Borrelia burgdorferi Requires Glycerol for Maximum Fitness During The Tick Phase of the Enzootic Cycle
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{"title"=>"Borrelia burgdorferi requires glycerol for maximum fitness during the tick phase of the enzootic cycle", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Christopher J.", "last_name"=>"Pappas", "scopus_author_id"=>"16402484500"}, {"first_name"=>"Radha", "last_name"=>"Iyer", "scopus_author_id"=>"13306985800"}, {"first_name"=>"Mary M.", "last_name"=>"Petzke", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506888765"}, {"first_name"=>"Melissa J.", "last_name"=>"Caimano", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701551795"}, {"first_name"=>"Justin D.", "last_name"=>"Radolf", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005032724"}, {"first_name"=>"Ira", "last_name"=>"Schwartz", "scopus_author_id"=>"35430439500"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS Pathogens", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"79960963391", "pmid"=>"21750672", "isbn"=>"1553-7374 (Electronic) 1553-7366 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79960963391", "issn"=>"15537366", "pui"=>"362246987", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.ppat.1002102"}, "id"=>"5e71e62e-b7ed-39cc-a899-2d08f958c271", "abstract"=>"Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochetal agent of Lyme disease, is a vector-borne pathogen that cycles between a mammalian host and tick vector. This complex life cycle requires that the spirochete modulate its gene expression program to facilitate growth and maintenance in these diverse milieus. B. burgdorferi contains an operon that is predicted to encode proteins that would mediate the uptake and conversion of glycerol to dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Previous studies indicated that expression of the operon is elevated at 23 degrees C and is repressed in the presence of the alternative sigma factor RpoS, suggesting that glycerol utilization may play an important role during the tick phase. This possibility was further explored in the current study by expression analysis and mutagenesis of glpD, a gene predicted to encode glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Transcript levels for glpD were significantly lower in mouse joints relative to their levels in ticks. Expression of GlpD protein was repressed in an RpoS-dependent manner during growth of spirochetes within dialysis membrane chambers implanted in rat peritoneal cavities. In medium supplemented with glycerol as the principal carbohydrate, wild-type B. burgdorferi grew to a significantly higher cell density than glpD mutant spirochetes during growth in vitro at 25 degrees C. glpD mutant spirochetes were fully infectious in mice by either needle or tick inoculation. In contrast, glpD mutants grew to significantly lower densities than wild-type B. burgdorferi in nymphal ticks and displayed a replication defect in feeding nymphs. The findings suggest that B. burgdorferi undergoes a switch in carbohydrate utilization during the mammal to tick transition. Further, the results demonstrate that the ability to utilize glycerol as a carbohydrate source for glycolysis during the tick phase of the infectious cycle is critical for maximal B. burgdorferi fitness.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/borrelia-burgdorferi-requires-glycerol-maximum-fitness-during-tick-phase-enzootic-cycle", "reader_count"=>32, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>17, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>5, "Philosophy"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>5}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>17}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Hungary"=>1, "United States"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/759389"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>) BSK-lite containing GlcNAc as the sole carbohydrate. •, B31-A3; □, CP176. Left panel, 25°C: B31-A3 achieved a stationary phase cell concentration of 1.8×10<sup>8</sup> and CP176 achieved a stationary phase cell concentration of 1.5×10<sup>8</sup>. Right panel, 37°C: B31-A3 achieved a stationary phase cell concentration of 8.5×10<sup>7</sup> and CP176 achieved a stationary phase cell concentration of 6.3×10<sup>7</sup>. All data points were determined in quadruplicate. Results are representative of two independent experiments. <b>B</b>) BSK-lite containing GlcNAc and glycerol as the principal carbohydrate. •, B31-A3; □, CP176. Left panel, 25°C: B31-A3 achieved a stationary phase cell concentration of 6.4×10<sup>8</sup> and CP176 achieved a stationary phase cell concentration of 1.1×10<sup>8</sup>. The difference in stationary phase cell concentration between B31-A3 and CP176 at 25°C was significant (<i>P</i><.001). Right panel, 37°C: B31-A3 achieved a stationary phase cell concentration of 9.1×10<sup>7</sup> and CP176 achieved a stationary phase cell concentration of 6.4×10<sup>7</sup>. All data points were measured in quadruplicate. Results are representative of three independent experiments. Error bars indicate SEM.