Histone Deacetylase 8 Is Required for Centrosome Cohesion and Influenza A Virus Entry
Publication Date
October 27, 2011
Journal
PLOS Pathogens
Authors
Yohei Yamauchi, Heithem Boukari, Indranil Banerjee, Ivo F. Sbalzarini, et al
Volume
7
Issue
10
Pages
e1002316
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002316
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.ppat.1002316
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22046129
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3203190
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/22046129
Web of Science
000296734300045
Scopus
80055077509
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/histone-deacetylase-8-required-centrosome-cohesion-influenza-virus-entry
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Histone deacetylase 8 is required for centrosome cohesion and influenza a virus entry", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Yohei", "last_name"=>"Yamauchi", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202771174"}, {"first_name"=>"Heithem", "last_name"=>"Boukari", "scopus_author_id"=>"54402396300"}, {"first_name"=>"Indranil", "last_name"=>"Banerjee", "scopus_author_id"=>"56348490500"}, {"first_name"=>"Ivo F.", "last_name"=>"Sbalzarini", "scopus_author_id"=>"8650204800"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter", "last_name"=>"Horvath", "scopus_author_id"=>"9040610000"}, {"first_name"=>"Ari", "last_name"=>"Helenius", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005931506"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS Pathogens", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"362834526", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.ppat.1002316", "isbn"=>"1553-7374 (Electronic)\\r1553-7366 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"22046129", "issn"=>"15537366", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-80055077509", "sgr"=>"80055077509"}, "id"=>"57343a39-30bb-3060-8ed5-9e888b1edd73", "abstract"=>"<title>Author Summary</title> <p>Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are generally associated with the epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the nucleus, but some have been shown to possess cytoplasmic functions. While analyzing the role of cell factors in influenza A virus entry into host cells, we observed that depletion of members of the class I HDAC family dramatically affected the efficiency of infection. Depletion of HDACs 8 and 3 decreased, and depletion of HDAC1 elevated the efficiency of entry. For HDAC1 and 8, this could be traced back to opposing effects on the architecture of centrosomes and consequences on microtubule organization. HDAC8 depletion caused the centrosomes to split and move away from each other. The microtubules were disorganized, and endosomes failed to move to the perinuclear region of the cell. Endocytosed viruses did not penetrate because the endosomes dispersed throughout the cytoplasm and did not acidify properly. In contrast, when HDAC1 was depleted, fewer centrosomes were split, and endosome transport and acidification became more efficient. Taken together, our results showed for the first time that class I HDACs play a role in the organization of the microtubule network, in endosome maturation, and in the entry of influenza and other late penetrating viruses into host cells.</p>", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/histone-deacetylase-8-required-centrosome-cohesion-influenza-virus-entry", "reader_count"=>65, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>25, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>25, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>7, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>40, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Chemistry"=>7, "Computer Science"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>7}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>7}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>40}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>7}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>3, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Slovakia"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/364269", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/364275", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/364287", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/364306", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/364324", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/364333", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/364344", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/364353"], "description"=>"<div><p>Influenza A virus (IAV) enters host cells by endocytosis followed