse systemic infection model. Introducing the F region to these strains suppressed colony-spreading activity and PSMα production, and promoted biofilm formation. By producing mutations into the <em>psm-mec</em> ORF, we revealed that (i) both the transcription and translation products of the <em>psm-mec</em> ORF suppressed colony-spreading activity and promoted biofilm formation; and (ii) the transcription product of the <em>psm-mec</em> ORF, but not its translation product, decreased PSMα production. These findings suggest that both the <em>psm-mec</em> transcript, acting as a regulatory RNA, and the PSM-mec protein encoded by the gene on the mobile genetic element SCC<em>mec</em> regulate the virulence of <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["transcription", "products", "cytolysin", "virulence"], "article_id"=>139084, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Microbiology", "Cancer"], "users"=>["Chikara Kaito", "Yuki Saito", "Gentaro Nagano", "Mariko Ikuo", "Yosuke Omae", "Yuichi Hanada", "Xiao Han", "Kyoko Kuwahara-Arai", "Tomomi Hishinuma", "Tadashi Baba", "Teruyo Ito", "Keiichi Hiramatsu", "Kazuhisa Sekimizu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001267.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001267.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001267.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001267.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001267.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001267.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001267.s007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Transcription_and_Translation_Products_of_the_Cytolysin_Gene_psm_mec_on_the_Mobile_Genetic_Element_SCC_mec_Regulate_Staphylococcus_aureus_Virulence/139084", "title"=>"Transcription and Translation Products of the Cytolysin Gene <em>psm-mec</em> on the Mobile Genetic Element SCC<em>mec</em> Regulate <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> Virulence", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-02-03 02:31:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/802068"], "description"=>"a<p>Cm, chloramphenicol; Erm, erythromycin; Kan, kanamycin.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bacterial", "strains", "plasmids"], "article_id"=>472425, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Chikara Kaito", "Yuki Saito", "Gentaro Nagano", "Mariko Ikuo", "Yosuke Omae", "Yuichi Hanada", "Xiao Han", "Kyoko Kuwahara-Arai", "Tomomi Hishinuma", "Tadashi Baba", "Teruyo Ito", "Keiichi Hiramatsu", "Kazuhisa Sekimizu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001267.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_list_of_bacterial_strains_and_plasmids_used_/472425", "title"=>"A list of bacterial strains and plasmids used.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-02-03 00:40:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/801168"], "description"=>"<p>(A) CD-1 mice (n = 5) were intravenously injected with MW2 transformed with pND50 or pF (2×10<sup>8</sup> CFU) and survival was monitored. Statistical analysis was performed with the Kaplan-Meier test. The P-value between pND50 and pF is 0.0411. (B) CD-1 mice (n = 5) were intravenously injected with FRP3757 transformed with pND50 or pF (2×10<sup>8</sup> CFU) and survival was monitored. Statistical analysis was performed with the Kaplan-Meier test. The P-value between pND50 and pF is 0.0142. (C) Overnight cultures of MW2 harboring pND50 or pF and FRP3757 harboring pND50 or pF were spotted onto soft agar plates and incubated for 8 h at 37°C. (D) The means ± standard deviations of the halo diameters of at least three independent experiments are presented.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ca-mrsa", "strains", "attenuates", "virulence", "systemic", "decreases", "colony-spreading"], "article_id"=>471514, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Chikara Kaito", "Yuki Saito", "Gentaro Nagano", "Mariko Ikuo", "Yosuke Omae", "Yuichi Hanada", "Xiao Han", "Kyoko Kuwahara-Arai", "Tomomi Hishinuma", "Tadashi Baba", "Teruyo Ito", "Keiichi Hiramatsu", "Kazuhisa Sekimizu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001267.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Introduction_of_the_F_region_into_CA_MRSA_strains_attenuates_virulence_in_a_mouse_systemic_infection_model_and_decreases_colony_spreading_ability_/471514", "title"=>"Introduction of the F region into CA-MRSA strains attenuates virulence in a mouse systemic infection model and decreases colony-spreading ability.