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["b31-a3", "cp176", "modified", "enriched"], "article_id"=>429758, "categories"=>["Microbiology"], "users"=>["Christopher J. Pappas", "Radha Iyer", "Mary M. Petzke", "Melissa J. Caimano", "Justin D. Radolf", "Ira Schwartz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002102.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Growth_of_B31_A3_and_CP176_in_modified_enriched_medium_/429758", "title"=>"Growth of B31-A3 and CP176 in modified enriched medium.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 16:59:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/759640"], "description"=>"<p>Up and down arrows indicate increasing or decreasing RpoS levels; c-di-GMP+ and c-di-GMP− indicate presence or absence of c-di-GMP. PM, peritrophic matrix; MG, midgut; HC, hemocoel.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["transcriptional", "regulators", "stages", "enzootic"], "article_id"=>430011, "categories"=>["Microbiology"], "users"=>["Christopher J. Pappas", "Radha Iyer", "Mary M. Petzke", "Melissa J. Caimano", "Justin D. Radolf", "Ira Schwartz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002102.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Carbohydrate_availability_and_transcriptional_regulators_at_different_stages_of_the_B_burgdorferi_enzootic_cycle_/430011", "title"=>"Carbohydrate availability and transcriptional regulators at different stages of the <i>B. burgdorferi</i> enzootic cycle.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 17:01:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/759574"], "description"=>"<p>B31-A3- or CP176- infected nymphs were placed on naïve mice, removed at the indicated times and spirochete density was determined by qPCR. •, B31-A3; □, CP176. Spirochete densities for B31-A3 and CP176 were significantly different from each other (<i>P</i><.05) at all time points except 48 hours. Error bars indicate SEM.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["b31-a3", "cp176", "feeding"], "article_id"=>429946, "categories"=>["Microbiology"], "users"=>["Christopher J. Pappas", "Radha Iyer", "Mary M. Petzke", "Melissa J. Caimano", "Justin D. Radolf", "Ira Schwartz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002102.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Replication_of_B31_A3_or_CP176_in_feeding_nymphs_/429946", "title"=>"Replication of B31-A3 or CP176 in feeding nymphs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 17:00:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/758796"], "description"=>"<p>RT-PCR of RNA extracted from B31-A3 grown at 37°C in BSK-II medium was performed using primers listed in <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002102#ppat-1002102-t004\" target=\"_blank\">table 4</a>. Lanes 1, 2: <i>bb0240</i>-<i>bb0241</i> (expected size 349 bp); lanes 3, 4: <i>bb0241</i>–<i>bb0243</i> (expected size 1141 bp); lanes 5, 6: <i>bb0240</i>–<i>bb0243</i> (expected size 2383 bp). Migration positions of DNA size markers are indicated on left. A schematic diagram showing the operon structure and sizes of expected amplification products is shown below the gel picture.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["burgdorferi", "constitutes"], "article_id"=>429172, "categories"=>["Microbiology"], "users"=>["Christopher J. Pappas", "Radha Iyer", "Mary M. Petzke", "Melissa J. Caimano", "Justin D. Radolf", "Ira Schwartz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002102.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_B_burgdorferi_glp_region_constitutes_an_operon_/429172", "title"=>"The <i>B. burgdorferi glp</i> region constitutes an operon.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 16:56:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/758655"], "description"=>"<p>The <i>B. burgdorferi</i> G3PDH sequence was mapped onto known bacterial G3PDH three-dimensional structures using SWISS-MODEL software. Structures were rotated so they are aligned in an identical orientation, with the C-terminal α-helix (red) at the top in all structures. MBD, putative membrane binding domain <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002102#ppat.1002102-Yeh1\" target=\"_blank\">[41]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tertiary"], "article_id"=>429027, "categories"=>["Microbiology"], "users"=>["Christopher J. Pappas", "Radha Iyer", "Mary M. Petzke", "Melissa J. Caimano", "Justin D. Radolf", "Ira Schwartz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002102.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Predicted_tertiary_structure_of_B_burgdorferi_G3PDH_/429027", "title"=>"Predicted tertiary structure of <i>B. burgdorferi</i> G3PDH.