by acid-activated penetration from late endosomes (LEs). Using siRNA silencing, we found that histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8), a cytoplasmic enzyme, efficiently promoted productive entry of IAV into tissue culture cells, whereas HDAC1 suppressed it. HDAC8 enhanced endocytosis, acidification, and penetration of the incoming virus. In contrast, HDAC1 inhibited acidification and penetration. The effects were connected with dramatic alterations in the organization of the microtubule system, and, as a consequence, a change in the behavior of LEs and lysosomes (LYs). Depletion of HDAC8 caused loss of centrosome-associated microtubules and loss of directed centripetal movement of LEs, dispersing LE/LYs to the cell periphery. For HDAC1, the picture was the opposite. To explain these changes, centrosome cohesion emerged as the critical factor. Depletion of HDAC8 caused centrosome splitting, which could also be induced by depleting a centriole-linker protein, rootletin. In both cases, IAV infection was inhibited. HDAC1 depletion reduced the splitting of centrosomes, and enhanced infection. The longer the distance between centrosomes, the lower the level of infection. HDAC8 depletion was also found to inhibit infection of Uukuniemi virus (a bunyavirus) suggesting common requirements among late penetrating enveloped viruses. The results established class I HDACs as powerful regulators of microtubule organization, centrosome function, endosome maturation, and infection by IAV and other late penetrating viruses.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["histone", "deacetylase", "centrosome", "cohesion", "influenza"], "article_id"=>132000, "categories"=>["Cancer"], "users"=>["Yohei Yamauchi", "Heithem Boukari", "Indranil Banerjee", "Ivo F. Sbalzarini", "Peter Horvath", "Ari Helenius"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002316.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002316.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002316.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002316.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002316.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002316.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002316.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002316.s008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Histone_Deacetylase_8_Is_Required_for_Centrosome_Cohesion_and_Influenza_A_Virus_Entry/132000", "title"=>"Histone Deacetylase 8 Is Required for Centrosome Cohesion and Influenza A Virus Entry", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-10-27 00:33:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/719458"], "description"=>"<p>(A) IAV X31 infection assay. Infection was quantified in A549 cells depleted of HDAC1, 3, 8, vATPase subunit ATP6V1B2 and CAS (CSE1L) for 72 h. Cells were infected with X31 at TCID50 = 7.5×10<sup>3</sup>/ml in infection medium (D-MEM, 50 mM HEPES pH 6.8, 0.2% BSA). After fixation, cells were incubated in permeabilization buffer (0.1% saponin, 1% BSA in PBS) and stained for NP by indirect IFA with monoclonal antibody HB-65. Nuclei were stained with Hoechst. Images were acquired by automated microscopy and the fraction of cells expressing NP was quantified using a MATLAB-based infection scoring procedure (The MathWorks, Inc.) and normalized to control (All*Neg) cells. Twenty % of control cells are infected under these conditions. (B–F) IAV X31 entry assays. A549 cells were depleted of HDAC1, 3, 8, and where indicated, ATP6V1B2 or CAS (CSE1L). For all experiments, cells were first bound with TCID50 = 2.4×10<sup>6</sup>/ml virus for 1 h at 4°C. (B) Binding assay. After binding, cells were washed and fixed. Viral particles bound to the cell surface were stained by indirect IFA with anti-X31 Pinda antibody. (C) Endocytosis assay. After binding, cells were washed and warmed to 37°C, and fixed after 30 min. After blocking extracellular hemagglutinin (HA) antigens with the Pinda antibody, endocytosed virus particles were stained by indirect IFA with an HA1-specific monoclonal antibody. To block dynamin-dependent endocytosis, cells were pretreated with 120 µM dynasore 30 min prior to and during the endocytosis assay. (D) HA acidification assay. After binding, cells were washed and, or warmed to 37°C and fixed after 30, 60, 120, 210 and 300 min. Acidified HA was stained by indirect IFA with anti-A1, a monoclonal antibody that recognizes the acid-induced conformation of HA. Bafilomycin A was added to control cells to block endosome acidification. (E) Cumulative HA acidification up to 5 h was calculated and normalized to control cells. (F) vRNP nuclear import assay. After binding, cells were washed, warmed to 37°C in the