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-02-03 00:25:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/801824"], "description"=>"<p>(A) The nucleotide sequence of the <i>psm-mec</i> ORF in pF and the synonymous codon substituted sequence of the <i>psm-mec</i> ORF in pFP are shown. The substituted nucleotides are colored in red. The amino acid sequence of PSM-mec protein is shown below the nucleotide sequence. (B) The amounts of <i>psm-mec</i> mRNA in Newman strains harboring pND50, pF, and pFP were measured. The data are presented as the means ± standard deviations from at least three independent experiments. ND, not detected. (C) The PSM-mec production of Newman strains harboring pND50, pF, or pFP was examined by HPLC. The data are presented as the means ± standard deviations from at least three independent experiments. ND, not detected. (D) The colony-spreading abilities of Newman strains harboring pND50, pF, or pFP were examined. Plates were incubated for 8 h at 37°C and the means ± standard deviations of the halo diameters from at least three independent experiments are shown. (E) The PSMα production of Newman strains harboring pND50, pF, or pFP was examined by HPLC. The data are presented as the means ± standard deviations from at least three independent experiments. (F) Biofilm formation onto polystyrene microplates of Newman strains harboring pND50, pF, or pFP was examined. (G) The PSMα production of Newman strains harboring the <i>psm-mec</i> gene-inducible plasmid (pNDX1-F) was examined. pNDX1-FP harbors the synonymous codon-substituted sequence of the <i>psm-mec</i> ORF in (A). ATc, anhydrotetracycline.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["synonymous", "codon", "substitutions"], "article_id"=>472177, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Chikara Kaito", "Yuki Saito", "Gentaro Nagano", "Mariko Ikuo", "Yosuke Omae", "Yuichi Hanada", "Xiao Han", "Kyoko Kuwahara-Arai", "Tomomi Hishinuma", "Tadashi Baba", "Teruyo Ito", "Keiichi Hiramatsu", "Kazuhisa Sekimizu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001267.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Analysis_of_synonymous_codon_substitutions_in_the_psm_mec_ORF_/472177", "title"=>"Analysis of synonymous codon substitutions in the <i>psm-mec</i> ORF.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-02-03 00:36:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/801450"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Overnight cultures of Newman, YS1 (Δ<i>psmα</i>), and YS2 (Δ<i>psmβ</i>) were spotted onto soft agar plates and incubated for 10 h at 37°C. (B) The means ± standard deviations of the halo diameters of at least three independent experiments are presented. (C) YS1 was transformed with pND50K or ppsmα. Overnight cultures were spotted onto soft agar plates and incubated for 10 h at 37°C. The halo diameters are presented. (D) The colony-spreading ability of Newman, the <i>fnbA</i>-disrupted mutant (GN1), and the F region introduced GN1 was examined. The halo diameters are presented.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["operon"], "article_id"=>471810, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Chikara Kaito", "Yuki Saito", "Gentaro Nagano", "Mariko Ikuo", "Yosuke Omae", "Yuichi Hanada", "Xiao Han", "Kyoko Kuwahara-Arai", "Tomomi Hishinuma", "Tadashi Baba", "Teruyo Ito", "Keiichi Hiramatsu", "Kazuhisa Sekimizu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001267.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_psm_945_operon_is_required_for_colony_spreading_/471810", "title"=>"The <i>psmα</i> operon is required for colony spreading.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-02-03 00:30:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/800929"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Nucleotide sequences of the <i>psm-mec</i> ORF and <i>fudoh</i> ORF are shown. The <i>psm-mec</i> ORF (magenta-colored) is encoded from left to right, whereas the <i>fudoh</i> ORF (yellow-colored) is encoded from right to left. Black bold lines indicate the substituted nucleotides. Red-colored nucleotide indicates the transcription start site (+1) of the <i>psm-mec</i> ORF, which was determined in this study (<a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001267#ppat.1001267.s003\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. S3</a>). Blue-colored nucleotides are a putative −10 region for transcription of the <i>psm-mec</i> ORF. Table shows the amino acid substitutions caused by the nucleotide substitutions. For pM1 and pM2, the nucleotide substitutions are presented, numbered from transcription start site. (B) The PSM-mec productions of Newman strains transformed with various plasmids harboring nucleotide substitutions in the <i>psm-mec</i> ORF and <i>fudoh</i> ORF were examined by HPLC. The data are presented as the means ± standard deviations from at least three independent experiments. ND, not detected. (C) The colony-spreading abilities of Newman strains transformed with various plasmids harboring nucleotide substitutions in the <i>psm-mec</i> ORF and <i>fudoh</i> ORF were examined. Plates were incubated for 8 h at 37°C and the means ± standard deviations of the halo diameters from at least three independent experiments are