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 16:55:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/759211"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>) Southern blot analysis confirms the disruption of <i>glpD</i>. Whole genomic DNA from B31-A3 and <i>glpD</i> disruption mutants CP176, CP177, CP257 were digested with BamHI and blotted on a nylon membrane. Digoxygenein-11-dUTP labeled <i>bb0243</i> probe was utilized to visualize <i>glpD</i>. Migration positions of DNA molecular size markers are indicated on the left. <b>B</b>) <i>glpD</i> disruption occurred via by a double crossover insertion of <i>flgB</i>-<i>aadA</i>. Whole genomic DNA from B31-A3 and <i>glpD</i> disruption mutants CP176, CP177, CP257 were digested with BamHI or EcoRI, which would be specific for the proximal or distal <i>bb0243</i> flanking chromosomal regions, respectively, and blotted to a nylon membrane. Blots were developed with a digoxygenein-11-dUTP-labeled <i>aadA</i> probe. A schematic diagram indicates the sizes of the fragments expected to contain <i>flgB</i>-<i>aadA</i>. Migration positions of DNA molecular size markers are indicated on the left of each panel.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["microbiology"], "article_id"=>429588, "categories"=>["Microbiology"], "users"=>["Christopher J. Pappas", "Radha Iyer", "Mary M. Petzke", "Melissa J. Caimano", "Justin D. Radolf", "Ira Schwartz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002102.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Confirmation_of_glpD_disruption_/429588", "title"=>"Confirmation of <i>glpD</i> disruption.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 16:58:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/759800"], "description"=>"a<p>For each primer pair, F refers to forward and R to reverse primer.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["primers"], "article_id"=>430178, "categories"=>["Microbiology"], "users"=>["Christopher J. Pappas", "Radha Iyer", "Mary M. Petzke", "Melissa J. Caimano", "Justin D. Radolf", "Ira Schwartz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002102.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Oligonucleotide_primers_used_in_this_study_/430178", "title"=>"Oligonucleotide primers used in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 17:01:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/759332"], "description"=>"<p>Whole cell lysates from B31-A3, CP176, CP177, and CP257 were separated by SDS-PAGE, followed by immunoblot analysis using GlpD-specific antiserum. Presence of FlaB was also measured as a control.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["absent", "disruption"], "article_id"=>429711, "categories"=>["Microbiology"], "users"=>["Christopher J. Pappas", "Radha Iyer", "Mary M. Petzke", "Melissa J. Caimano", "Justin D. Radolf", "Ira Schwartz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002102.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_GlpD_is_absent_in_disruption_mutants_/429711", "title"=>"GlpD is absent in disruption mutants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 16:59:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/759889"], "description"=>"<p>Spirochete density was measured by qPCR.</p>a<p>Student's <i>t</i>-test comparing wild type to CP176.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tick"], "article_id"=>430269, "categories"=>["Microbiology"], "users"=>["Christopher J. Pappas", "Radha Iyer", "Mary M. Petzke", "Melissa J. Caimano", "Justin D. Radolf", "Ira Schwartz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002102.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Spirochete_density_at_different_tick_phases_/430269", "title"=>"Spirochete density at different tick phases.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 17:02:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/758849"], "description"=>"<p>Whole cell lysates of <i>B. burgdorferi</i> B31-A3 grown at 37°C and 25°C were analyzed by immunoblotting. FlaB levels were determined as a control.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["glpd"], "article_id"=>429227, "categories"=>["Microbiology"], "users"=>["Christopher J. Pappas", "Radha Iyer", "Mary M. Petzke", "Melissa J. Caimano", "Justin D. Radolf", "Ira Schwartz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002102.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_B_burgdorferi_GlpD_expression_is_temperature_dependent_/429227", "title"=>"<i>B. burgdorferi</i> GlpD expression is temperature dependent.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 16:56:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/758993"], "description"=>"<p>Wild type (c162) and RpoS mutant (c174) <i>B. burgdorferi</i> were cultivated in vitro at either 23°C or 37°C or in DMC. Cell lysates were subjected to SDS-PAGE and gels were either silver stained (top panel) or blotted to PVDF membranes and developed with antibodies to GlpD or FlaB (bottom panel). Lanes 1 and 4, 23°C; lanes 2 and 5, 37°C; lanes 3 and 6, DMC. Migration positions of protein molecular mass markers are indicated on left in top panel.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["glpd", "requires"], "article_id"=>429371, "categories"=>["Microbiology"], "users"=>["Christopher J. Pappas", "Radha Iyer", "Mary M. Petzke", "Melissa J. Caimano", "Justin D. Radolf", "Ira Schwartz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002102.