presence of 1 mM cycloheximide and fixed at 5 h. Incoming NP (vRNP) was stained by indirect IFA with HB-65. Bafilomycin A was added to control cells to block endosome acidification. (G) Acid-mediated by-pass of endocytosis. Cells were bound with TCID50 = 1×10<sup>6</sup>/ml virus for 1 h at 4°C, washed, followed by incubation for 2.5 min at 37°C in low pH medium (pH 5.0) to induce fusion of the viral envelope and the plasma membrane, thereby releasing vRNPs directly into the cytosol. Cells were incubated for another 12 h in medium buffered to pH 7.4 containing 20 mM NH<sub>4</sub>Cl to block acidification of endosomes. Infection was quantified as in the infection assay. All data are represented as mean ± SEM.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["iav", "x31", "endocytosis"], "article_id"=>389818, "categories"=>["Virology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Yohei Yamauchi", "Heithem Boukari", "Indranil Banerjee", "Ivo F. Sbalzarini", "Peter Horvath", "Ari Helenius"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002316.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_HDAC8_is_required_for_IAV_X31_infection_endocytosis_and_HA_acidification_/389818", "title"=>"HDAC8 is required for IAV X31 infection, endocytosis and HA acidification.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-27 02:43:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/719634"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Localization of Golgi complex (giantin, red) and LE/LYs (LAMP1, green) in control (All*Neg), HDAC8-depleted (si HDAC8) and HDAC1-depleted (si HDAC1) A549 cells. Cells were fixed and stained by indirect IFA with anti-giantin and anti-LAMP1 antibodies. Nuclei were stained with DRAQ5. (B) Determination of LE/LY dispersal index. A549 cells were depleted of HDAC1, 8, KIFC1, KIFC2, and dynactin subunits ACTR10 and DCTN2. Cells were fixed and stained by indirect IFA with anti-LAMP1 antibody. Actin was stained by phalloidin, and DNA with Hoechst. Images were acquired automatically using a 20× objective and analyzed to derive a dispersal index of LAMP1-positive endosomes. Dispersal indices were set to zero for control (All*Neg) cells, and to 1.0 for cells treated with 30 µM nocodazole for 1 h (All*Neg+nocod). Data are represented as mean ± SEM, except for KIFC1, KIFC2, ACTR10, for which the mean from 4 different siRNAs are shown (2 independent experiments). (C) EGF degradation. A549 cells were depleted of HDAC1, 8 in 96-well Matrix plates, and 48 h after depletion, starved in serum-free medium for 24 h. EGF-AF647 (200 ng/ml) was bound for 30 min on ice. After washing, the cells were warmed to 37°C in serum-containing medium to allow internalization of EGF. At 15 min and 4 h post warming, cells were washed in acid buffer (0.1 M Glycine, pH 3) for 2 min on ice to remove extracellular EGF, washed and fixed, and stained with Hoechst. EGF and nuclei were imaged automatically using a 10× objective. EGF signal intensity was quantified using ImageJ and the percentage of EGF degradation at 4 h (compared to 15 min) per nucleus is shown. Statistical significance was assessed by Student's t-test (*) p<0.05. Data are represented as mean ± SEM. (D) Transferrin (TF) uptake. A549 cells were depleted of HDAC1, 8 in 12-well plates. On the third day of depletion, cells were starved in serum-free medium for 4 h, after which TF-AF488 (5 µg/ml) was bound for 30 min on ice. After washing, cells were warmed for 10 min at 37°C, and washed in acid buffer for 2 min on ice to remove extracellular TF. TF signal per cell was analyzed by FACS and normalized to control (All*Neg) cells. Data are represented as mean ± SEM.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["depletion", "induces", "dispersal"], "article_id"=>389991, "categories"=>["Virology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Yohei Yamauchi", "Heithem Boukari", "Indranil Banerjee", "Ivo F. Sbalzarini", "Peter Horvath", "Ari Helenius"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002316.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_HDAC8_depletion_induces_dispersal_of_LE_Lys_/389991", "title"=>"HDAC8 depletion induces dispersal of LE/Lys.