shown. The asterisk indicates a p-value of less than 0.05, calculated by Student's t-test, between the sample and the pF-transformed Newman strain. (D) Biofilm formations on polystyrene microplates of Newman strains transformed with various plasmids harboring nucleotide substitutions in the <i>psm-mec</i> ORF and <i>fudoh</i> ORF were examined. The asterisk indicates a p-value of less than 0.05, calculated with the Student's t-test, between the sample and the pF-transformed Newman strain. (E) The PSMα3 production of Newman strains transformed with various plasmids harboring nucleotide substitutions in the <i>psm-mec</i> ORF and <i>fudoh</i> ORF was examined by HPLC. The data shown represent the means ± standard deviations from at least three independent experiments. The asterisk indicates a p-value of less than 0.05, calculated with Student's t-test, between the sample and the pF-transformed Newman strain. (F) The amounts of the <i>psm-mec</i> mRNA in Newman strains transformed with various plasmids harboring nucleotide substitutions in the <i>psm-mec</i> ORF and <i>fudoh</i> ORF were measured by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. The data are presented as the means ± standard deviations from at least three independent experiments. ND, not detected.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nucleotide", "substitutions"], "article_id"=>471281, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Chikara Kaito", "Yuki Saito", "Gentaro Nagano", "Mariko Ikuo", "Yosuke Omae", "Yuichi Hanada", "Xiao Han", "Kyoko Kuwahara-Arai", "Tomomi Hishinuma", "Tadashi Baba", "Teruyo Ito", "Keiichi Hiramatsu", "Kazuhisa Sekimizu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001267.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Analysis_of_nucleotide_substitutions_in_the_F_region_/471281", "title"=>"Analysis of nucleotide substitutions in the F region.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-02-03 00:21:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/801337"], "description"=>"<p>(A) The Newman strain was transformed with an integration plasmid pInt, pInt harboring the F region (pIntF), a multicopy plasmid pND50, or pND50 harboring the F region (pF). Extracellular proteins at the stationary phase were separated by 12.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and stained with Coomassie brilliant blue. The white arrowhead indicates the excised band for LC-tandem MS analysis and was identified as FnbA and PSMβ1 (<a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001267#ppat.1001267.s006\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a>). (B) Measurement of the amount of extracellular PSMs by HPLC. Overnight cultures of the Newman strain harboring pND50 (black line) or pF (red line) were subjected to HPLC and absorbance at 215 nm was obtained. Respective PSMs were identified by LC/MS (<a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001267#ppat.1001267.s002\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. S2</a>). Hld and PSMα1 were contained in the same peak in this assay condition. Arrows indicate unidentified molecules. (C) Amount of PSMs in the pF-transformed strain relative to that in the pND50-transformed strain in Newman, FRP3757, and MW2 genetic backgrounds is presented. (D) Expression of the <i>psmα1-2</i> mRNA was measured by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) in Newman, FRP3757, and MW2 strains. Amount of the <i>psmα1-2</i> mRNA in the pF-transformed strains relative to that in the pND50-transformed strains is presented. (E) Expression of the <i>psmα3-4</i>, <i>hla</i>, <i>agrA</i>, RNAIII, <i>sarS</i>, and <i>fnbA</i> were measured by qRT-PCR in pF-transformed and pND50-transformed Newman strains. The asterisks indicate a p-value of less than 0.05, calculated with Student's t test, between pND50- and the pF-transformed Newman strains. (F) Promoter activity of the <i>psmα</i> operon was measured by a luciferase-based reporter assay in the Newman strain. The Newman strain was transformed with pluc-psmαP or pluc-psmαP-F. The means ± standard deviations of three independent experiments are presented. (G) Amounts of LukS-PV during growth in brain heart infusion (BHI) medium were measured. Cells were cultured in 10 ml BHI-medium using an Advantec TN2612 photorecorder. Aliquots of the culture were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 20 min, and amounts of PVL in the culture supernatant were estimated using anti-LukS-PV monoclonal antibody-coated latex particles, developed by Denka Seiken, Co. Ltd, Niigata, Japan <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001267#ppat.1001267-Oishi1\" target=\"_blank\">[51]</a>. Representative data from three experiments are shown.