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Repression_of_GlpD_expression_requires_RpoS_/429371", "title"=>"Repression of GlpD expression requires RpoS.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 16:57:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/759832"], "description"=>"<p>Table represents typical results from 1 of 3 independent experiments.</p>a<p>Wild-type strain B31-A3 or GlpD mutants were needle inoculated into naïve C3H/HeJ mice and tested for infectivity by cultivation of indicated tissue in BSK medium.</p>b<p>Unfed nymphs naturally infected with either wild-type or GlpD mutant strains were placed on naïve C3H/HeJ mice.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["glpd", "mutants"], "article_id"=>430204, "categories"=>["Microbiology"], "users"=>["Christopher J. Pappas", "Radha Iyer", "Mary M. Petzke", "Melissa J. Caimano", "Justin D. Radolf", "Ira Schwartz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002102.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Infectivity_of_B_burgdorferi_wild_type_and_GlpD_mutants_in_mice_/430204", "title"=>"Infectivity of <i>B. burgdorferi</i> wild type and GlpD mutants in mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 17:02:04"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/759861"], "description"=>"a<p>Two mice died.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["infectivity", "tick"], "article_id"=>430233, "categories"=>["Microbiology"], "users"=>["Christopher J. Pappas", "Radha Iyer", "Mary M. Petzke", "Melissa J. Caimano", "Justin D. Radolf", "Ira Schwartz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002102.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Kinetics_of_Mouse_Infectivity_by_Tick_Feeding_/430233", "title"=>"Kinetics of Mouse Infectivity by Tick Feeding.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 17:02:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/759079"], "description"=>"<p><i>glpD</i> mutant clones CP176 and CP177 were generated by recombination with pCP101; <i>glpD</i> mutant clone CP257 was generated by recombination with pCP201.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["disruption"], "article_id"=>429450, "categories"=>["Microbiology"], "users"=>["Christopher J. Pappas", "Radha Iyer", "Mary M. Petzke", "Melissa J. Caimano", "Justin D. Radolf", "Ira Schwartz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002102.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Strategy_for_generation_of_glpD_disruption_mutants_/429450", "title"=>"Strategy for generation of <i>glpD</i> disruption mutants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 16:58:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/758914"], "description"=>"<p>qRT-PCR was performed with RNA isolated from strain B31-A3-infected ticks and mouse joints as described in Methods. Statistical analysis was determined by Kruskal-Wallis multiple comparison Z- value test; * significant difference (<i>P</i>≤.05) between samples. Error bars indicate standard error of the mean (SEM).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["genes", "stages", "enzootic"], "article_id"=>429285, "categories"=>["Microbiology"], "users"=>["Christopher J. Pappas", "Radha Iyer", "Mary M. Petzke", "Melissa J. Caimano", "Justin D. Radolf", "Ira Schwartz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002102.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Transcriptional_analysis_of_selected_genes_at_different_stages_of_the_enzootic_cycle_/429285", "title"=>"Transcriptional analysis of selected genes at different stages of the enzootic cycle.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 16:57:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/758522"], "description"=>"<p>Based on Fraser et al. <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002102#ppat.1002102-Fraser1\" target=\"_blank\">[12]</a> and von Lackum and Stevenson <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002102#ppat.1002102-vonLackum1\" target=\"_blank\">[28]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["utilization", "pathways"], "article_id"=>428892, "categories"=>["Microbiology"], "users"=>["Christopher J. Pappas", "Radha Iyer", "Mary M. Petzke", "Melissa J. Caimano", "Justin D. Radolf", "Ira Schwartz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002102.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Predicted_carbohydrate_utilization_pathways_in_B_burgdorferi_/428892", "title"=>"Predicted carbohydrate utilization pathways in <i>B. burgdorferi</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-20 16:54:51"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"16", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"47", "full-text"=>"61", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
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Relative Metric

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