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-27 02:46:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/719780"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Effect of nocodazole on IAV X31 entry. A549 cells were pretreated with 30 µM nocodazole or dmso for 30 min. Virus endocytosis assay (30 min post uptake) and HA acidification assay (1 h) was performed in the presence of drug. Data are represented as mean ± SEM. (B) Washout assay of MT perturbants. A549 cells were pretreated with 30 µM nocodazole, 50 nM taxol or dmso for 30 min. Cells were bound with virus for 30 min at 4°C, washed, and warmed in the presence of the drug for 15, 30, 45 min and 1, 2, 3, 4 h, after which the medium was replaced with medium buffered to pH 7.4 containing 20 mM NH<sub>4</sub>Cl to block endosome acidification. Infection was analyzed at 12 h. Data are shown as mean ± SEM. (C) Live imaging of IAV X31 particles. WGA-AF647 (5 µg/ml) (shown in green pseudocolor) and R18-labeled virus (red) were bound to control (All*Neg), HDAC8-depleted (si HDAC8) A549 cells for 30 min at 4°C. After washing, cells were warmed and imaged 3 h later with a 20× objective (see also <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002316#ppat.1002316.s008\" target=\"_blank\">Video S1</a>). Individual and clustered X31 particles are shown as black circles. Cell border and nucleus are indicated by dotted white lines. (D) HA acidification occurs in Rab7/LAMP1-positive LEs. Control (All*Neg), HDAC8-depleted (si HDAC8) A549 cells were transfected at 48 h after depletion with plasmids expressing Rab7-EGFP and LAMP1-mCherry. HA acidification assay was performed 24 h after the plasmid transfection. Insets are magnified and shown on the right. Blue (All*Neg) and yellow arrowheads (si HDAC8) indicate LEs positive for acidified HA.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mts", "iav", "x31"], "article_id"=>390142, "categories"=>["Virology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Yohei Yamauchi", "Heithem Boukari", "Indranil Banerjee", "Ivo F. Sbalzarini", "Peter Horvath", "Ari Helenius"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002316.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Intact_MTs_are_required_for_efficient_IAV_X31_infection_/390142", "title"=>"Intact MTs are required for efficient IAV X31 infection.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-27 00:02:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/719898"], "description"=>"<p>Particle tracking analysis of endocytosed EGF. (A) Occurrence of MT-dependent directed motion (DM) and their velocity (µm/s), and (B) duration (sec) in control (All*Neg), HDAC8-depleted (si HDAC8) A549 cells and cells treated with 30 µM nocodazole for 45 min (All*Neg+nocod). (A) Videos were acquired with a Visitech Spinning Disk Confocal microscope using a 100× Objective (2000 frames, Δt = 30.53 msec), within a window of 15–30 min following uptake of EGF-AF594 (1 ng/ml). Cells were transfected with a plasmid encoding NES-2×EGFP 20 h before imaging, in order to identify the cytoplasm. EGF trajectories were extracted and classified into MT-dependent DM (red) and other types of motility (blue), as shown in the insets of panel A. DM was detected in 322 segments (comprising of 11578 steps: 4.5% of total of 259821 steps), 109 segments (3235 steps: 1.06% of 305842), 37 segments (1070 steps: 0.33% of 325241) in All*Neg (n = 6 videos), HDAC8-depleted (n = 8 videos), and nocodazole treated (n = 8 videos) samples, respectively. A total of 30–50 cells were analyzed for each condition.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Virology", "Infectious diseases"], "article_id"=>390260, "categories"=>["Virology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Yohei Yamauchi", "Heithem Boukari", "Indranil Banerjee", "Ivo F. Sbalzarini", "Peter Horvath", "Ari Helenius"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002316.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_HDAC8_is_required_for_LE_LY_motility_/390260", "title"=>"HDAC8 is required for LE/LY motility.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-27 00:04:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/719975"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Steady-state localization of α-tubulin (green) and γ-tubulin (red) in control (All*Neg), HDAC8- (si HDAC8), and rootletin-depleted (si rootletin) A549 cells. Cells were fixed in cold methanol and stained by indirect IFA. Nuclei were stained with DRAQ5. Insets at the bottom: arrowheads indicate centrosomes. Insets at the top: magnification of MT anchorage at centrosomes. (B)(C) MT regrowth assay. Control (All*Neg) and HDAC8- (si HDAC8), and rootletin-depleted (si rootletin) A549 cells were incubated on ice for 30 min to depolymerize MTs, warmed for 90 sec at 37°C to induce repolymerization and fixed immediately in cold methanol. HDAC8 was depleted using two individual oligos targeting the coding sequence (HDAC8) and the 5′UTR (HDAC8_5UTR). (B) The MT plus-end binding protein 1 (EB1) was stained by indirect IFA with the anti-EB1 antibody, and nuclei with DRAQ5. Arrows indicate MT asters. (C) Quantification of cells exhibiting MT asters. Data are represented as mean ± SEM. (D) MT anchoring protein ninein remains at centrosomes following HDAC8 depletion. Control (All*Neg) and HDAC8-depleted (si HDAC8) A549 cells were fixed in cold methanol and stained by indirect IFA with antibodies against centrosomal markers ninein and γ-tubulin. Ninein localizes with higher affinity to the mother centriole, which is indicated by an arrowhead. (E) Intensity of ninein signal at centrosomes in control and HDAC8-depleted cells. Confocal images were acquired and analyzed by ImageJ.