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["decreases", "extracellular", "psms", "increases"], "article_id"=>471690, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Chikara Kaito", "Yuki Saito", "Gentaro Nagano", "Mariko Ikuo", "Yosuke Omae", "Yuichi Hanada", "Xiao Han", "Kyoko Kuwahara-Arai", "Tomomi Hishinuma", "Tadashi Baba", "Teruyo Ito", "Keiichi Hiramatsu", "Kazuhisa Sekimizu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001267.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Introduction_of_the_F_region_decreases_the_amount_of_extracellular_PSMs_and_increases_the_amount_of_extracellular_FnbA_/471690", "title"=>"Introduction of the F region decreases the amount of extracellular PSMs and increases the amount of extracellular FnbA.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-02-03 00:28:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/801568"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Newman harboring pND50 or pF, MW2 harboring pND50 or pF, and FRP3757 harboring pND50 or pF were cultured in a 50-ml polypropylene tube for 3 days. After removing bacterial cultures, the bacterial adherence to the inner surface of the tubes was observed. (B) The Newman strain was transformed with an integration plasmid pInt, pInt harboring the F region (pIntF), a multicopy plasmid pND50, or pND50 harboring the F region (pF). The bacterial strains were cultured in polystyrene microplates and the bacterial cells that adhered to the plates were stained with safranin. The OD<sub>490</sub> was measured. (C) Biofilm formation of MW2 harboring pND50 or pF and FRP3757 harboring pND50 and pF onto polystyrene microplates was examined. (D) Biofilm formation of Newman strain, the <i>psmα</i>-deleted mutant (YS1), the <i>psmβ</i>-deleted mutant (YS2), and the <i>fnbA</i>-disrupted mutant (GN1) onto polystyrene microplates was measured. (E) Biofilm formation of <i>S. epidermidis</i> ATCC12228 harboring pND50 or pF onto polystyrene microplates was measured.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["biofilm"], "article_id"=>471926, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Chikara Kaito", "Yuki Saito", "Gentaro Nagano", "Mariko Ikuo", "Yosuke Omae", "Yuichi Hanada", "Xiao Han", "Kyoko Kuwahara-Arai", "Tomomi Hishinuma", "Tadashi Baba", "Teruyo Ito", "Keiichi Hiramatsu", "Kazuhisa Sekimizu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001267.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Introduction_of_the_F_region_promotes_biofilm_formation_/471926", "title"=>"Introduction of the F region promotes biofilm formation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-02-03 00:32:06"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/801677"], "description"=>"<p>(A) The 575-bp F region is indicated by a bold black line. The <i>fudoh</i> ORF exists at the opposite strand of the <i>psm-mec</i> ORF. Domain deletions of the F region indicated by bold grey lines were cloned into plasmids. The names of the plasmids are shown on the right side. (B) The colony-spreading abilities of Newman strains transformed with various plasmids harboring domain deletions of the F region were examined. Plates were incubated for 8 h at 37°C and the means ± standard deviations of the halo diameters from at least three independent experiments are shown. The asterisk indicates a p-value of less than 0.05, calculated with Student's t-test, between the sample and the pF-transformed Newman strain. (C) The PSMα3 productions of Newman strains transformed with various plasmids harboring domain deletions of the F region were examined by HPLC. The data were the means ± standard deviations from at least three independent experiments. The asterisks indicate a p-value of less than 0.05, calculated with Student's t test, between the sample and the pF-transformed Newman strain. (D) PSM-mec production of the Newman strains transformed with various plasmids harboring domain deletions of the F region were examined by HPLC. The data were the means ± standard deviations from at least three independent experiments. ND, not detected. (E) The amounts of the <i>psm-mec</i> mRNA in Newman strains transformed with pF4, pF5, and pF6 were measured by qRT-PCR. The data are presented as the means ± standard deviations from at least three independent experiments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["deletions"], "article_id"=>472036, "categories"=>["Genetics", "Microbiology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Chikara Kaito", "Yuki Saito", "Gentaro Nagano", "Mariko Ikuo", "Yosuke Omae", "Yuichi Hanada", "Xiao Han", "Kyoko Kuwahara-Arai", "Tomomi Hishinuma", "Tadashi Baba", "Teruyo Ito", "Keiichi Hiramatsu", "Kazuhisa Sekimizu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001267.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Analysis_of_domain_deletions_of_the_F_region_/472036", "title"=>"Analysis of domain deletions of the F region.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-02-03 00:33:56"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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