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["centrosome", "cohesion", "mt"], "article_id"=>390335, "categories"=>["Virology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Yohei Yamauchi", "Heithem Boukari", "Indranil Banerjee", "Ivo F. Sbalzarini", "Peter Horvath", "Ari Helenius"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002316.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_HDAC8_is_required_for_centrosome_cohesion_and_MT_nucleation_anchorage_at_the_centrosome_/390335", "title"=>"HDAC8 is required for centrosome cohesion and MT nucleation/anchorage at the centrosome.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-27 00:05:35"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/720100"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Centrosome splitting per se blocks IAV X31 infection. A549 cells were depleted of HDAC8, rootletin, ATP6V1B2 and infected for 10 h. Data are represented as mean ± SEM. (B) Quantification of centrosome splitting. A549 cells were depleted of HDAC1, 8, rootletin, HDAC8/1, and rootletin/HDAC1, fixed and stained by indirect IFA with anti-γ-tubulin antibody. Maximal projections from confocal z-stack images were analyzed by ImageJ, and centrosomes that were greater than 2 µm apart were counted as split. Data are represented as mean ± SEM. (C) Quantification of centrosome distance. A549 cells were depleted of HDAC1, 8, rootletin, HDAC8/1, and rootletin/HDAC1. Centrosome distance was measured using ImageJ as in panel B. Data are represented as mean ± SEM. (D) Trychostatin A (TSA) counteracts centrosome splitting induced by HDAC8 depletion. A549 cells depleted of HDAC8 for 60 h were incubated with dmso or 5 µM TSA for 12 h, fixed and analyzed for centrosome splitting as above. Control cells were incubated with dmso for 12 h. Data are represented as mean ± SEM. (E) HDAC1 counteracts HDAC8. A549 cells were depleted of HDAC1, HDAC8 with different ratio of siRNAs (HDAC1∶HDAC8 = 0∶20, 10∶10, 15∶5, 17.5∶2.5, 20∶0; total 20 nM), and infected for 10 h. Data are represented as mean ± SEM. (F) Cell cycle analysis. A549 cells were depleted of HDAC1, 8, and trypsinized, fixed in cold EtOH, stained with 2.5 µm DRAQ5, and analyzed by FACS. The percentage of cells in G1, S or G2/M phase was quantified by FlowJo. Data are represented as mean ± SEM.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["splitting", "blocks", "iav", "x31", "counteracted", "depletion"], "article_id"=>390453, "categories"=>["Virology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Yohei Yamauchi", "Heithem Boukari", "Indranil Banerjee", "Ivo F. Sbalzarini", "Peter Horvath", "Ari Helenius"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002316.g006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Centrosome_splitting_blocks_IAV_X31_infection_and_is_counteracted_by_depletion_of_HDAC1_/390453", "title"=>"Centrosome splitting blocks IAV X31 infection and is counteracted by depletion of HDAC1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-27 00:07:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/720233"], "description"=>"<p>A549 cells were depleted of HDAC1, 8, and infected with VSV (fuses at EEs at pH 6.2), UUKV (fuses at LEs at pH 5.4), IAV (fuses at LEs at pH 5.1) and VACV MVs (fuses at macropinosomes). Infected cells were detected either by indirect IFA against a viral protein (for VSV, UUKV, IAV) or by EGFP-expression (VACV). Percentage of infected cells was quantified using a MATLAB program algorithm and normalized to control (All*Neg) cells. Virus amounts were adjusted so that 20% of cells were infected in the controls. Data are represented as mean ± SEM.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["late-penetrating"], "article_id"=>390590, "categories"=>["Virology", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Yohei Yamauchi", "Heithem Boukari", "Indranil Banerjee", "Ivo F. Sbalzarini", "Peter Horvath", "Ari Helenius"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1002316.g007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_HDAC8_is_required_for_infection_of_late_penetrating_viruses_/390590", "title"=>"HDAC8 is required for infection of late-penetrating viruses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-10-27 00:09:50"}

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